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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 The Emergency Tossups by Jerry 1
Average difficulty: 4Average quality: 6Category: History
The majority opinion in this decision repeatedly cites Heller vs. Doe as a reference for upholding legislative actions and counters the dissent's citing of Davis vs. Beacon to say that "to the extent that [it] held that persons advocating a certain practice may be denied the right to vote, it is no longer good law." The dissenting opinion in this case argued that the law that had been overturned in this decision was enacted to counter "both the geographic concentration and the disproportionate political power" of a certain group, while the majority opinion began by citing Justice Harlan to the effect that the Constitution "neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens." The decision in this case was unusual in that the law in question was struck down using only the "rational scrutiny" test and was written by Anthony Kennedy, while Scalia, Thomas, and Rehnquist all dissented, with Scalia arguing that the court had failed to follow the precedent set in Bowers v. Hardwick. For ten points, identify this 1996 case which resulted in the striking down of Colorado's Amendment 2 which had forbidden the state from passing statues protecting homosexuals from discrimination.
Answer: Romer vs. Evans (either name)
Average difficulty: 5Average quality: 6Category: Literature
The preface to the published edition of this work gives a list of props including "pieces of sacking," "1 policeman's revolver," and a "Small American flag." In the first act of this work, one character tells another that "it's all against science and penology for you to get out and begin to cuss that way," while in a monologue another character suggests that "Certain laws are cruel in their operation; it's necessary that we be cruel to uphold them." At the start of this play's second act, one character plays a violin offstage, while that character's father discusses what he has learned from studying the Talmud. In this work, the arrival of a man named Shadow whose assassination had been ordered by the chief antagonist, drives Judge Gaunt mad, and that antagonist earlier visits Esdras to warn his son Garth against testifying in connection with an old murder. Ending with the death of Mio and Miriamne at the hands of Trock after Mio's attempts to posthumously clear the name of his father Bartolomeo Romagna, for ten points, identify this play set against the background of a fictional version of the Sacco and Vanzetti trial and written by Maxwell Anderson.
Answer: Winterset
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 6Category: Science
According to a theorem by Schuett and Meine, each of these constructs can be transformed into a magic square by taking the complement of every element within this construct that has odd parity. The information represented by this construct can also be represented by a Reed-Muller binary decision diagram, and these constructs are extensively employed in switching theory. Within this construct, clusters that are not contained within any larger clusters are known as "prime implicants," and incompletely specified inputs to this construct produce "don't care" regions. Often used to detect race conditions, this construct is used to accomplish the same goal as the Quine-McCluskey algorithm. Also known as a Veitch diagram, the input values to this construct are arranged in a binary ordering in which only one bit changes between adjacent values, known as a Gray code. For ten points, identify these eponymous graphical constructs used to minimize boolean expressions.
Answer: Karnaugh-Veitch map
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
These cells namesake cationic protein is also known as RNASE3. These cells are attracted by the ligands CCL11 and CCL24, and in 1989 contaminated L-tryptophan lead to a condition in which these cells had elevated counts. They are also elevated in Loffler's endocarditis and Geich's syndrome. Along with lymphocytes are elevated in Addison's disease patients, a feature which is assayed in the Thorn test . These cells differentiate primarily under the control of IL-5, and because they contain major basic protein they appear dark red after applying the Romanowsky stain. FTP, name this granulocytes, a type of white blood cell that is responsible for staving off parasitic infections and along with basophils aids in the allergic response.
Answer: Eosinophils
Average difficulty: 5Average quality: 6Category: Mythology
This man's grandmother gave birth to his famous father after eating a magical apple, and one of this figure's sons was killed by the treachery of Borghild. This man killed three of his nephews after they refused to make bread from meal that had a snake in it, but one of his sons would finally pass that task by baking the snake into the bread. This hero married the daughter of King Eylimi, and was killed in combat with King Lygni, during which time his famous weapon was shattered by a blue-cloaked man and after which his wife Hjordis took refuge with King Alfi. After killing Siggeir's shape-shifting mother by biting off her tongue, this man unknowingly fathered the hero Sinfiotli with his sister Signi, though it was Hjordis who would bear him a more famous son, who would go on to possess this man's reforged sword Gram. For ten points, identify this son of the old Volsung and father of Sigurd in the Volsungsaga.
Answer: Sigmund
Average difficulty: 5Average quality: 6Category: Literature
The interest of John Kemp in the younger cousin of Elizabeth Dowling is the subject of this writer's first novel, while another long work by this author concerns the relationship between Robin Fennel and war refugee Katherine Lind. In addition to Jill and A Girl in Winter, this writer wrote that "something sufficiently toad-like squats in me," in a poem included in the collection The Less Deceived. Fathers with broad belts" and "mothers loud and fat" participate in the titular events seen from a train in another of his poems, which gives its title to a collection which also includes "Dockery and Son." In a poem which shares its title with a 1974 collection in which it appears, this writer wondered whether "anyone looked at me, forty years back, and thought, that'll be the life," and imagines a girl who is "taking pills or wearing a diaphragm," while another poem by this writer advises the reader to "Get out as early as you can, and don't have any kids yourself." Most famous for poetry collections such as Whitsun Weddings and High Windows, for ten points, identify this British poet who famously wrote "They fuck you up, your mum and dad," in his short poem This Be the Verse.
Answer: Philip Larkin
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 4Category: Music
The third movement of this work contains an organ solo and ends in E-major, while the following movement, according to Paul Wingfield's book on this piece, "outlines two large-scale harmonic motions to E/F-flat." Finished during the same time that the composer also wrote a concerto for the left hand for Otakar Hollmann, the word setting in this work is similar to that of its composer's earlier works such as Cartak on the Solan and The Eternal Gospel. Most of the key solos in this work are written for the soprano and tenor, and the contralto appears in this work in the movement entitled "Svet." An orchestral commentary on the Incarnation and the Crucifixion can be found in the "Veruju," or "Creed," movement of this work, which was intended partly as a sort of celebration of the composer's love for Kamila Stosslova. Taking its name from its setting of a text written in Old Church Slavonic, for ten points, identify this religious composition by Leos Janacek.
Answer: Glagolitic Mass or Msa glagolskaja
Average difficulty: 5Average quality: 5Category: Art
This painting forms part of the title of a 1994 Steven Orso about the early career of its creator, and in his work My Adventures as an Illustrator, Norman Rockwell writes about losing his notebook while admiring this painting, which he called one of his favorites. Painted six years after its artist's appointment as court painter, this work may have been a reaction to the conservative Mannerism of such contemporaries as Carducho and Cajes, and it was its artist's first work in a certain genre. In the right background of this work, a man doffs his hat and appears to ask for alms, while a young man with a wreath on his head reclines in the left background. and a man kneels in the center foreground of this painting, presenting his head to a youth who anoints it with a wreath and leading to this painting's alternate title, The Triumph of Bacchus. For ten points, identify this Diego Velazquez painting which depicts the titular peasants imbibing some booze.
Answer: Los Borrachos or The Drunkards or The Wine Drinkers (or reasonable equivalents, accept "The Feast of Bacchus" or "The Triumph of Bacchus" before mention)
Average difficulty: 5Average quality: 5Category: Social Science
In 2003, Conlin and Emerson applied this concept to NFL contract negotiations, while Mukoyama and Sahin developed a persistent model of it, and have argued for an optimization of unemployment benefits based on the occurrence of this concept. Shavell developed a two-state model of its ex ante variety, while a model by Grossman and Hart applies to the ex post variety. In an article about the "basic analytics" of this concept, Arnott and Stiglitz showed that when this condition holds, a competitive equlibrium may not exist since the presence of this concept introduces non-convexities in indifference curves. Uwe Reinhard has argued that this phenomenon does not apply to health care consumption, while in his 1963 article, "Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care," Kenneth Arrow identified this concept as the main problem facing a national health insurance plan. Like adverse selection, this concept can arise from information asymmetry in situations such as principal-agent problems, where the agent has more information about how it will react to risk. For ten points, identify this situation in which actors protected from risk act in a riskier fashion.
Answer: moral hazard
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 5Category: History
After defeating Tetricus at Chalons-sur-Mare, this ruler took the title Restitutor Orbis, and he won an important victory at Emesa, leading to his capture of Egyptian territory. A promoter of Mithraism, this ruler's mother according to the Historia Augusta was the fictitious Callicrates of Tyre. In addition to rebuilding the city walls of Rome, this ruler's domestic policies included the introduction of the sale of wine at subsidized prices at the Templum Solis, constructed on the Campus Martius during his reign, while in foreign policy he made the decision to evacuate Dacia despite having earlier defeated an army of Goths under Cannabaudes. A colleague of Claudius II on the military staff of Gallienus, this ruler ascended to the throne after deposing Quintillus, though he is best known for defeating a rebellion raised against him by the widow of Odenathus. For ten points, identify this late Roman emperor who ruled from 270 to 275 C.E. and whose reign saw the defeat of Palmyran forces led by Zenobia.
Answer: Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
Average difficulty: 5Average quality: 5Category: Art
The design of this building was laid out in proportions of one to seven, with the top two-sevenths intended for such uses as restaurants and solar energy collectors. Intended to stand on an artificial island, a proposed version of this building which would be located in Shanghai would have a hollow core, and the impact of earthquakes and hurricanes would be reduced in this construction by a helical design that opens at the top. The architect responsible for the design of this building would later design another unrealized building with the same name that was to replace the Baltic Exchange building, though that site now houses the Swiss Re building by the same architect. Projected to be twice the height of the Sears Tower with an internal metro system and intended to house up to 60,000 people, for ten points, identify this never-built structure that was commissioned by the Obayashi Corporation and designed by Norman Foster.
Answer: Millenium Tower of Tokyo
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 6Category: Science
The Tremaine-Gunn limit presents theoretical evidence against models containing this substance. Experimental evidence against models containing this substance came from the KARMEN experiment, and models with it predict a "top-down" structure formation scenario, which should result in much greater than observed inhomogeneities between galactic clusters. In models containing it, galaxies arise from the fragmentation of Zeldovich pancakes, but its existence is unable to account for observed galactic structure because particles composing this substance would be able to free-stream out of overdense regions. Believed to consist of neutrinos remaining from the Big Bang, theories including only this substance have mostly been supplanted by "mixed" theories or by the Lambda-CDM model. For ten points, identify this hypothesized substance so named because it is believed to consist of ultrarelativistic particles that interact with matter through the weak and gravitational forces but not through electromagnetism.
Answer: hot dark matter (prompt on "dark matter")
Average difficulty: 4Average quality: 5Category: History
Shortly after the establishment of this dynasty, its first ruler won the Battle of Aljubarotta over a neighboring polity with the help of a general known as the Holy Constable, and the ruler victorious at that battle later signed the Treaty of Windsor. A member of this dynasty known as "the Fortunate" instituted a series of legal reforms known as his namesake ordinances, while a member of this dynasty who was saddled by his father with the disadvantageous terms of the Treaty of Alacovas was known as the "Perfect Prince" due to a play about him by Lope de Vega. Another member of this dynasty attempted to marry his niece Joanna after the death of Henry IV of Castille, while a member of the house that would succeed this dynasty named Dom Fernando, was executed on the orders of another of its rulers, John II. Effectively dying out when its last member, Sebastian, was killed at the battle of Alcazarquivir, for ten points, identify this dynasty that included such rulers as Manuel, and which was succeeded by the Braganza dynasty as the ruling house of Portugal.
Answer: Aviz dynasty
Average difficulty: 5Average quality: 6Category: History
This ruler's policy of harassing traders in the Maghrib prompted an angry letter from the governor of Sijilmasa, suggesting that "we may live as good neighbors though we differ in our religions." This figure is the most prominent individual named in the texts collected in the Nioro and Gumbu regions, and he may have been a chief of slaves of the Kusa before attaining his highest post. The defeat of this ruler was brought about in part due to the aid of the king of Mema, and following one conflict, this ruler expelled Dankaran Touman, the brother of his successor. Originally the ruler of the kingdom of Kaniaga, this man rose to prominence after capturing Kumbi-Saleh. The son of Kemoko of the Kante clan, this ruler of the Soso kingdom subjugated the Malinke, and according to a certain epic, this man could only be wounded with an arrow tipped with the spur of a white rooster. For ten points, identify this ruler of Ghana who was defeated at the Battle of Kirina by Sundiata Keita.
Answer: Sumanguru Kante or Soumaouro
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 6Category: Pop Culture
In the 1960s, this club won three consecutive league championships under Helenio Herrera, and they were the losing team in the 1972 European Cup finals to Johann Cruijff's Ajax. In 2003, this club fired Hector Cuper six games into the season, and this was the only club at which Clarence Seedorf has not won a Champions' League title. This club sacked long-serving manager Roberto Mancini after losing to Liverpool in the 2007-2008 Champions' League knockout rounds, and this year they were knocked out in the round of 16 by Manchester United. This team was awarded the Serie A title after both Juventus and their cross-town rivals were stripped of points in a match-fixing scandal, and as of 2009 they have won the last four Italian league titles. Known as the Nerazzuri for their blue and black uniforms, for ten points, identify this club based in a northern Italian city, whose current players include Zlatan Ibrahimovic and Javier Zanetti, and which is coached by Jose Mourinho.
Answer: Football Club Internazionale Milano (prompt on "Milan")
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 6Category: Literature
This author cast himself as a disciple of the titular character of his first novel, whom he meets in the Rotunda Cafe, and wrote of a French woman who falls in love with a spy that is later executed in The Love of Jeanne Ney. The titular Jew is repeatedly abused while traveling all over Europe in his novel The Stormy Life of Lazik Roitschwantz, while this man's early poetry, such as his collection, A Prayer for Russia, got him branded as a "frightened intellectual," by Mayakovsky. His time as a war correspondent resulted in the publication of The Fall of Paris, and with Vassily Grossman he created a catalog of Jewish suffering under the Nazis entitled The Black Book. His socialist realist phase included a novel about the construction of a blast furnace entitled The Second Day, and he would later help to restore the reputations of Tsvetayeva and Akhmatova despite admitting in his memoirs, entitled People, Years, Life to have been part of a "conspiracy of silence." Most famous for his novel about such characters as Dimitri Koroteyev and Ivan Zhuravliov which was published shortly after Stalin's death, for ten points, identify this author of the picaresque novel The Extraordinary Adventures of Julio Jurenito best known for The Thaw.
Answer: Ilya Grigoryevich Ehrenburg
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 6Category: Philosophy
This philosopher criticized Carnap's physicalism and argued that "thing perception" should not be privileged over "expressive perception," in his late work, The Logic of the Cultural Sciences. A disciple of the Marburg neo-Kantian Hermann Cohen, this thinker argued against what he termed "abstractionist" empiricism in his early work Substance and Function, and his student Susanne Langer translated his introduction to his distinctive contribution to philosophy, An Essay on Man. He analyzed how Carlyle and Gobineau had paved the way for the transition "From Hero Worship to Race Worship," and thereby to fascism, in his posthumously published The Myth of the State, and analyzed such notions as "The Evolution of Religious Ideas" and "The Power of Metaphor" in a work entitled Language and Myth. The development of the titular philosophical movement and its applications to religion, law, and aesthetics is the subject of his The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, but he is most famous for a three-volume work which analyzes the interaction of the expressive, representative, and significative functions. For ten points, identify this thinker best known for his magnum opus Philosophy of Symbolic Forms.
Answer: Ernst Cassirer
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Rajagopa and Swaminathan developed a one-pot version of this reaction which can be used to synthesize spiroenediones, while Ramachary and Kishor combined it with a Knoevenagel condensation and a hydrogenation in order to combine a Hantzsch ester with a ketone. Yamada's modification to this reaction uses S-proline in order to make it enantioselective, while using dicloro-cis-2-butene and KOH gives a modification named for Wichterle. Another version of this reaction uses a sulfoxide or sulfone and replaces one step with a Dieckmann condensation and is named for Hauser. The Wieland-Meischer ketone can be synthesized using this reaction, which in general creates cyclohexenones. FTP, name this reaction which consists of a Michael addition followed by an aldol condensation, a ring-forming reaction named for an American chemist.
Answer: Robinson Annulation
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 6Category: Religion
According to Raymond Firth, the religion of the Tikopia prohibits chiefs from doing this since their person is sacred. This action is central to the mundan ceremony in Hinduism, and among the Omaha it is part of a consecration ceremony to Thunder. In the Maori religion, the waste generated by this action, central to the pure ceremony, had to be buried in a cemetery, while, according to Joseph Frazier, many Buddhists present that same waste to the monks who tend he Footprint of Buddha at Prabat. According to Leviticus this action must be performed to a leper after he has been cured, while Nazarenes took vows in which they would refrain from doing this, and in Orthodox Judaism this is done to a child for the first time during Lag Baomer in a ceremony called the upsherin. For ten points, identify this action which is prohibited to Sikhs and which Delilah performed on Samson to remove his strength.
Answer: cutting hair (accept logical equivalents)
Average difficulty: 5Average quality: 6Category: Literature
In one work in this collection, the title character is tasked with killing bullfrogs who disturb his mother's sleep, while another work depicts a conversation between two teachers, one of whom used to work in the titular town. In addition to "Macario" and "Luvina," this collection contains a story about a man who murders one of a pair of brothers, entitled "The Hill of the Comrades," and another at the end of which El Pichon is the only remaining member of a band of outlaws that used to terrorize the titular region. One work in this collection concerns the attempts of Tacha to find the calf that, along with the only tamarind tree in the village and the cow La Serpentina, has been lost in a recent flood, and another story about the abandonment of Feliciano, "The Night They Left Him Alone," is set during the Cristero uprising. A more famous work in this collection takes its title from Juvencio Navas' plea for mercy after he is arrested for the decades-old killing of Don Lupe. Containing stories set mostly in their author's home state of Jalisco and including such works as "Because We Are So Poor," and "Tell Them Not to Kill Me!" for ten points, identify this collection of short stories by Juan Rulfo.
Answer: The Burning Plain or El Llano en llamas
 
2009 The Emergency Bonuses by Jerry 1
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 6Category: Philosophy
J. L. Mackie made use of these constructs in his 1974 book The Cement of the Universe. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify these statements common to the philosophy of causality, which state that if one event had not occurred, another event would not have occurred either.
Answer: counterfactuals
[10] The most famous treatment of counterfactuals is the 1973 work of the same title by this American philosopher, which employs the semantics of possible worlds in its analysis.
Answer: David Kellog Lewis
[10] Lewis argued that any theory of pain must explain both the pain of a madman and the pain of this kind of being as well.
Answer: Martian (accept logical equivalents)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In general, this branch of chemistry was developed in order to mimic nature's synthetic methods. FTPE:,
[10] Name this chemical paradigm that mainly seeks to synthesize complex molecules by joining small, modular units together.
Answer: Click chemistry
[10] This dude invented and loves Click chemistry. He also names an epoxidation reaction and a method of synthesizing diols using osmium compounds.
Answer: Karl Barry Sharpless
[10] Sharpless' favorite click reaction is the Huisgen cyclization, which involved the reaction of an azide with one of these functional groups. They can also be created by several elimination reactions.
Answer: Alkene
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Characters in this play include the mulatto Corporal Lestrade, and the protagonist's best friend Moustique. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this play at the end of which Makak, a resident of the titular locale, is released from prison after killing an apparition of the white goddess.
Answer: Dream on Monkey Mountain
[10] Dream on Monkey Mountain was written by this Caribbean playwright whose other works include Pantomime and Ti-Jean and His Brothers.
Answer: Derek Walcott
[10] The many editions of Dream on Monkey Mountain are prefaced with this Walcott essay, subtitled "An Overture," whose title refers to the intersection of Western, African, and indigenous themes in the literature of the West Indies.
Answer: What the Twilight Says: An Overture
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One of this man's trips was conducted with financial assistance from a sheep farmer who had attended some of his lectures. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this anthropologist who examined relationships in which people are required to play pranks upon each other in "On Joking Relationships," but may be better known for his The Social Organization of Australian Tribes.
Answer: Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown
[10] Radcliffe-Brown's best-known work is this volume, his thesis, which explored, among other things, the use of magic to signify the importance of an event among the titular peoples.
Answer: The Andaman Islanders
[10] Radcliffe-Brown was apparently a big fan of this anarcho-syndicalist, who wrote such works as The Conquest of Bread and applied Darwinian ideas to the study of cooperation in his magnum opus, Mutual Aid.
Answer: Peter Alexeyevich Kropotkin
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
After the defeat of the Bohemian forces at this battle, Prague was sacked. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this 1620 battle in which forces under the Comte de Bucquoi and von Tilly defeated a whole bunch of Protestants.
Answer: White Mountain
[10] The defeat at White Mountain caused this man, who had been proclaimed king by the Bohemian Protestants the previous year, to flee. An elector of Palatine, his brief reign caused him to be known as the "Winter King."
Answer: Frederick V, Elector of the Palatinate
[10] The Protestants at White Mountain were led by Bethlen Gabor and this man, a prince of a northern German province who doubled as the leader of the Protestant Union.
Answer: Christian I or Christian of Anhalt-Bernburg
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Among the buildings designed by this man is the unifinished Easton Neston, and his four major church projects were St. Anne, St. George-in-the-East, Christ Church, and St. Mary Woolnoth. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this British architect of the Hampton Court Palace, perhaps better known for his collaborations.
Answer: Nicholas Hawksmoor
[10] Hawksmoor is best known for his collaboration with John Vanbrugh on this palace of the Duke of Marlborough, commemorating a major victory of the War of the Spanish Succession.
Answer: Blenheim Palace
[10] Both Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor were fans of this order, whose distinguishing feature was oversized columns extended beyond a single story.
Answer: colossal order or giant order
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This statement corresponds to Hilbert's first problem and was proposed by Georg Cantor. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this proposition, which holds that no infinite set has cardinality between that of the integers and the real numbers.
Answer: continuum hypothesis
[10] Godel had proved that the continuum hypothesis was compatible with Zermelo-Frankel set theory; in 1963, Paul Cohen used this technique to show that the negation of the continuum hypothesis is also compatible with ZFC.
Answer: forcing
[10] This Berkeley logician has been searching for an axiom to add to ZFC which would result in the continuum hypothesis being false. Earlier with Shelah, he showed that the inaccessible cardinals axiom was essential to the solution of the Lebesgue measurability problem.
Answer: William Hugh Woodin
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
First discovered by Jean-Baptiste Biot, naturally occuring substances that display this behavior include tourmaline and herapathite. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this phenomenon in which one component of the polarization is absorbed differently than another. Synthetic materials displaying it include Land's H-sheets.
Answer: dichroism or dichroic material (accept obvious word forms)
[10] This man's namesake equation demonstrates that for any direction of propagation, there exist two refractive indices. It can be extended to apply to dichroics by allowing a conductive medium and its formulator is better known for his namesake integrals in optics which are represented by the Cornu spiral.
Answer: Fresnel
[10] Polarized light in general can be analyzed through this formalism, in which a namesake matrix operates on Stokes vectors. It is complementary to the Jones calculus.
Answer: Mueller calculus
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This being is represented as the ruler of a place called Sukhavati, and is often accompanied by Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprata. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this being, originally known as the monk Dharmakara, who pronounced 48 vows and declared that he would not become a Buddha until he could fulfill them all with the sheer force of his will.
Answer: Amitabha or Amida Buddha
[10] The worship of the Amitabha Buddha is central to this branch of Mahayana Buddhism, which holds that the namesake paradise, the aforementioned Sukhavati, is open to all believers. It is quite popular in Japan.
Answer: Pure Land Buddhism
[10] In addition to tariki, or "relying on the strength of the Other One," this other major principle of Pure Land Buddhism was the central principle of the Jodo sect established by Honen. It involves the invocation of the Sacred Name.
Answer: nembutsu
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Conceived and mostly written by the founder of the Society for Human Rights, this work was edited by Friedrich Weidig and first distributed in 1834. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this pamphlet which detailed the troubles of a certain German duchy and attempted to rouse the people to action.
Answer: The Hessian Messenger or Der Hessiche Landbote
[10] The Hessian Messenger was the brainchild of this German writer, better known for his plays such as Leonze and Lena and Woyczeck
Answer: Georg Buchner
[10] Buchner based this story of the title character's care under Johann Friedrich Oberlin in the village of Waldbach on the life of a prominent dramatist of the Sturm und Drang period. This play's subject is probably best known for his play Der Hofmeister or The Tutor.
Answer: Lenz
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Written in response to the race riots of New York in 1919, it calls on "kinsmen" to "meet the common foe/ Though far outnumbered let us show us brave/ And for their thousand blows deal one death-blow." For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this sonnet, which urges that in the case that the titular event has to happen, "let it not be like hogs."
Answer: If We Must Die
[10] "If We Must Die," was composed by this Harlem Renaissance writer, who may be better known for the story of Jake Brown's return to New York, Home to Harlem.
Answer: Claude McKay
[10] This McKay novel is set in the titular Jamaican village and concerns the homecoming of Tabitha Plant and her rejection of Herald Day for Jubban.
Answer: Banana Bottom
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Apparently Canada thinks this guy was the greatest Canadian ever! For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this Premier of Saskatchewan from 1944 to 1961, whose most lasting accomplishment was probably the push for the creation of Canada's current health care system.
Answer: Thomas Clement Douglas
[10] Douglas was the leader of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation before it merged with this party, whose first leader Douglas also became.
Answer: New Democratic Party
[10] This Canadian PM, also from Saskatchewan, reproduced the Saskatchewan health care program on a national level. He established the Royal Commission on Health Services. His other achievements include the Canadian Bill of Rights, and he was succeeded by Lester Pearson.
Answer: John George Diefenbaker
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify these things about sexual selection, FTPE:,
[10] This term refers to the difference in secondary sexual characteristics between males and females. Peacock feathers in peacocks and beards in humans are some examples.
Answer: Sexual dimorphism
[10] This man's The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection contains a game-theoretic outline of sexual selection. This man's fundamental theorem states that the rate in fitness increase of a group of organisms is proportional to the amount of genetic variation in their population.
Answer: Ronald A Fisher
[10] Koeslag coined this term, which means a preference for members of the opposite sex without any deviant or crazy features.
Answer: Koinophilia
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
During his reign, this man was opposed by the radical leader Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva, and he abdicated the throne of one country after the death of John VI. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this man whose son would later issue the Golden Law.
Answer: Dom Pedro I
[10] Pedro declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal on September 7, 1822, in this declaration, named for the district of Sao Paolo in which it was issued.
Answer: Grito de Ipiranga
[10] Pedro abdicated the Portuguese throne in favor of this daughter of his, with his brother Miguel ruling as regent. However, Miguel tried to usurp the throne from this future queen until the Quadruple Alliance forced his abdication.
Answer: Maria da Gloria or Maria II
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Architectural examples of it include the Fisher building in Detroit and the BBC Broadcasting House in London, above whose main entrance is a sculpture of Prospero and Ariel. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this artistic movement, which took its name from a 1925 exhibition in Paris.
Answer: Art Decoratif
[10] This painter created some of the most recognizable images of Art Deco, including a "Portrait of a Girl in a Green Dress," who doffs the hat sitting on top of her stylized, curled blond hair.
Answer: Tamara De Lempicka
[10] This iconic San Francisco landmark is an Art Deco tower with murals on the first floor depicting life in San Francisco.
Answer: Coit Tower
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Identify these deities of the Aztec pantheon who were linked with agriculture and fertility, for ten points each.,
[10] One of the teteoinnan, or fertility goddesses, this goddess was responsible for love and sexual desire. A bat sprung from Quetzalcoatl's semen bit her in the genitals, resulting in the creation of the first flowers.
Answer: Xochiquetzal
[10] This goddess of filth had the power to wash away sexual transgressions. She is often depicted with a blackened mouth.
Answer: Tlazolteotl
[10] Sacrifices to this god involved the flaying of the victim, leading to him being known as the Flayed God. This was supposed to renew the spring, and this god was also the patron of the Aztec goldsmiths.
Answer: Xipe Totec
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James G. Blaine was a pretty scandalous dude, in addition to being a continental liar. Identify these salacious Blaine scandals, for ten points each:,
[10] Perhaps the most famous scandal of the 1884 election was Samuel Burchard's declaration that the Republican party would refuse to identify itself with these three things. Understandably, it probably cost Blaine the votes of alcoholics, Catholics, and former Confederates.
Answer: Rum, Romanism, and rebellion
[10] Blaine's reputation was damaged in 1876 with the discovery of these missives between Blaine and various businesspeople, which demonstrated that Blaine had been selling his influence. These documents are named for the Bostonian who had them in his possession.
Answer: Mulligan Letters
[10] Among the information in the Mulligan letters was evidence that Blaine had been allowed to sell the bonds of this railroad company to his friends at a profit. As Speaker of the House, Blaine had helped kill a motion that would have prevented Arkansas from giving this railroad a land grant.
Answer: Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad
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A student of Cristofano Malvezzi, this man's early works include the short pastoral Dafne, in which he sang several parts of Apollo. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this early Italian composer, whose Le nozze di Peleo e Tetide, intended for the Gonzaga wedding festivities of 1608, was rejected in favor of Monteverdi's Arianna.
Answer: Jacopo Peri
[10] Peri's early venture into opera was this collaboration with Ottavio Rinuccini. It is the earliest opera for which complete music survives.
Answer: Euridice
[10] Peri collaborated with Marco da Gagliano on this opera which the origins of the title plants, symbols of Florence and Parma, as being transformed from the tears of joy that Zephyr cries upon winning Clori.
Answer: La Flora or The Flowers
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At the end of this play, Bessie is mistaken for a sniper and shot, and Mollser dies of turberculosis while one of the main characters has a stillborn child. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this play by Sean O'Casey, whose title refers to the emblem on the flag of the Irish Citizen Army.
Answer: The Plough and the Stars
[10] The Plough and the Stars centers around this family, comprising Nora and Jack, a member of the aforementioned ICA.
Answer: Clitheroe
[10] Besides his trilogy about Irish independence, O'Casey wrote a few comedies, one of which is this play in which Cyril Poges and Basil Stoke attempt to restore a ramshackle mansion. Its titles refers to the substance to which Cyril believes the past glory of the world has decayed.
Answer: Purple Dust
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A turning point in the plot of this movie comes when it is discovered that the pizza which has been bugged and sent into the bank where the hostages are held is actually listening to speeches by Enver Hoxha. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this film starring Denzel Washington and directed by Spike Lee, at the end of which Arthur Case is exposed as a former Nazi collaborator.
Answer: Inside Man
[10] This actor played Dalton Russell in Inside Man. His other notable appearances have been in such films as Closer and Children of Men.
Answer: Clive Owen
[10] Inside Man also features a supporting role for this actor, who starred opposite Audrey Tatou in Dirty Pretty Things and played The Operative in Serenity.
Answer: Chiwetel Ejiofor

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