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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 Terrapin and MLK Tossups by Michago and Chicago Seal
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While abroad, this man joined the Lincoln Inn society and supported the Parliamentary campaign of the author of Lord Salisbury's Blackman and The Manners and Customs of the Parsees. Later this man founded the broadsheet "The Dawn" to advance the views of the organization he headed. He called for protection of the minority in the legislature and cabinet, complete religious freedom, and safeguards of minority culture in his famous 1929 enumeration of his Wilsonianly-titled 14 Points. During his brief rule, he used military force to help secure his nation's control of the province of Kalat. This man helped shape the Lucknow Pact with the Muslim League, an organization he came to head. Coming to power after Lord Mountbatten ceded five Indian provinces, FTP, identify this first Governor-General and "Father of the Nation" of Pakistan.
Answer: Muhammad Ali Jinnah (prompt on "Qa'id-e A'zam" or "The Great Leader"; prompt on "Baba-e-Qaum" or "Father of the Nation" until said)
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One work written in reaction to this novel centers around the conflict between Captain Porgy and the more mercenary Colonel Moncrieff and McKewn. Another work written in reaction to this book focuses on Eulalia Hastings, whose views are changed after marrying Mr. Moreland. In addition to The Sword and the Distaff and The Planter's Northern Bride, another novel opposing this work describes the title character's sufferings in Buffalo and Canada, and is titled this novel "as it is." Its author later wrote "a key to" this novel, which ends with the family of George Harris moving to Liberia and George Shelby freeing his slaves. Based on the autobiography of Josiah Henson, FTP, name this anti-slavery novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Answer: Uncle Tom's Cabin
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Al Gore reportedly made him settle for the position of Undersecretary of International Affairs rather than Chairman of the White House Council of Economic Advisers when Clinton took office, although he'd later take on a higher position vacated by his mentor. This man got into trouble by signing off on a document leaked to the Economist that argued because people in "LDC's" had a shorter lifespan anyway, it would be to the benefit of developing countries to take on pollution of richer countries. That "Let Them Eat Pollution" memo did him in at the World Bank, while in another position he was hurt for allegedly showing favoritism to Andrei Shleifer and for criticizing African-American professor Cornel West. Also the successor to Robert Rubin as Treasury Secretary, he was replaced by Drew Gilpin Faust after asserting that, in the fields of science and engineering, there was inherent inequality between the sexes. FTP, name this ex-president of Harvard University.
Answer: Lawrence Henry "Larry" Summers
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A recent work by Deepak Lal is titled "reviving" this concept, and a paper by E. K. Hunt and Ralph D'Arge posited a similar concept leading people who attempt to maximize their utility to impose externalities on society. This concept was first used to criticize polytheists who ascribe the "irregular events of nature" to gods like Jupiter in The History of Astronomy. In Making Globalization Work, Joseph Stiglitz argues for the nonexistence of this concept, which notably appeared in another work's section "Of Systems of Political Economy." That section describes an individual who "intends only his own security" by supporting domestic over foreign industry, and is led by this concept to "promote an end which was no part of his intention." FTP, name this concept that individuals promote the good of the market by pursuing their own interests, introduced in The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith.
Answer: the invisible hand
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The Kompaneets equation describes the time evolution of the energy distribution of particles that have participated in this process. The y-parameter was introduced by Sunyaev and Zeldovich, who studied the inverse type of this phenomenon in the cosmic microwave background. The Klein-Nishina formula calculates the differential cross section for this phenomenon, which reduces to a Thomson process in the limit of low photon energies. The change in wavelength that occurs in this process depends as the cosine of the angular change of the affected photon's direction. FTP identify this process in which a photon collides with an electron, resulting in a decrease in its energy.
Answer: Compton effect or scattering
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The Annals, one of the main sources for this battle, record that some 1900 cattle as well as 2 gold and 892 regular chariots were taken from the loser at the conclusion of the siege following this battle. 13 years later, in the 33rd year of his reign, the victorious commander would expand on his success at this battle by directly attacking the kingdom of Mitanni. While marching the 250 miles to the Qina valley before this battle, the attacking commander dangerously led his army in a single column through the middle, surprise route of Aruna. It was precipitated by revolt resulting from the weak rule of Hatshepsut, the pharaoh proceeding the commander who launched the attack. Commemorated on the walls a Temple devoted to Amon, FTP, identify this earliest recorded battle in history, a victory in modern day Syria of Thutmose III which shares its name with where King Josiah was killed by Necho II and where the Battle of Armageddon will supposedly be fought.
Answer: Battle or Siege of Megiddo
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Warning: First and last name required. One author with this first and last name wrote Cynarctomachy, or Battle Between Bear and Dogs, and satirized Sir Paul Neale in his poem "The Elephant on the Moon." That author was influenced by Paul Scarron's Virgile travesti to write a mock-heroic poem satirizing Presbyterians and independents, which originated a namesake style of verse. Anther author with this first and last name attacked Darwin's theory of evolution in Life and Habit and Luck or Cunning?, and wrote a bildungsroman about Ernest Pontifex. That author also wrote a satirical novel about Higgs, who discovers a utopian society in New Zealand. FTP, identify this first and last name of the 17th century author of Hudibras and the Victorian author of The Way of All Flesh and Erewhon.
Answer: Samuel Butler
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A gating theory of this was given by Melzack and Wall, who implicate the dorsolateral tract of Lissauer between spinal segments of Rexed lamina V. It is lost in Brown-Sequard syndrome, and potentiated by the action of bradykinin on TRP channels. The perception of it is inhibited by the action of periaqueductal gray, and a study by Liem et. al. claims that redheads are more susceptible to the thermal type. The fast acutetype travels via A-delta fibers toward the dorsal horn, while the dull slow type travels via C fibers. Divided into cutaneous, visceral, somatic, or neuropathic forms, it results from stimulation of nociceptors. This is, FTP what sensation defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with tissue damage or injury?
Answer: pain
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One song by this band notes that "America spells competition, join us in our blind ambition / Get yourself a brand new motor car" and begins by welcoming the listener to "The Grand Illusion." One of their albums focuses on Jonathan Chance's quest to save rock and roll from the oppression of Dr. Righteous, and includes the single "Don't Let it End." The vocalist on one of their songs sees a "gathering of angels" appear above his head before climbing "aboard their starship and heading to the skies," while the singer of another of their songs exclaims "The time has come at last, to throw away this mask," after thanking the title automaton in Japanese. Led by Dennis DeYoung, FTP, name this band behind "Come Sail Away" and "Mr. Roboto," named for a river from the Greek underworld.
Answer: Styx
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In Sudanese mythology, a son of the supreme deity Gurian Tunggal takes the form of a black one of these creatures to protect a princess. In the Popol Vuh, the half-brothers of Xbalanque and Hunapu are transformed into these creatures after getting stuck in a tree. One of these creatures always gains half the strength of his enemy in a fight and is supplanted as ruler of Kishkindha by his brother Sugriva. Another of these creatures tries to eat the sun and has his tail set on fire by Ravana. Another one of them knows the ways of seventy-two transformations and spitefully eats peaches of immortality; he is forced to repent by helping a monk obtain Buddhist scriptures in a Chinese epic. FTP, identify these creatures, examples of which include Hanuman and Journey to the West's Sun Wukong.
Answer: monkeys (or "apes," I guess)
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He wrote about Nidia and Luci, sisters in the twilight of their lives, in his novel Tropical Night Falling. He wrote about Josemar, who fantasizes about being a perpetual adolescent, in Blood of Requited Love, and portrayed a series of conversations between Larry and Ramirez in New York City in Eternal Curse on the Reader of These Pages. This author went into permanent exile from his home country after writing The Buenos Aires Affair, and also wrote a novel about Toto, a boy who escapes reality through Hollywood films, and a novel about the relationship between the prisoners Molina and Valentin.FTP, name this author of Betrayed by Rita Hayworth and Kiss of the Spider Woman.
Answer: Manuel Puig
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The victorious forces in this battle were probably positioned along the woods of Nouaille during the first day of fighting here, and a pivotal moment came at Champ Alexandre following an unsuccessful charge by the losing commander. Denis Morbeke was one of two men who claimed to have captured that commander, and near the Moisson river at this site, the Earl of Warwick was able to execute his own capture of Arnold d'Audrehem. The lack of success of the Dauphin's infantry led the Duke of Orleans to flee from this battle. Four years after this battle, vast regions of territory were surrendered including Rouergue and Gascony by Treaty of Bretigny, and it came on the heels of a similar loss at Crecy. Seeing Edward the Black Prince defeat and capture King John II, FTP, identify this early defeat for the French in the Hundred Years War, made possible by the longbow.
Answer: Battle of Poitiers
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This name is given to a song cycle for tenor, seven obbligato instruments, and string orchestra by Benjamin Britten. Poulenc wrote a set of eight of these, of which the last is a "coda to the cycle" and for which titles include "Dance of the Girls" and "The Bells of Malines." Samuel Barber wrote one for solo piano in homage to the Irish composer credited with creating this musical form. This name is also given to a set of three orchestral pieces, including one that depicts the "unchangeable appearance of the sky" and another that features a wordless female chorus, written by Debussy. Chopin wrote 21 of these pieces for solo piano soon after they were first composed by John Field. FTP, identify this musical form which evokes the tranquil mood of the evening.
Answer: nocturnes
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This event includes a discussion of a wicked character who asks "what does all this mean to you?" This event concludes with the Nirtzah, and its most popular part is usually the Shulchan Orekh. Participants in this event use their fingertips to remove ten drops of wine from their cups, and the youngest person at this event sings the Four Questions, also known as Mah Nishtanah. This event is associated with symbols like karpas, charoset, and maror, and features the reading of the Hagaddah, and the hiding of the Afikomen, which means "dessert," but is only a piece of matzah. Commemorating the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, FTP, name this meal eaten on the first and second days of Passover.
Answer: the Passover Seder
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This period saw the once dominant armored placoderm replaced with a wide diversity of sharks. During this period, Gondwana collided with Laurussia while southern Gondwanaland was glaciated, although that glaciation may have been a holdover from an earlier time. It saw the development of the amnoite egg, which allowed for extended dominance over land by some tetrapods. Trilobites were rare during this period but crinoids and gastropods were numerous and there were also many species of Eurypterids flourishing. It saw the appearance of bark-bearing trees and an overabundance of plants made the oxygen levels significantly higher allowing the evolution of giant-sized insects. Divided into the Pennsylvanian and Mississippian, FTP identify this last period of the Paleozoic Era, which started about 359.2 million years ago and which was named for the large amount of coals beds dating to that period.
Answer: Carboniferous period
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This composer parodied a sonatina by Clementi in his Sonatine bureaucratique, and composed the ballet Uspud in his early Rosicrucian period. John Cage's 4'33'' was inspired by a piece by this composer requiring 840 repetitions of a single theme, Vexations. He incorporated parts of Symposium, Phaedrus, and Phaedo in his three-act symphonic drama Socrate, and directed the pianist to "be clairvoyant" and play "with amazement" in a set of pieces named for an ancient Greek dance. FTP, name this French composer of Flabby Preludes For a Dog and Desiccated Embryos as well as seven Gnossiennes and three Gymnopedies.
Answer: Erik Satie
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Their probable ancestors, natively referred to as Hisatsinom, are divided by contemporary scholars into three different Lake Basketmaker periods. The first European to make contact with them was probably Juan de Padilla while serving on Coronado's 1540 expedition. Along with a neighboring tribe, they'd come into conflict with the Peabody Coal Company in the 20th century. Many of their religious ceremonies take place inside deep caves called kivas, and they also celebrate with dolls called katchinas. Following the arrival of the Spaniards, they faced increased tensions with their neighbors the Navajo. Their settlement of Old Oraibi was founded in 1100 CE, making it the oldest continuously occupied settlement in the United States. One of the Pueblo People and descendants of the Anasazi, FTP, identify this Native American tribe famous for their cultivation of short eared corn in places like Black Mesa, Arizona.
Answer: Hopi Indians
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In one of this author's works, Alfredo Traps hangs himself after four retired officials accuse him of murdering his boss. He wrote about the suppression of the Anabaptists in his first play, It is Written, and described a choice faced by the last Roman emperor in Romulus the Great. This member of the Gruppe Olten wrote novels like The Judge and His Hangman, as well as a play about patients in a sanatorium run by Mathilde von Zahnd who believe themselves to be Newton, Einstein, and Mobius. In another of his plays, Claire Zachanassian bribes the town of Gullen into murdering Alfred Ill. FTP, identify this Swiss playwright of The Physicists and The Visit.
Answer: Friedrich Durrenmatt
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This painting was commissioned by Jonathan Sturges, and its name comes from the last line of a Keats sonnet beginning "O solitude! if I must with thee dwell." One figure in this painting wears a light brown hat and coat, holds a red book, and points to the background, while another figure holds his hat in his hands and leans on a cane. Those figures stand under the branch of a tree on the left, while the background depicts water rushing through a rocky gorge. Painted in 1849, it portrays two of the artist's friends standing on a ledge in the Catskills. FTP, name this landscape painting depicting William Cullen Bryant and Thomas Cole, a work by Asher Durand.
Answer: Kindred Spirits
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A ligand containing it as its central atom dissociates from rhodium(I) ["rhodium-one"] in the catalytic mechanism of Wilkinson's catalyst. It is found in a four-membered ring with sulfur in Lawesson's reagent, and this element nucleophilically attacks nitrogen in the Staudinger reaction and the Mitsunobu reaction. It was discovered in 1669 by German alchemist Hennig Brand where is was prepared through a sample of his own urine. Existing as both red and white allotropes, FTP, identify this nonmetallic element that is found below nitrogen as element number 15 on the periodic table.
Answer: phosphorus or P
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At one point in this work, a woman asks the protagonist for his name, and he replies that "it doesn't matter." They subsequently meet in a garden inhabited by frozen people in suits, then meet again in a drawing room where a card game is frozen, where the woman comments that "you never seemed to be waiting for me but we kept meeting each other at each turn." Ending with one character losing herself completely in leaving the titular place with the protagonist, it is based on The Invention of Morel by Adolfo Bioy Casares. This film begins with X asking A if she remembers the affair they may or may not have had at some time and place, but she does not, and they are interrupted by M, a man who might be A's husband. Starring Delphine Seyreg, this is, FTP which dreamlike French New Wave film written by Alain Robes-Grillet and directed by Alain Resnais, whose protagonist claims to have seen his lover previously in the gardens of Frederiksbad?
Answer: Last Year at Marienbad or L'annee derniere a Marienbad
 
2008 Terrapin and MLK Bonuses by Michago and Chicago Seal
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In honor of Martin Luther King Jr., other people with the initials M.K., FTPE:,
[10] Reportedly dating former "Moesha" star Brandy, this Atlanta-born fashion designer made it to the final show in Bryant Park on the third season of Project Runway. Despite being the "Viewers' Favorite Designer," he was named the show's 3rd runner-up.
Answer: Michael Knight (prompt on "Michael")
[10] The original host of ESPN's Around the Horn, he now hosts his own radio show in New York City.
Answer: Max Kellerman
[10] Noted actress with the initials MK Melina Kanakaredes stars as Detective Stella Bonasera along with Gary Sinise on this CBS spinoff.
Answer: CSI: New York
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Important events in gay history, FTPE:,
[10] According to Time Magazine, he was "the first openly gay man elected to any substantial political office." As city supervisor of San Francisco, he was instrumental in the defeat of the Briggs Initiative before he was assassinated along with George Moscone in 1978 by Dan White.
Answer: Harvey Bernard Milk (also accept Glimpy Milch)
[10] Although completely unrelated, the first night of the riots following a police raid of this New York City gay bar coincided with the date of Judy Garland's funeral - June 27, 1969.
Answer: Stonewall Inn
[10] This 1986 Supreme Court case concerned a man who was arrested under sodomy laws for engaging in consensual mutual oral sex. The Court decided that the defendant's right to privacy under the 14th Amendment did not extend to private sexual acts, but the case would later be overturned by Lawrence v. Texas.
Answer: Michael J. Bowers, Attorney General of Georgia v. Michael Hardwick, et al. (accept either underlined answer)
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His novel Diana, the Goddess Who Hunts Alone was about a supposed affair he had with Jean Seberg. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this author of The Buried Mirror and the short stories "In a Flemish Garden" and "Chac Mool."
Answer: Carlos Fuentes
[10] This Fuentes novel is dedicated to C. Wright Mills, and is narrated by the corrupt title character on his deathbed, who remembers the loss of his innocent ideals during the Mexican Revolution.
Answer: The Death of Artemio Cruz
[10] Fuentes also wrote a screenplay based on Pedro Paramo, a novel by this Mexican author whose other works include Tell Them Not to Kill Me!
Answer: Juan Rulfo
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In attempting to explain it, Warren Weaver and Norbert Wiener developed the notion of information as negative entropy. FTPE.,
[10] A guardian operating a trapdoor allows the passage of faster molecules from one container to another, thus creating a temperature difference between two containers and violating the second law of thermodynamics. Name this hypothetical being who is prevented from being paradoxical when we consider the energy needed for information processing.
Answer: Maxwell's demon
[10] This other paradox concerns an animal in a box with a small amount of a radioactive substance. If an atom of that substance decays within an hour, a hammer will be triggered, shattering a container of hydrocyanic acid and killing the animal.
Answer: Schrodinger's cat
[10] An extension of Schrodinger's Cat, in this thought experiment the titular person perform the Schrodinger's Cat experiment, then when another person returns, that person discovers the result of the experiment. The problem leaves open for discussion when, in fact, the state of the quantum system stops being a superposition of both possible outcomes.
Answer: Wigner's friend
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A monumental sculpture in marble, it features three main figures, Antiphantes, Thymbraeus, and their father, set upon by an antagonist sent by either Apollo or Poseidon. FTPE, name:,
[10] This sculpture, depicting the death of a Trojan who doubted the sincerity of the Greeks' wooden horse. ANSWER: Laocoon and His Sons or Laocoon Group [lay-AH-koh-wan]
Answer:
[10] The island residence of the sculptors of Laocoon and His Sons, Agesander, Athenodorus, and Polydorus, where inscriptions at Lindos have led experts to date the work to some time between 42 and 20 BCE.
Answer: Rhodes
[10] After its discovery, the statue was placed at the Vatican by this pope, an enthusiastic classicist known to some as the "fightin' pope," whose other artistic endeavors included commissioning an ornate tomb for himself from Michelangelo.
Answer: Julius II
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In Republican times, Roman politicians worked their way up the cursus honorum. FTPE, name some steps they took along the way.,
[10] If you don't include the unofficial step of Governor, this office came after consul in the cursus honorum. With an unusually long tenure of 18 months, the duties of this office once held by Cato the Elder included being able to remove Senators from the Senate and creating a register of the property of Roman citizens.
Answer: Censor
[10] The highest office possible was that of dictator, elected by the consuls for a six-month term with absolute authority. An entering dictator would appoint one of these, whose authority was only tempered by the dictator's, and who governed the city of Rome when the dictator was away from the city.
Answer: Master of the Horse
[10] For plebs not able to follow the cursus honorum, this office was one of the highest positions available. The ten Romans who held this title each year had the power to veto the operation of the government, and the Grachi brothers famously extended the limits of this position's power.
Answer: Tribune of the Plebs
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Archaeological forgeries (or at least objects of skepticism), FTPE:,
[10] One of these objects "of doom" allegedly found in a Maya temple in Belize in the 1920s by F. A. Mitchell-Hedges was claimed by its discoverer to have been used by priests to summon gods and demons. However, it was almost certainly carved with modern tools.
Answer: Crystal Skull (also accept Quartz Skull, prompt on just "skull")
[10] Portions of an orangutan jawbone combined with the skull of a modern man excited the Geographical Society of London, who named it Eoanthropus Dawsoni. It wasn't discovered to be a hoax until 40 years after its "discovery" in 1912.
Answer: the Piltdown Man
[10] This linen cloth, seemingly bearing the image of a crucified man thought to be Jesus, has been the object of serious scientific scrutiny, as it has been unofficially dated to the 14th century.
Answer: the Shroud of Turin (prompt on "shroud")
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Identify some of these people and other talking things that Odysseus encountered on his way home, FTPE.,
[10] One of Odysseus's best known encounters was when he told Polyphemus, one of these creatures, that he was "nobody" before driving a stake into him and escaping with his men by hitching a ride under Polyphemus's sheep.
Answer: Cyclops
[10] This daughter of Atlas was a nymph who lived on the island of Ogygia. Odysseus was held as her prisoner for seven years after he rejected her offer to become immortal and abandon his wife Penolope.
Answer: Calypso
[10] After Odysseus washes onto the island of Scheria, he is discovered by this bathing daughter of King Alcinous.
Answer: Nausicaa
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This play caricatures Richard Cumberland as the vain author Sir Fretful Plagiary. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this work about a rehearsal of Puff's bombastic play The Spanish Armada, which is mocked by Dangle and Sneer.
Answer: The Critic, or a Tragedy Rehearsed
[10] The Critic was the final play by this British author of St. Patrick's Day and The Duenna, who went on to become a Whig member of Parliament whose speeches were crucial in impeaching Warren Hastings.
Answer: Richard Brinsley Sheridan
[10] In this Sheridan play, Captain Jack Absolute courts Lydia Languish by pretending to be Ensign Beverly. It also features the comic character Mrs. Malaprop, who constantly misuses words.
Answer: The Rivals
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Answer the following about acid-base theory, FTPE.,
[10] This type of acid, named for an American chemist, is defined as a substance that accepts an electron pair from an electron pair donor.
Answer: Lewis acid
[10] This theory developed by Pearson explains whether certain Lewis acids are more likely to interact with various Lewis bases. It divides acids and bases into two categories, one consisting of small, highly charged species, and the other of large, readily polarizable species.
Answer: hard-soft acid-base theory (also accept HSAB theory)
[10] Hard-soft acid-base theory appears to conflict with one of these rules developed by a Polish chemist to explain the situations under which a covalent or an ionic bond will form. According to these rules, small cations are likely to form covalent bonds with large anions.
Answer: Fajans' rules
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Name the following composers of masses FTPE.,
[10] According to Hans Pfitzner's opera about this man, this sixteenth-century Italian wrote his Pope Marcellus Mass to convince the Council of Trent not to ban polyphonic church music.
Answer: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
[10] This composer of over a hundred symphonies, including the "Farewell" and "Surprise," also wrote the Lord Nelson Mass and the Mass in Time of War.
Answer: Franz Joseph Haydn
[10] This English composer's "A Mass of Life" takes its text not from the Liturgy but from Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra. He also wrote Florida Suite and variations on Brigg Fair.
Answer: Frederick Albert Theodore Delius
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The title character is missing a finger, and accompanies the unnamed narrator to a coal mine in Crete. FTPE,
[10] Identify this novel about the title character, who seduces Madame Hortense and constantly questions his employer, an intellectual he calls "Boss."
Answer: Zorba the Greek [or Vios Kai Politia Toy Alexsi Zorba]
[10] This author of The Last Temptation of Christ wrote Zorba the Greek.
Answer: Nikos Kazantzakis
[10] This novel follows the relationship between the Greek Captain Michalis and the Turk Nurey Bey during a rebellion of Greek Christians against Turks on Crete.
Answer: Freedom or Death [or O Kapetan Mihailis]
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FTPE, identify these things about Japanese control of Korea.,
[10] Following the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese forced the Koreans to sign this "treaty of friendship", named for the Korean island that was also the site of a namesake incident where Koreans fired on the Japanese ship the Unyo, prompting a Japanese blockade of the country.
Answer: Treaty of Ganghwa
[10] One of the ports opened in the Treaty of Gangwha was this one, which would famously be the site of a MacArthur-led offensive landing against the North Koreans on September 15, 1950 in the Korean War.
Answer: Inchon
[10] Much earlier, the Japanese had failed to establish control over Korea in the Battle of Noryang partially thanks to the use of three of these vessels, armored with spikes and equipped with a "Korean cannon".
Answer: Turtle Ship (also accept Geobukseon or Kobukson)
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Identify the following about a psychologist, FTPE.,
[10] This man is probably best known for conducting his namesake experiment at Yale University where subjects were told to administer shocks to a confederate "learner" when the learner failed to successfully associate a word.
Answer: Stanley Milgram
[10] Milgram was also involved in this experiment that attempted to find the average pair lengths between people through social networks. It worked by having people in Omaha, Wichita and Boston forward letters to people they thought were more likely to know a target individual.
Answer: Small-world Experiment (it's not called the "Six Degrees of Separation Experiment", don't accept anything like that)
[10] The experiment supervised by Stanley Milgram that asked people to give up their seat on the subway is classified as one of these experiments, pioneered by Harold Garfinkle which examine the effects of breaking social norms.
Answer: Breaching Experiment
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It is one of the five pillars of Islam and must be recited daily, FTPE:.,
[10] First, name this Arabic term for the declaration of faith which literally means "testimony" and asserts the monotheistic nature of Allah as well as the fact that Muhuammed is his final prophet.
Answer: Shahadah
[10] The Shahadah is considered the first of these six sayings that encompass the fundamentals of Islam. Other components include the Word of Glorification and Word of Rejection of Disbelief.
Answer: Kalimas
[10] One of the requirements of some branches of Shi'a Islam is the Khums, which requires that this fraction of a person's income be paid as a tax to the faith. Unlike the stingy 2.5% required by the Zakat, this the Khums required twice as much as the typical Christian tithe.
Answer: One Fifth (or 20%)
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Not found in bivalves, this organ comes in varieties such as the primitive docoglossan type and the venomous toxoglossan type. FTPE:,
[10] Name this organ that consists of a protruding odontophore and a layer of teeth called the cuticula, found in the oral cavity of a phylum of organisms characterized by a veliger developmental stage.
Answer: radula
[10] The radula is found in this phylum of organisms that have a mantle and a muscular foot. It includes cephalopods and gastropods.
Answer: Mollusca or mollusks
[10] The mollusk radula consists largely of this polymer of N-acetylglucosamine subunits found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi.
Answer: chitin
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Name these early American authors, FTPE.,
[10] After being captured by the Nashaway Indians, this woman wrote a seminal captivity narrative, which was published in 1682.
Answer: Mary Rowlandson
[10] This author criticized forced marriages in Married or Single? Many of her works, including her novel Hope Leslie, protest against the Puritan ideals of her day.
Answer: Catharine Maria Sedgwick
[10] This poet born in Gambia wrote a notable elegy on the death of George Whitefield, and proclaimed "Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land" in her poem "On being brought from Africa to America."
Answer: Phillis Wheatley
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It posits that philosophy is superior to politics and responds to Solon's proposition that no man is happy until dead. FTPE:,
[10] Name this early text of a namesake field of philosophy, which arranges character traits into vices, virtues, and in-between states such as impetuousity and weakness.
Answer: Nicomachean Ethics
[10] Like the Eudemian Ethics, the Poetics, and the Politics, the Nicomachean Ethics were written by this father of Nichomachus and leader of the Peripatetic school.
Answer: Aristotle
[10] Like Plato, Aristotle, in the Nicomachean Ethics, defines this term, often translated as "happiness" or "flourishing," as a balanced life lived with concern for ethical behavior.
Answer: eudaimonia
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19 From late March until late May 1871, two governments claimed to rule parts of France. FTPE:,
[10] First, name the body, formed in the French capital after the nation's surrender in the Franco-Prussian War that was put down during the "bloody week".
Answer: Paris Commune (also accept Commune de Paris)
[10] This head of the French provisional government in Versailles ordered troops into Paris and pushed for a brutal repression of the Communards.
Answer: Adolphe Thiers
[10] One of the factions involved in the Paris Commune was this group, which championed a greater emphasis on individual power to bring about socialist reforms in government. Criticized in Marx's The Poverty of Philosophy, their leader famously proclaimed that "property is theft" in an 1840 work.
Answer: Proudhonists
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The man on the left is wearing a brown bowler and matching sport coat while smoking a white pipe. FTPE:,
[10] Name this painting in which a red table with red tablecloth and an unlabelled wine bottle separate the man from his opponent on the right, clad in beige, and also focused on the titular objects.
Answer: The Card Players (Les Joueurs de Carte)
[10] This French artist painted The Card Players.
Answer: Paul Cezanne
[10] Cezanne is also known for this work, where 8 nude figures in the foreground and arching trees in the background flank a blue pool.
Answer: The Bathers (Les Baigneuses)

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