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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 Terrapin and MLK Tossups by Chris Ray and Illinois A
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The Duke of Hamilton manned river fortresses to allow this battle to take place, and it constituted the first real test for a reorganized force that featured four artillery pieces attached to each battalion. The victorious general arrayed his troops with their backs to the Loberbach River and a treeline, having earlier marched from a beachhead at Peenemunde. The impetus for the conflict was an effort to oust John George I, whose Saxon troops pussied out and caused the left flank of the eventual victors to be exposed. Pappenheim's inability to make a dent with his cavalry allowed the hakkapelitta to capture the enemy's field guns, while the defending general used his reserves to repulse the flank and smash the advancing line of the Catholic League. Seeing the massacre of most of Tilly's forces and preceding Lutzen and Lech, FTP, identify this 1631 clash which marked the rise of Gustavus Adolphus and the opening of the Swedish phase of the Thirty Years War.
Answer: Battle of Breitenfeld
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This artist depicted an adolescent wearing a brown chaperon in profile in Portrait of a Young Man, and portrayed a crowd gathering around a naked man kneeling on a white sheet next to several skulls in Resurrection of the Son of Theophilus. This painter of the Cascia Altarpiece took over from his teacher Masolino to paint a cycle of frescoes about St. Peter for the Brancacci Chapel. He also painted an angel clad in red brandishing a sword over two sorrowful naked figures, and a saint reaching into the mouth of a fish in order to pay a tax collector the title currency. FTP, name this artist of Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, The Holy Trinity, and The Tribute Money.
Answer: Masaccio [or Tomasso Cassai]
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In one short story by this author, a schizophrenic king becomes agitated when his palace turns into a giant ear, while in another, three characters are enraptured by an odor that turns out to be death. Those stories, "The King Listens" and "The Name, the Nose," appear in Under the Jaguar Sun, a collection structured similarly to this author's collection t zero. This author created an index divided into three numeric levels of experience in his novel Mr. Palomar, and used tarot cards to guide the narration of The Castle of Crossed Destinies. William Weaver has translated most of the works of this author, who also wrote a novel about the relationship between the Reader and the Other Reader interspersed with ten different opening chapters. FTP, identify this Italian author of If on a Winter's Night a Traveler.
Answer: Italo Calvino
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Clifford algebras over Euclidean spaces are used to define the namesake objects of this property, which Lorentz transform according to relations involving commutators of gamma matrices. Self-field interactions cause the proportionality between this value and its associated magnetic moment to differ from 2, a fact that implies QED must be used to calculate the electron gyromagnetic ratio. One form of the operators for this observable is given by the Pauli matrices and it was Pauli who first proposed this property. Theorized by Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck, FTP name this property that differentiates fermions and bosons, a form of intrinsic angular momentum, usually plus or minus one half for an electron.
Answer: spin; accept spinors
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A figure paradoxically held to be the brother of both this figure and his grandson was driven into the sea by Wichama. This being is responsible for the destructive event known as ono pacakoti, after which the world was repopulated by the offspring of Inti, his son. This god, with a name meaning "sea foam," has servants known as suncasapa, or bearded ones. Aymara tradition holds that he walked away across the Pacific Ocean after seeing the plight of Manco Capac's descendents. FTP, name this sun and storm god, the supreme deity of the Inca pantheon.
Answer: Viracocha
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One character in this movie is reassigned to Pearl Harbor after decoding a message about a bet on the Preakness. Another character becomes suspicious when he learns of a mysterious military unit called eComCon located at a secret base in El Paso. A confession signed by Admiral Barnswell and the death of Paul Girard confirm Colonel Jiggs Casey's warning of a conspiracy against President Jordan Lyman, which is caused by the ratification of a nuclear disarmament treaty with the Soviet Union. Starring Kirk Douglas and Burt Lancaster, and with a screenplay by Rod Serling, FTP, identify this 1964 John Frankenheimer film in which General James Mattoon Scott attempts to lead a military coup to overthrow the US Government, named for a time period of a certain month.
Answer: Seven Days in May
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This character is fond of wearing a dressing gown of Persian cloth, and is entranced by the elbows of Agafya Pshenitzyn, who eventually marries him. He is continually cheated by Tarantyev, who offers to look over his estates only to pocket most of his money, and he marvels at the triple-bearded prowess of his servant Zakhar. This character changes his ways after falling in love with Olga, but after he returns to his old lifestyle, she marries his more energetic friend Andrei Shtolts. At the beginning of the novel named for him, this character resolves to get out of bed, only to spend the next one hundred pages lying in it. FTP, identify this Russian aristocrat whose inactivity is chronicled in a novel by Ivan Goncharov.
Answer: Il'ia Il'ich Oblomov
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This man's downfall was precipitated by the desertion of Swiss mercenaries from both his and his attacker's side, though the Swiss were subsequently influential in restoring his son Maximilian to power. While imprisoned, he attempted to escape from the castle of Loches, but the effort was unsuccessful and he ended up dying there. After the fatal error of permitting French troops passage to attack Naples, an act criticized by Machiavelli as starting Italy's foreign subjugation, this husband of Beatrice fell to Louis XII despite winning a victory at Fornovo and being promoted from Regent to Duke by Emperor Maximilian I. Also famous for his patronage of artists like Bramante and Leonardo da Vinci, FTP, name this ruler of Milan, a Sforza whose title was derived from his dark complexion.
Answer: Ludovico "Il Moro" Sforza (accept Ludovico Sforza before Sforza mentioned, also accept "The Moor")
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As it was originally stated, it does not apply if the product contains any elements other than carbon and hydrogen, because it does not account for inductive effects or resonance. Using a very hindered base may block the formation of the predicted product, forming the Hoffman product instead. It requires a strong base and a tertiary alkyl halide to prevent the reaction from occurring via the SN2 mechanism. Concerning the regioselectivity of an E2 reaction, FTP, identify this principle that states that the major product results from the elimination of hydrogen from the carbon atom originally bonded to the fewest hydrogen atoms, resulting in the alkene with the most substituted carbon-carbon double bond, an oppposite of Markovnikov's Rule.
Answer: Zaitsev's Rule (also accept Saytzeff's rule)
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This person composed his first opera, The Revoke, under the influence of his teacher Charles Stanford. At the age of eighteen, he composed the two-act operetta Lansdown Castle, and his late works include Hammersmith and The Dream City. He commemorated William Morris in the second movement of his Cotswold Symphony, and his operas Sita and Satrivi were inspired by his interest in Hindu lore. After finishing his Hymn to Dionysus and St. Paul's Suite, he began a work beginning with a dissonant march in 5/4 time, which contains sections subtitled "The Magician" and "The Mystic." FTP, name this composer of a seven-movement suite including "Mars, the Bringer of War," The Planets.
Answer: Gustav Holst
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In his autobiography, I Wonder as I Wander, this man recounted meeting Arthur Koestler in Turkmenistan, where they discussed his poem "A New Song." Arnold Rampersad won a Pulitzer for his biography of this author, who was investigated by the House Un-American Activities Committee for his poem "Goodbye Christ." This author of "Let America Be America Again" wrote "kill him, and let his soul run wild" in his poem "Genius Child," and created the comic character Jesse B. Semple. Other poems by this author describe the sound of a "drowsy, syncopated tune," and wonder if a certain entity "stink[s] like rotten meat" or "drie[s] up like a raisin in the sun." FTP, identify this Harlem Renaissance poet of "The Weary Blues" and "The Negro Speaks of Rivers."
Answer: Langston Hughes
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A relation between covering and the number of generators for a specific type of this object containing cosets is Abhyankar's Conjecture. Sometimes defined as invertible monids, these structures are called topological if they have the Hausdorff topology and are continuous. Their character, sometimes known as the trace, is equal for ones in the same conjugacy class. The order of one contained in another must divide the order of the containing one according to Lagrange's lemma. These are named for Lie [LEE] when their operation is smooth. They're not rings, but when they commute, they are called Abelian. FTP, name these mathematical structures, sets of elements and operations that are closed and associative and have an identity and inverses.
Answer: groups
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In one scene in this novel, the narrator imagines having a seizure after seeing a massive group of fish become stuck near the shore at night. A commentary on this work's composition makes up a significant part of its author's memoir The Names. The protagonist meets Reverend John in this novel's second section, The Priest of the Sun, along with Milly and Ben Benally after arriving in Los Angeles following a prison stint for stabbing an albino. Ending with the burial of the protagonist's grandfather Francisco, it focuses on Abel, a Kiowa Indian who returns to New Mexico after World War II. FTP, identify this work of Native American literature, a novel by N. Scott Momaday.
Answer: House Made of Dawn
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They were mandated to rule the world for 6000 years until 1914 and the group that posits this idea also believe in a 23 year Principle of Gradualism. Their creation supposedly began on the isle of Patmos after the separation of the moon from the earth, and their origin has been examined in scientific studies by the Five Percenters. Traditionally, the opposition of this group, which was created by a big headed scientist named Mr. Yacub, was central to Savior's Day, while How to Eat to Live serves as a guide for achieving cultural separatism from them. In most doctrinal descriptions they are described as "blue-eyed," such as those by Wallace Fard Muhammad, though recently opposition toward this group was claimed to be no longer central to joining Louis Farrakhan's organization. FTP, identify this group of people traditionally opposed by the Nation of Islam, a race of people that dominated the rosters of Major League Baseball teams in the early 20th century.
Answer: White Devils (also accept White People or Whitey or Crackers and other obvious equivalents, the funnier the better)
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A work by Gunter Grass depicts Bertolt Brecht preparing an adaptation of this play. One major female character declares that anger is her meat, while a scene on a highway features a dialogue between Adrian and Nicanor. In one scene, the protagonist draws his sword in order to face an angry mob by himself, but is persuaded to change his mind and go home. While his wife Virgilia waits at home, the protagonist is persuaded by Volumnia, his mother, to call off his assault with Aufidius the Volscian. Ending with the death of the titular Roman Caius Marcius, FTP, identify this play about a Roman General.
Answer: Coriolanus
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A battle named after this body essentially ended its nation's war of independence, and it is the second oldest in the world. Prolific eutrophication in the form of duckweed poses significant threat to its ecosystem, unique for the small saline percentage of this body due to a narrow strait to the north. Its primary outlet is spanned by the Rafael Urdaneta bridge, and it is primarily fed by the Catatumbo River. A poorly-made dike was constructed to prevent damage due to this lake sinking significantly, a result of massive amounts of oil being removed. With a basin accounting for two thirds of its nation's oil supply, FTP, identify this largest lake of South America, located in Venezuela.
Answer: Lake Maracaibo
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One concurrence in this case relied on the language put forth in Railway Mail Association v. Corsi, which discussed congressional pragmatism. That opinion, written by Thurgood Marshall, discusses McDaniel v. Barresi in explaining the only difference in this ruling with that of the state Supreme Court. Blackmun's concurrence waxes about generalities, and the majority gave the permission to "redress" past errors. The party who originally brought the case argued that Title VI had been violated, and it was later upheld in cases by Gratz and Grutter against Lee Bollinger. The court ruled that a "special" system of sixteen slots that allowed sub-2.5 GPAs violated Equal Protection, but race could still be used as "one of many factors". FTP, identify this 1978 case which dealt with affirmative action keeping the white man down in the eponymous west coast educational institution in Davis.
Answer: Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (you can accept any of the underlined answers)
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The lobby of this building is decorated with gold tesserae, and includes a painting of a man counting dimes and allegories of commerce and labor. The Romanesque lobby may be contrasted with the terracotta exteriors and gargoyles that made it a pioneer of the Gothic Revival style. Alfred Mullett's downtown post office building once stood across from this structure, which nows faces City Hall Park. Specifically ordered to surpass the height of the Metropolitan Life Tower, it became known as the "Cathedral of Commerce." This building extends from Barclay Street to Park Place along Broadway, and was designed by Cass Gilbert. FTP, name this onetime world's tallest building, the New York headquarters of a discount-retail magnate that went bankrupt in the 1990s.
Answer: the Woolworth Building
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A particularly graphic example of his diplomatic ineptitude occurred when this man interrupted a diplomatic meeting to urinate on Lunodi, Shanyu of the Xiongnu, and he also forced his son to commit suicide after that son accidentally killed a servant. His Confucian background led him to use an albino chicken to get himself made Duke of Anhan, and he also utilized the Heavenly Stems system and unpopularly renamed China's geography. His enforcement of the Sloth tax prompted the rebellion of Mother Lu and Fan Chong, who joined in the Chimei or Red Eyebrow revolt. Famous for populist reforms like reintroducing the Well Fields system and his imposition of an income tax, he rose to power by manipulating child emperors of the Liu family before being supplanted by Emperor Guangwu, who kept his head in a vault. FTP, identify this royal usurper whose creation of the Xin dynasty in 9 AD interrupted the rule of the Han.
Answer: Wang Mang or Jujun
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This body is largely redundant as approximately one tenth of its volume can adequately serve its function, a fact exploited by Whipple's operation. Abnormal stomach parietal cell activity may be symptomatic of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a disfunction of cells in this organ. Cholecystokinin is actually a form of its namesake hormone. The grape-like clustering of its secretory cells leads to their being called acinar cells. It empties via the ducts of Santorini of Wirsung into the duodenum. FTP, name this endocrine organ perhaps best known as the sites of the islets of Langerhans, which produce glucagon and insulin.
Answer: the pancreas
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Johan Jongkind was inspired by his experiences with this event to write a treatise on bridges. Emile Zola described it in The Masterpiece, which includes accounts of Guillaumin's Sunset at Ivry and a work by Fantin-Latour. Spurred by the obstinacy of the Hanging Committee, this event included a depiction of Joanna Hiffernan, The White Girl, and was fully funded by Napoleon III. A venue for artists like Whistler and Manet, it served as the premiere for Luncheon on the Grass. FTP, identify this 1863 exhibition named for the Paris Salon's dismissal of paintings it deemed objectionable.
Answer: 1863 Salon de Refuses [or Salon of the Rejected or anything that implies people got rejected]
 
2008 Terrapin and MLK Bonuses by Chris Ray and Illinois A
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His insistence on the inclusion of Article 48 in the Weimar Constitution was blamed for helping allow the rise of Hitler. FTPE:,
[10] Name this thinker who believed that social stratification is caused by the interplay of social class, social status, and political affiliation, and wrote The Religion of China and Ancient Judaism.
Answer: Max Weber
[10] Weber also wrote this essay arguing that the belief in predestination led members of the title religious group to believe that economic success was a sign of their salvation, explaining the rise of the title economic system.
Answer: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
[10] The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism was translated into English by this American sociologist, who promoted structural functionalism in works like The Social System and The Structure of Social Action.
Answer: Talcott Parsons
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Identify these documents from Japanese history, FTPE:,
[10] It included provisions such as self-determination for the common people and an abandonment of the "evil" traditions of the past. Its promulgation was a major component of the Meiji Restoration.
Answer: Charter Oath or Oath in Five Articles
[10] Sakoku, or seclusion, was ended in this 1854 treaty that opened Hakodate and Shimoda. It was signed after Matthew Perry and his huge guns forced Tokugawa Ieyoshi to acquiesce to the United States.
Answer: Treaty (or Convention) of Kanagawa
[10] One of the long-term causes of the May Fourth Movement, this set of ultimatums was promulgated by Okuma Shigenobu and proposed a certain number of Chinese cessions to Japan, chiefly centered around expansion into Korea and Manchuria.
Answer: 21 Demands
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It may be concisely stated as density times substantial derivative of fluid velocity equals minus pressure gradient plus body force density plus divergence stress tensor. FTPE:,
[10] Name this difficult-to-solve dual-namesake set of PDE's that gives continuum fluid flow patterns.
Answer: the Navier-Stokes equations
[10] The stress tensor in the Navier-Stokes equations accounts for this dissipative force, the fluid's internal resistance to deformation.
Answer: viscosity (accept word forms like the viscous force)
[10] Another doubly eponymous set of equations from fluid dynamics is this one, which determines the head loss for fluid moving through a pipe and depends on factors like friction and pipe length.
Answer: Darcy-Weisbach equations
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During this play, Vasques tricks Hippolita into poisoning herself during the marriage feast of Soranzo, and at its climax, one character enters with his sister's heart on a dagger. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this play about the tragic consequences of the incestuous relationship between Giovanni and Annabella.
Answer: 'Tis Pity She's a Whore
[10] This dramatist of Love's Sacrifice and The Broken Heart wrote `Tis Pity She's a Whore.
Answer: John Ford
[10] Ford's finest achievement may be this history play about a pretender to the English throne, who escapes a murder plot by Richard III.
Answer: Perkin Warbeck
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This daughter of Hefeyyd was often likened to Epona, a fellow horse goddess. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this Welsh mythological figure who ditched Gwawl after appearing on a white horse in front of a Lord of Dyfed.
Answer: Rhiannon
[10] This hero and friend of Arawn is the aformentioned hero and husband of Rhiannon, who had gained fame for defeating Hafgan.
Answer: Pwyll
[10] This child of Rhiannon and Pwyll, who disappeared and ended up at the court of Teyrnon, is the only character to appear in all four branches of the Mabinogi, in which he also marries Cigfa and has his pigs stolen by Gwydion.
Answer: Pryderi
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Identify these styles of martial arts, FTPE:,
[10] This generic term doesn't technically apply to any particular martial art, though wushu is often erroneously described by this term, a corruption of a Chinese word meaning "methodology of the fist." If you don't know the answer, it is likely that yours might not be strong, so you should probably improve your grip.
Answer: Kung Fu
[10] The ginga is the central movement of this Brazilian practice, which occurs in a roda and is focused on complex acrobatic feats rather than actually injuring people.
Answer: Capoeira
[10] This term refers to a family of Filipino martial arts that most commonly utilize knives, single and dual batons and unarmed styles of fighting
Answer: Eskrima
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His general Huo Kan smashed Baghdad in 1258. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this Mongol conqueror from the Ilkhanate who crushed the Abbasids, Syrian Ayubbids, and Assassins in his campaigns of conquest.
Answer: Hulagu Khan
[10] John the Hungarian may have botched the diplomacy between this canonized French monarch and Hulagu, who identified strongly with Christians due to his wife Dokuz Khatun and most of his entourage's Nestorian beliefs.
Answer: Louis IX the Saint (or Saint Louis)
[10] Mamluk Sultan Qutuz's decision to slaughter Hulagu's envoys to Cairo and mount their heads on the city gate probably had a hand in precipitating this battle, in which Qutuz and Baibars defeated Kitbuqa and critically halted the advances of the Mongols against the Islamic world.
Answer: Battle of Ain Jalut (or the Spring of Goliath or the Eye of Goliath)
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Designed to account for pressure work terms, this thermodynamic property has exact differential T d S plus V d p, where T is the temperature, S the entropy, V the volume, and p the pressure. FTPE:,
[10] Name this thermodynamic property named by Kamerlingh Onnes which your non-science teammates probably know is symbolized H.
Answer: enthalpy
[10] The fact that the differential of the enthalpy is T d S plus V d p can be used to derive one of this set of relations, statements of the second derivatives of thermodynamic potentials in natural variables.
Answer: the Maxwell relations
[10] Setting the differential of the enthalpy to zero can be used to analyze processes of this kind, also known as isenthalpic processes, in which the enthalpy does not change.
Answer: throttling processes
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Answer the following about works from the illustrious history of burning the shit out of witches, FTPE:,
[10] This 1693 work detailed the author's steadfast belief in and justification for his support of the Salem witch trials. It was morbidly popular in the colonies.
Answer: The Wonders of the Invisible World
[10] This lunatic preacher, whose father bore the rewarding name Increase, wrote The Wonders of the Invisible World.
Answer: Cotton Mather
[10] Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger wrote this informative 15th century tract on how to identify and torture witches. Its second part warns that witches like to steal men's penises and collect them in a bird's nest or a box.
Answer: The Malleus Maleficarum [or The Witches Hammer or The Hammer of Witches or Hexenhammer]
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This artist spent lots of time painting lighthouses in Gloucester, although he's better known for images of urban isolation like Office at Night and New York Movie. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this American painter of Chop Suey and Nighthawks.
Answer: Edward Hopper
[10] This painting by Hopper is dominated by strong horizontal lines, and depicts a line of red rooms with partially drawn yellow blinds over a line of green storefronts.
Answer: Early Sunday Morning
[10] Hopper painted three depictions different times of the day at this location. The depiction of "morning" portrays a woman staring out of a window, while the one of "evening" portrays a dog standing in tall grass in front of a white house and dark woods.
Answer: Cape Cod
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Platonic dialogues FTPE:,
[10] In this dialogue, Socrates discusses whether or not virtue can be taught with the titular slave. Although he does teach the slave the Pythagorean Theorem, Socrates eventually concludes that no, virtue cannot be taught, and we're all supposed to care.
Answer: Meno
[10] This late dialogue of Plato reexamines the theory on forms explored in Parmenides. It shares its name with a school of thought followed Gorgias and by a thinker who declared "man is the measure of all things," Protagoras.
Answer: Sophist (be lenient and accept word forms like Sophism)
[10] In this dialogue, Socrates debates with Protarchus and the title character over whether wisdom is better than pleasure. Socrates wins when wisdom is determined to be the third most important good with pleasure coming in fifth place.
Answer: Philebus
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His most famous action was documented by Gesta Francorum. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this man who installed Roger I to gain control of Sicily, and who also called for the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.
Answer: Pope Urban II or Otho of Lagery
[10] Alexius I's call for assistance, which precipitated Urban's call, was first received at this earlier council, also called by Urban. It denounced the Berengerian Heresy as well as the existence of Antipope Clement III, and was attended by Philip I of France and Henry IV's wife Bertha.
Answer: Council of Piacenza
[10] Another preacher of the First Crusade was this man, who led the earlier and unsuccessful People's Crusade. Despite abandoning the crusaders, he'd rejoin them and become almoner of the crusading armies.
Answer: Peter the Hermit (also accept Pierre l'Ermite)
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FTPE, name these 20th century authors from the Caribbean.,
[10] This poet from Barbados, a proponent of "nation language," wrote experimental poems like "Stone" in Middle Passages, and may be best known for The Arrivants, a trilogy consisting of Rights of Passage, Masks, and Islands.
Answer: Kamau Brathwaite
[10] This poet wrote about his native Martinique in Notebook of a Return to the Native Land, and was one of the founders of negritude along with Leon Damas and Leopold Senghor.
Answer: Aime Cesaire
[10] This author of Dream on Monkey Mountain wrote about Camille Pisarro in Tiepolo's Hound and adapted themes from the Iliad and the Odyssey for his terrific epic poem Omeros.
Answer: Derek Walcott
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Identify the following about Les Six FTPE:,
[10] Followed up by Rugby and Symphonic Movement no. 3, this composition by Arthur Honegger depicts the acceleration of the title vehicle, and is named after the axles of a steam locomotive.
Answer: Pacific 231
[10] Poulenc created a comic opera based on an Apollinaire work about the breasts of this mythological figure, which depicts him giving birth to 40,049 children in one day. He's most famous for being a blind seer who was turned into a woman for seven years by Hera.
Answer: Tiresias
[10] This composer of the ballet Le Marchand d'Oiseaux dedicated a Concertino for Harp to Ralph Barton and is most noted for a Concerto Grosso for two Pianos, Saxophone Quartet, eight Solo voices and Orchestra.
Answer: Germaine Taillefaire
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Occurring at flip bifurcations in a phase space, this type of behavior is characterized by a negative unit Floquet multiplier. FTPE:,
[10] Name this type of dynamical system that halves the system's frequency.
Answer: period doubling
[10] Period doubling is one route to this type of behavior, formally characterized by dense sets of initial conditions with periodic orbits, high sensitivity to initial conditions, and topological transitivity. It it sometimes analogous to the more formally defined concept of entropy.
Answer: chaos (accept word forms like chaotic; prompt on more specific things)
[10] This so-called map exhibits chaos due to period doubling. It is the solution set of the following finite difference approximation of to the Verhulst model: x n plus one equals r times x n times quantity one minus x n, where r is a constant.
Answer: the logistic map
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Identify these works by Goethe, FTPE:,
[10] Beethoven composed an overture for this play about a Flemish count's fight against Spanish rule, his eventual execution, and the suicide of his lover Klarchen.
Answer: Egmont
[10] In this work, the titular loser kills himself due to his overwhelming unrequited love after the marriage of Lotte and Albert.
Answer: The Sorrows of Young Werther
[10] Written in 1787, this adaptation of a Euripides play centers on a daughter of Agamemnon who is rescued from a sacrificial altar by Artemis, and becomes a priestess at the title location.
Answer: Iphigenia in Tauris [or Iphigenia auf Tauris]
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It raised import rates to a percentage averaging in the high forties and was proposed by its namesake Maine representative. FTPE:,
[10] Name this 1897 tariff that followed the Wilson-Gorman Tariff.
Answer: Dingley Tariff
[10] The Dingley tariff was replaced in 1909 by this tariff act which generally lowered import duties.
Answer: Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act
[10] Two years before he attached his name to the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, Nelson W. Aldrich co-sponsored the Aldrich-Vreeland Act, a response to the Panic of 1907 which established this precursor to the Federal Reserve. This commission toured Europe to discover how inefficient the American system was.
Answer: National Monetary Commission
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It essentially argues against focusing on creating more money in favor of promoting increased production. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this economic law, named for a French guy, which states that supply creates its own demand.
Answer: Say's Law (of Markets)
[10] Keynes showed that Say's law did not apply in the real world in situations where this type of unemployment occurs, in which layed-off employees are unable to ideally match with new opportunities.
Answer: Involuntary Unemployment
[10] Keynes also attacked Say's Law as it applies to interest rates, arguing that the law does not take this kind of market situation into account. It occurs during recessions when the nominal interest rate is near zero and investors tend to keep money in short-term accounts and eschew long-term investments.
Answer: Liquidity Trap
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Convoked by Marcian, this fourth ecumenical council confirmed the Tome of Leo I, thus rejecting Monophysitism. FTPE:,
[10] Name this 451 CE council that took place in what is now Turkey.
Answer: the Council of Chalcedon
[10] The Maronite Church in this modern day nation crystallized after Chalcedon and also after St. Maron got persecuted by its Monophysites. Psalms and Song of Songs referenced this country's famous cedars.
Answer: Republic of Lebanon
[10] St. Maron was a dedicatee of letters from this early Church Father during his exile from his see of Constantinople at the behest of Eudoxia and Theophilus.
Answer: St. John Chrysostom (prompt on "St. John")

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Warning: Unknown: Failed to write session data (files). Please verify that the current setting of session.save_path is correct () in Unknown on line 0