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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 TParty Tossups by Editors 2
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This poet discussed the "hollow Puppets of a hollow Age," which bothered "Idoloclastes Satyrane" in his poem "A Tombless Epitaph." The speaker of one poem asserts that "seasons shall be sweet" to his baby, who sleeps while the title entity "performs its secret ministry," and another poem argues that "the one Life within us and abroad" is inspired by the "soft floating witchery of sound" emanating from the title object, and that poem is addressed to "My pensive Sara". In addition to "Frost at Midnight", another of his poems discusses "huge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail" that gush out of a "mighty fountain," and that poem features a figure with "flashing eyes" and "floating hair" who has "drunk the milk of Paradise." FTP, name this poet, who wrote "The Aeolian Harp" and described a "stately pleasure dome" in "Kubla Khan."
Answer: Samuel Taylor Coleridge
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While not applying "the limits that bind civil authority in peace," Robert Jackson's dissent in this case nevertheless argued that upholding John DeWitt's policy would leave it "lying around like a loaded weapon." Hugo Black's majority opinion focused on the "military urgency of the situation," even though government authority was limited in a companion case, Ex parte Endo. Frank Murphy's dissent denounced "the ugly abyss of racism" into which Executive Order 9066 fell, but the majority did not distinguish this case from the race-related curfews upheld in Hirabayashi v. U.S. FTP, name this 1944 Supreme Court case which upheld the constitutionality of Japanese-American internment camps during World War II.
Answer: Korematsu v. United States
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The interior of this building, which was partially inspired by the remains of a burnt-out Polish village, contains leather-tiled ceilings, heating tubes in the floor, and is furnished with Barcelona chairs and a copy of Nicholas Poussin's Burial of Phocion. Looking out over a pond with a miniature pavilion designed to provide the illusion of distance, its architect later constructed a complementary brick building with round windows next to it as a guest house. Its brick floor and fireplace-cum-bathroom cylinder sit solidly on the ground, which distinguishes it from Mies Van Der Rohe's similar Farnsworth House. Found on its architect's New Canaan estate, for 10 points, name this Philip Johnson residence with see-through walls.
Answer: Glass House
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An affine variety is described by this term if its coordinate ring has a unique minimal prime, while Schur's lemma describes group representations with this property. A Markov chain is said to have this property if there is a nonzero probability of any state transitioning to any other, while a topological space has it if it is not the union of two proper closed subsets. Eisenstein's criterion is an easy to check whether a polynomial has, for 10 points, what property of not being expressible as a product of two non-trivial factors?
Answer: irreducible
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An account of this is provided by diplomat Ernest Satow and others involved escaped on the Coetlogon after fleeing to a star fortress on a nearby island, including future Chief of Staff of the French Army, Jules Brunet. It was preceded by the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce by Townsend Harris, and one document about it called for unification of social classes, the shaking off of old traditions, and the search for knowledge outside of the current state, the Five Charter Oath. Resulting in the Boshin War and the later Satsuma Rebellion, for 10 points, name this relinquishment of power by Yoshinobu in 1868 to the namesake Japanese emperor, ending the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Answer: Meiji Restoration or Meiji Ishin
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One character in this play tells an anecdote about a group of underage boys, who were given free booze at a bar by local gangsters when one of them mispronounced bourbon as "bergin" while attempting to order a drink. That same character comments that one person's father is a mouse because his eyes are red, and causes a panic by firing a gun loaded with parasols as a joke. A story about a car that crashes while swerving to avoid a porcupine leads to the revelation that a child is actually imaginary and the play begins when the new professor at New Carthage University is invited over for drinks. For 10 points, name this play in which Honey and Nick are tormented by George and Martha, written by Edward Albee.
Answer: Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
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An alternate myth says that this figure met his fate as a result of spurning the youth Ameinias, and he is sometimes listed as a child of Endymion and Selene. Pausanias states that his demise was brought on while trying to lure Persephone away from her mother thus ensuring her kidnapping. This son of the river god Cephissus and Liriope was warned by Tiresias to never "know himself," and he eventually died as a result of a prayer to Nemesis, since this man spurned by a nymph whose ability to speak was taken away by Hera. For 10 points, name this figure, who wasted away into a gold and white flower after dying of thirst and self-love, a youth renowned for his beauty who was loved by the nymph Echo.
Answer: Narcissus
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Notably for a eukaryote, it possesses a large fraction of operon-regulated genes. With time, it shows clear aging signs, making it an ideal candidate for longevity studies; it furthermore is useful in nicotine studies, as it experiences withdrawal symptoms. Exactly 131 of its embryonic cells undergo apoptosis, and remaining cells proceed through a rigid pattern of differentiation, so it is employed in developmental studies as well. This handy model organism may be administered RNAi by feeding it transformed bacteria, and luckily, it was the first multi-cellular eukaryote to have its genome sequenced. For 10 points, identify this hermaphroditic nematode popular as a research model.
Answer: Caenorhabditis elegans
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This man received two coronations: one from Pope Honorius III and the other from the Bishop of Gloucester because the contemporary Archbishop of Canterbury supported the future king of France over this man. Allied with Hugh X of Lusignan, he lost the Battle of Taillebourg although he had earlier issued the Dictum of Kenilworth after victory in a conflict that included the battles of Lewes and Evesham. This husband of Eleanor of Provence was advised as a child by his regent, William Marshal, but was later forced by Simon de Montfort to sign the Provisions of Oxford. For 10 points, name this Plantagenet monarch, who survived the Second Baron's War, the son of King John and the father of Edward I.
Answer: Henry III of England
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This artist rails against Suge Knight's killer in his single Who Shot Him, which can be found on his most recent album, Proper Procedures. In his film debut, this Jive Records artist performs with the villainous marching band in Drumline serving as a major obstacle for the heroes. His singles include 2002's Blow Your Whistle, while his second album is titled Still Writing in my Diary, a reference to his first album, Diary of a Sinner. He lists Shameka, Keisha, Tara, and a dozen other female names in his 2004 hit Freak a Leek. In his most famous song, he urges you to take your shirt off and spin it `round your head like a helicopter - if you're from a particular state. For ten points, name this hip-hop artist who tells North Carolina to Raise Up.
Answer: Petey Pablo (accept: Moses Barrett III)
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In one work he asserted that every speech act has dual contents: the propositional side which appears to be rational and the illocutionary side, which stimulates performance, while the title of another work refers to the internal tension law faces when going through the process of secularization. In addition to Theory and Practice and Between Facts and Norms, in his best known work he argued that the "external world," "social interaction," and the "subjective world" are the three domains of activity, asserted that man was relying too heavily on instrumental rationality, and he defined humanity's storehouse of general knowledge and tradition as a "lifeworld." The author of The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, for 10 points, name this philosopher, who wrote Theory of Communicative Action.
Answer: Jurgen Habermas
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This nation's Fedchenko Glacier is the largest non-polar glacier in the world, and cities in its interior inclube Kulob and Gharm. Rivers in the northern part of this country include the Vanj and Zeravshan, and large rivers in the south include the Kofarnihon and the Vakhsh, which contains both the Nurek and Rogun dams, the tallest in the world. This nation is the location of Lake Kara-Kul as well as Mt. Lenin and Ismoil Somoni peak, formerly known as Mt. Communism. It is dominated by the Pamir and Alai mountains, and much of its southern border is the Amu Darya River, which separates it from Afghanistan. For 10 points, name this nation, the smallest in area of the Central Asian steppe countries, whose capital is Dushanbe.
Answer: Tajikstan
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The eventual victor of this battle positioned his army between the Pacolet and Broad Rivers against convention, and he placed Majors McDowell and Cunningham in charge of 150 skirmishers. The triumphant general interspersed inexperienced troops with the militia of John Eager Howard and the cavalry of William Washington. Despite the breakup of Andrew Pickens' militia, the winning army executed a devastating double envelopment to defeat the forces of Banastre Tarleton. For 10 points, Daniel Morgan led the Americans to victory in what January 17,1781 battle fought in South Carolina?
Answer: Battle of Cowpens
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This composer leaves the instruction "strike each note sharply" for the opening four note "row" that introduces the theme in the first of his twenty Piano Variations, while his Clarinet Concertowas commissioned by Benny Goodman. He wrote a work in which the trombones depict a fight between two drunks, and subsequently, the title character knifes his mother's murderer but is ultimately killed by Pat Garrett. The symphonic version of one of his most famous works omits the section "Ranch House Party," though it retains "Hoedown", while his best known ballet uses the tune of the Shaker hymn "Simple Gifts," for 10 points, identify this American composer of Rodeoand Appalachian Spring.
Answer: Aaron Copland
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A sacred mountain named after him in modern-day Tlaxcala was the site of rites during the months of Atlcaualo and Tozoztontli, where children would be sacrificed to him, and during Tepeihiutl, when idols made of amaranth paste were killed and devoured, and toads guard cooking pots in the cave of the winds, in the north part of the place he ruled as Ninth Lord of the Night. Long ago, he had become the third sun, but his first wife, the flower goddess Xochiquetzal, was kidnapped and in his grief he denied the earth rain, then destroyed it with fire. The father of the moon god Tecciztecatl, he was said to cause leprosy, and his part of the afterlife held those who drowned, the fourth layer. Depicted in Aztec codices as having bulbous eyes and long fangs, for 10 points, name this husband of Chalchiuhtlicue and master of lightning and hurricanes, the Aztec rain god.
Answer: Tlaloc
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In this novel one secluded, elderly couple improbably opens up the popular "BigBurger Restaurant." The teacher at the lycee, Father Huismans, is found dead in a pool of water hyacinths with his decapitated head on a pike, while the protagonist fulfills a promise to the magician Zabeth by raising her son and sending him to school at the Domain. Upon his return to the main town, the protagonist is betrayed by Metty and imprisoned for ivory smuggling, but he is freed by his former ward Ferdinand, who admits he is disheartened with the "New Africa" of Big Man. For 10 points, name this novel in which Salim runs a shop at the title location written by V. S. Naipaul.
Answer: A Bend in the River
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Prior to this event, the MEFESZ was formed after the dissolution of the DISZ and during it, Joseph Dudas formed a revolutionary group in response to the rejection of the Sixteen Points by Erno Gero. It began near a statue of Joseph Bem, a Polish general, since it was inspired by the reforms of Wladyslaw Gomulka and was brutally suppressed by Ivan Konev. One man's future career was heavily influenced by the fact that he witnessed this event from the local embassy, Yuri Andropov, while Zhukov and Khruschev warned against intervention. Janos Kadar replaced Imre Nagy after the Warsaw Pact nations invaded in, for 10 points, which 1956 event that began in Budapest?
Answer: Hungarian Revolution of 1956 [accept equivalence for "revolution"]
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In one of this artist's works, a blond child stands against a wooden fence next to the title plants with white flowers, and another features an open cupboard and a barking white dog in the foreground, while a third work depicts her husband "on the Isle of Wight." In addition to Child Among Staked Roses and In the Dining Room, this artist received lessons from Camille Corot, who passed on his plein air style. Another work shows a woman in blue unfolding white sheets, while another sees a woman in black staring intently at a child under a pink cloth. For 10 points, name this Impressionist of such works as Peasant Hanging Out the Washing and The Cradle, the grand-niece of Fragonard and sister-in-law to Eduoard Manet.
Answer: Berthe Morisot
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Their relative reactivity is analyzed in the constant selectivity relationship, called in some sources the Richie equation, while more recently they have been modeled with the Mayr-Patz equation. A carbonyl carbon can be made to act as one through the formation of a thioacetal and exposure to an acid, reactivity known as umpolung, and an ambident one is the cause of the mix of products resulting from the Kolbe nitrile synthesis, while a more traditional example participates in the Williamson ether synthesis. Their strength depends on factors like polarizability, because, like bases, their characteristic behavior includes the donation of an electron pair. Azide and methoxide act as, for 10 points, what reagents that donate their electrons to form a bond with a Lewis acid?
Answer: nucleophiles [accept word forms]
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Peter Straughan wrote a play about this man's ghost, which can also be used as a table. One of his short works sees the title character announce that he wishes he were a swan, after earlier killing his four sons with a wooden sword. In addition to Buster Keaton Goes for a Stroll, his first play centered on a cockroach who falls in love with another insect. In one of his works Adela is accused of trying to steal Pepe the Roman away from their sister Angustias, and in another play the Bridegroom is murdered by his betrothed's old lover, Leonardo Felix. For 10 points, name this author, who wrote The Butterfly's Evil Spell, Blood Wedding, and The House of Bernarda Alba.
Answer: Federico Garcia Lorca
2008 TParty Bonuses by Editors 2
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They allow the passage of electric current without any energy loss. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these materials often used to make magnets in particle accelerators.
Answer: superconductors
[10] In this theory, the existence of low temperature superconductors is explained by the pairing of electrons via the electron-phonon interaction.
Answer: BCS theory
[10] In this effect, current flows between two superconductors separated by a thin insulator; the corresponding junction has been used to make a quantum qubit.
Answer: Josephson effect
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Eventually, the main character realizes that he, like the title character and Frau Eva, "bear the mark." For 10 points each;,
[10] The Gnostic god Abraxas is championed while the Catholic god is called insufficient by the title character, the classmate of Emil Sinclair, in this Hesse novel.
Answer: Demian
[10] Just as Sinclair bears the mark, H. H. finds himself part of a sect called the League, in this Hesse novel. It brings back the character of Vasudeva from Siddhartha.
Answer: Journey to the East(accept Die Morgenlandfahrt)
[10] In this Hesse novel, Hans Giebenrath makes a friend at a really hardcore school. That friend knows how to relax, but he relaxes a bit too much and gets expelled. When Hans returns home for his mental health, he realizes he doesn't have real-world skills and becomes a blacksmith's apprentice.
Answer: Beneath the Wheel(accept Unterm Rad)
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This man built his mortuary temple in Qurna and he captured the cities of Yenoam and Beth-Shan in Canaan. For 10 points each;,
[10] Name this second Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt who ruled for eleven years before the regency of his son.
Answer: Seti I [or Menmaatre]
[10] This son of Seti concluded a peace with Hattusili III after defeating Muwatalli II and the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh.
Answer: Ramses the Great [or Ramses the II; or Ozymandias]
[10] This wife of Seti was the mother of Hentumire, Tia and Ramses the Great.
Answer: Mut-Tuya
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Answer these questions about game theory, for 10 points each.,
[10] This central concept of game theory describes a situation in which no player in a game has an incentive to unilaterally deviate from his current strategy.
Answer: Nash equilibrium
[10] In this type of game, players have incomplete information about the characteristics of other players, but modify their priors throughout the game.
Answer: Bayesian game
[10] Harsanyi and Reinhard Selten also defined this characteristic, which a Nash equilibrium has if it has the largest basin of attraction. It insures players against mutations and irrational opponents.
Answer: risk dominance [accept word forms]
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Answer some questions about pressure for 10 points each.,
[10] The potential version of this quantity for a solution is the maximum one that it could develop if it were separated from distilled water by a semipermeable membrane.
Answer: osmotic pressure
[10] This dude, also known for a number that relates moles of solute in solution to moles of solid solute, suggested that the osmotic pressure of a solute equals the pressure it would exert as an ideal gas occupying the same volume as the solution does.
Answer: Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
[10] van 't Hoff's approximation to a solution's osmotic pressure isn't that great. One exception to it is this effect, wherein charged particles too large to osmose attract charged particles from across the membrane.
Answer: Gibbs-Donnan effect
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Name these Eastern European rivers, for 10 points each.,
[10] This Russian river is connected to the Don River via a canal, and empties into the Caspian Sea at Astrakhan. It is Europe's longest.
Answer: Volga River
[10] Reservoirs along this waterway include the Kremenchuk, Kakhovka, and Kaniv, and it flows through the city of Kiev on its way to the Black Sea.
Answer: Dneiper River
[10] This river is the site of the Costesti-Stinca dam, and the largest city on its banks is Chernivtsi. It forms the entire border between Romania and Moldova.
Answer: Prut River
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Before Prince Fielder, jokes about overweight Milwaukee Brewer players generally made fun of this guy. FTPE,,
[10] Name this Panamanian left fielder nicknamed "el Caballo" who is now with the Houston Astros, who signed him before the 2007 season.
Answer: Carlos Lee
[10] Before the 2005, the White Sox traded Carlos Lee to the Brewers in exchange for this speedy outfielder, who had led the Brewers in stolen bases. After the 2005 World Series, he married a Playboy Playmate and has since been ineffective due to repeated groin muscle injuries.
Answer: Scott Podsednik
[10] Carlos Lee's teammates on the Houston Astros include this short-stop, who was previously the main attraction at Camden Yards as a member of the Baltimore Orioles.
Answer: Miguel Tejada
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It came about as a result of Oeneus' refusal to sacrifice to Artemis during a festival in Aetolia. For 10 points each;,
[10] Name this event which saw the participation of such figure as Castor and Pollux, Peleus, and Ancaeus.
Answer: Calydonian Boar Hunt
[10] This man was saved from certain death by pole-vaulting into a tree to escape the boar. This son of Neleus would later be known for being one of the Greek leaders at Troy.
Answer: Nestor
[10] Meleager's decision to award the boar's hide to Atalanta angered Meleager's uncles, and Meleagar slew them for their defiance, ultimately leading to his death. Name either of them.
Answer: Toxeus or Plexippus
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Cherubs can be seen in the background on the left, while the right features a statue of Venus among the trees. For 10 points each;,
[10] Name this painting featuring fancily-dressed lovers on the titular island, which invented the genre of "fetes galantes" and was followed by a similar Pilgrimage.
Answer: The Embarkation to Cythera
[10] This Rococo painter of Do You Want To Succeed With Women? was admitted to the Academy on the basis of his Embarkation to Cythera.
Answer: Jean-Antoine Watteau
[10] Men are packing away a portrait of Louis XIV among other works in this Watteau painting in which the viewer looks through the title orifice into an art gallery.
Answer: Gersaint's Window (accept equivalents words for window like shop-sign; accept L'Enseigne de Gersaint)
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Its eponymous "era" ended with West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish in 1937, and it was an example of the Supreme Court's trend of eliminating economic regulations in the workplace. For 10 points each;,
[10] Name this 1905 case, with a famous dissent by Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., where the court decided 5-4 to strike down a law that limited work hours for bakers in New York State.
Answer: Lochner v. New York
[10] In this 1918 case of the "Lochner Era," Justice William R. Day delivered the majority opinion, stating that Congress had no power to regulate labor laws, and thus voiding the Keating-Owen Act
Answer: Hammer v. Dagenhart
[10] In this 1923 case of the Taft court, the Supreme Court struck down a law that required a minimum wage for women working in the District of Columbia.
Answer: Adkins v. Children's Hospital [accept either]
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This poem comments that "generations have trod, have trod, have trod" and argues that the title phenomenon, "will flame out, like shining from shook foil." For 10 points each;,
[10] Name this poem, which begins by asserting that "the World is charged" with the titular phenomenon.
Answer: "God's Grandeur"
[10] This poet who discussed "rose-moles all in a stipple upon the trout that swim" in his poem "Pied Beauty" wrote the "God's Grandeur."
Answer: Gerard Manley Hopkins
[10] The speaker asserts that "no matter, child, the name / Sorrow's springs are the same" in this Hopkins poem that begins by asking "Margaret are you grieving / Over Goldengrove unleaving?"
Answer: "Spring and Fall"
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One of these guards the holy herbal liquid Omeiro, and another one named Oba tries to win the love of her husband by offering him her ear as a meal, but she is rejected. For 10 points each;,
[10] Ozain and Shanago are examples of these deities whose other members include Eleda and Olorun.
Answer: Orishas
[10] Name that tradition, a syncretic fusion of Catholic saint worship with various African traditions. This faith holds that these African deities, themselves fleeing the inquisition, took the form of various saints.
Answer: Santeria
[10] Santeria is similar to this Brazilian religion, which also worships Orishas like Olorun.
Answer: Candomble [or Macumba; or Batuque]
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Identify the following architectural ornaments that can be found on the Acropolis, for 10 points each.,
[10] The triangular area containing sculpture above the main entrance to the Parthenon is an example of this. Most of the statues from this are in the British Museum.
Answer: Pediment
[10] In general, statues supporting a roof or other architectural structure are known as these. The Erechtheum is famous for its examples of them.
Answer: Caryatid
[10] In Doric friezes, these appear between metopes and consist of several vertical rectangles in relief alternating with carved-out rectangles. It is thought that they imitate the boards used to build the temple.
Answer: Triglyph
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Born in Baetica, he fought some Jews under Vespasian and put down a revolt in Upper Germany against Domitian. For 10 points each;,
[10] Identify this Roman emperor, husband of Pompeia Plotina and cousin of Hadrian.
Answer: Trajan [accept Caesar Divi Nervae Filius Nerva Traianus Optimus Augustus, Marcus Ulpius Traianus or Caesar Nerva Traianus Germanicus]
[10] Trajan sent this man to governor Bithynia-Pontus, who wrote asking for advice on how to deal with the pesky Christians.
Answer: Pliny the Younger [accept Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus]
[10] Trajan's fights against this region included a campaign to reinstate a deposed king of Armenia and the annexation of upper Mesopotamia shortly before capturing Ctesiphon.
Answer: Parthians
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Characters include the protagonist's work-hand Jacobus, the shopkeeper Bismillah, and the protagonist's mistress, Antonia. For 10 points each;,
[10] The industrialist Mehring is haunted by an unnamed corpse found on his farm in what novel?
Answer: The Conservationist
[10] This author wrote of Rosa and her communist father Lionel in Burger's Daughter as well as The Late Bourgeois World and Occasion for Loving.
Answer: Nadine Gordimer
[10] Daniel steals Bamford's gun and Maureen Smales ultimately leaves her husband in this Nadine Gordimer novel named for the Smales' family servant.
Answer: July's People
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For this sort of gene, only homozygous mutations predispose the organism to cancer. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this class of genes that adheres to the two-hit hypothesis, which stipulates that if only one allele is defective, the other still produces sufficient functional protein.
Answer: tumor suppressor
[10] If it detects damaged DNA, this "guardian of the genome" halts the cell cycle in G1 by blocking CDK2 activity and may initiate apoptosis.
Answer: p53
[10] A double mutation of this gene may lead to cancer of the eye, as it prevents defective cells from entering S phase by inhibiting E2F.
Answer: Rb [or retinoblastoma gene]
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He is known for editing works by fellow Russian composers, such as Mussorgsky's Boris Godunovand Cesar Cui's William Ratliffe. For 10 points each;,
[10] Name this composer known for The Snow Maiden and Mozart and Salieri.
Answer: Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
[10] Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Glazunov completed this Alexander Borodin opera set in the city of Putivi, which includes the famous "Polovetsian Dances".
Answer: Prince Igor
[10] In this Rimsky-Korsakov opera, the protagonist is in love with the title character, Princess Olga, who herself is betrothed to a boyar, a tenor named Nikita Matuta.
Answer: The Maid of Pskov
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This man was asked would it take to let someone club him on the head. He replied all he needed was a helmet. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this lantern-carrying philosopher, who met with Alexander the Great.
Answer: Diogenes of Sinope
[10] This other pre-Socratic apparently wrote the tracts "On Wrestling," and "On Ambition," in addition to stating "Man is the Measure of All Things."
Answer: Protagoras
[10] Known as the second founder of Stoicism, this student of Cleanthes legendarily got a donkey drunk and died of laughter while watching it fumble.
Answer: Chrysippus
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The main character teaches a mute girl to speak her word, "Bird" and later has a smile described as a "weary snake". For 10 points each;,
[10] Name this story in which Mrs. Crater marries her mute daughter Lucynell to the stranger Tom Shirtletts, who later abandons Lucynell at a diner after stealing Mrs. Crater's car.
Answer: "The Life You Save May Be Your Own"
[10] Flannery O'Connor also wrote this story in which "The Misfit" murders Grandmother and her family after Bailey takes a wrong turn.
Answer: "A Good Man is Hard to Find"
[10] The acne-beset Mary Grace throws a book at the judgmental Ruby Turpin in a doctor's waiting room in this story. Ruby goes home to see a vision of the poor black workers she belittles ascending into heaven.
Answer: "Revelation"
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They are the most energetic sources of radiation in the universe. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these electromagnetic events in which a certain type of radiation is emitted for a short period of time from deep space.
Answer: gamma ray burst
[10] One explanation for the formation of short duration gamma ray bursts is the collision of a binary pair of these.
Answer: neutron star
[10] Long duration gamma ray bursts are thought to result from this type of supernova in which the resulting black hole shoots out matter from two jets along its rotational axis.
Answer: collapsar [accept hypernova]
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The creation of this entity required ignoring a will that would have given control of the city to King Alfonso V of Aragon. For 10 points each;,
[10] Name this short-lived republic that ruled Milan from 1447-1450.
Answer: Golden Ambrosian Republic[accept Golden Republic of St. Ambroseor Aurea Repubblica Ambrosiana; prompt on Ambrosian Republic]
[10] One member of this family, Francesco I, eventually overthrew the Ambrosian Republic and declared himself Duke of Milan. His successors included Ludovico the Moor.
Answer: SforzaFamily
[10] Milan was conquered by the Habsburgs after this super-famous 1525 battle, where they defeated Francis I of France.
Answer: Battle of Pavia

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