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View Packets Tournament Editor
2007 Penn Bowl Tossups by JHU A
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This Greek god's sons, who are presumably by his wife, the Charity Pasithea, travel from the west of Ocean through gates made of either horn or ivory, depending on whether they intend to tell the truth or to deceive. Those sons are known as the Oneiroi and include Icelus, Phobetor, and Pnathasos. Often seen naked with wings growing from his head, this son of Erebus and Nyx allowed Endymion to watch Selene for the entire day and night, and is the twin brother of the death-god Thanatos. For 10 points, name this father of Morpheus and god of sleep.
Answer: Hypnos
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He was expelled from a Georgia seat in the House of Representatives in 1792; earlier in that state, he killed the Creek chief Emistesigo during a successful campaign to capture Savannah. He also took Stony Point in the Revolution and later commanded troops which repelled an attack on Fort Recovery. In a clash with the Northwest Confederation near the Maumee River, his forces killed Bluejacket to reverse the defeat of Arthur St. Clair, thus acquiring land extending to the Cuyahoga and Lake Erie in an agreement with Little Turtle. For 10 points, name this general whose victory at Fallen Timbers secured the Treaty of Greenville.
Answer: "Mad" Anthony Wayne
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Minor characters in this work include the protagonist ex-teacher and amputee whose gift of boots eventually leads to the death of another character and the 40 year-old Stanislaus Katczinsky. A game of cards is combined with putting a number of wooden portable latrines in a circle in this work, in which the protagonist and his friends also gang up and beat their ex-teacher Corporal Himmelstoss. The protagonist passes the time killing lice and roasting geese with older draftees like Tjaden and Detering, while younger colleagues include Kropp and Kemmerich. The stabbing of a French soldier eventually breaks down Paul BaŁmer in, FTP, what novel by Erich Maria Remarque?
Answer: All Quiet on the Western Front or Im Westen nichts Neues
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A collection of them is called an androecium, and most flowers have six of them whorled around the carpel (which in orchids they are fused with) inside a structure known as the perianth, composed of the petals and sepals. Individually, they consist of long, thin stalks known as filaments, and bulbous, bi-lobed heads known as anthers. Each anther contains structures called microsporangia which produce haploid spores, more commonly known as pollen, which it can release either all along its length or through pores. For ten points, name this reproductive organ of the flower, the male counterpart of the pistil.
Answer: Stamen
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Verse one of Psalm 2 lends itself to the title of this author's only unfinished work, Why Do the Heathen Rage? A woman's Docetism thwarts her husband's attempt to please her by getting a tattoo of a Byzantine cross in one of this author's stories, while a novel concerns a 14 year old would-be prophet who is raped after baptizing Bishop Rayber. Better known works include a novel about Hazel Motes and a story in which a psychotic killer, the Misfit, murders Bailey's family, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find." FTP name this author of "Everything that Rises Must Converge," and a story in which a charlatan bible salesman steals Hulga Hopewell's wooden leg, "Good Country People."
Answer: Flannery O'Connor
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Important texts for this group include the Record of Talks on the Law and the Poisonous Stamens and Pistils of Thorns, written by Hakuin. Its members created chinzo portraits and bokuseki calligraphy, and it included a late denomination that believed in the chanting called nembutsu. The goal in this sect is to achieve satori, whether through sitting, as in the Soto group, or verbal methods, as in Rinzai. Brought to China by Bodhidharma and Japan by Dogen, it makes use of statements which may equate the Buddha with three pounds of flax, known as koans. For 10 points, name this anti-rational form of Buddhism.
Answer: Zen Buddhism [accept Rinzai Zen Buddhism before "late denomination" is read; prompt on Mahayana Buddhism before "satori" is read]
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Directive B10.81is known as the eponymous law of this man, who is unable to pronounce the words "bravo," "champagne," or "guacamole." As described in his "Big Book of War," his achievements include carpet bombing Eden 7 and defeating the pacifists of the Gandhi nebula. He was disgraced after destroying the headquarters of the Democratic Order of Planets due to his distrust of the Neutral Planet, via his ship, the Nimbus, which he commands through first officer Kif Kroker. For 10 points, name this sufferer of a sexy learning disability and onetime lover of Leela, an incompetent twenty-five star general on Futurama.
Answer: General Major Webelo Zapp Brannigan [accept Brannigan]
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Toward the end of this work the protagonist finds his wife's orphan cousin working as a starving prostitute. He attacks a bartender after the bartender tries to cheat him out of 100 dollars, and in jail he meets Jack Duane, a safe-cracker. The protagonist's father dies from consumption developed due to the cold, moist room in which he worked, and his son of the same name, Antanas, drowns in the street. His wife's stepmother Elzbieta lies about the age of her son Stanislovas at the stockyards, and Ona sells herself to Connor to make ends meet. Socialism eventually provides salvation for Jurgus Rudkis in, FTP, what muckraking novel by Upton Sinclair?
Answer: The Jungle
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Its area is three times that of its generating shape, and its length is four times that of the aforementioned shape's diameter. Christiaan Huygens used its isochronous properties, namely that a particle on it will descend it constant time regardless of its starting point) to fashion guides for the first pendulum clock that guaranteed a regular swing for any pendulum height, and these properties led to its proposal by Bernoulli of its inverse being the brachistochrone or curve of fastest descent. The solution to the differential equation (y')^2 = (2r-y)/y, its parametrization is x= r(t-sint) and y= r(1-cos t). For ten points, name this curve generated by a point on a rolling circle.
Answer: cycloid
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Operas by this man include The Uncle from Boston and The Marriage of Camacho, and most of the librettos for his operas are by Dr. Johann Ludwig Casper. His first royal commission was to create incidental music to the choruses from Sophocles' Antigone. He wrote overtures to The Pretty Melusine and Ruy Blas, while his Religious works include the oratorios Elijah and St. Paul. The second movement of his third symphony evokes folk music from the titular place, while a saltarello and a tarantella appear in the final movement of his Italian Symphony. FTP name this composer, also known for his Hebrides Overture and incidental music to A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Answer: Felix Mendelssohn
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The word "serendipity" originated from a short work by this man based on King Bahram V about three unusually fortunate Sri Lankan princes. His poetic achievements include an epilogue to Nicholas Rowe's Tamerlane and an epistle in verse for Lady Caroline Fox entitled The Beauties. Adeliza falls in love with her estranged birth father, Edmund, who had her unknowingly with his mother, the Countess of Narbonne, in his only drama, The Mysterious Mother, but he is better known for a novel in which Theodore is imprisoned after Conrad is crushed by a giant helmet, leaving Isabella to be courted by Manfred in an Italian city. FTP name this author of The Castle of Otranto.
Answer: Horace Walpole
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Contrary to common perception, it did not require all local variables to be statically allocated, although variables are implicitly assigned to either INTEGER OR REAL status, and the IMPLICIT NONE keyword is commonly used to force the programmer to explicitly type them. Pointers in the 1990 standard are designed specifically for matrix targets, and are always dereferenced, and arrays are famously handled directly without the need for loop control structures. Before 1977, it extensively used preprecessors in order to make the language more programmer-friendly. Aging but still popular for numerically intensive computing, for ten points, name this imperative programming language, whose name comes from a shortening of Formula Translating System.
Answer: FORTRAN
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Premier Robert Bond solved the "French shore problem" afflicting this entity in the 1880s. It was the only dominion prohibited by the Statute of Westminister from joining the League of Nations, and had come under British control due to the 1580s expedition of Humphrey Gilbert. Its political groups included the People's Party and Fishermen's Protective Union, both of which were opposed by Joseph Smallwood, who became its first provincial governor after a long battle for union with Canada. For 10 points, name this formerly politically distinct province, comprised of a large island and the mainland of Labrador.
Answer: Newfoundland and Labrador
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The right side of this work features an image of a woman clad in black and gold playing the harp before other female musicians. A man clad only in a red toga-robe walks toward a cottage in the foreground of the bottom right, which features more lavish foliage than the other images. A company of flag-bearing men ride from the bottom left toward the central scene, which features the sun shining down on a red bed being worshipped by four women clad in white. Alternately called Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, it features the annunciation on the outer panels. Residing in St. Bavo cathedral in its namesake city, this is, FTP, what altarpiece by Hubert and Jan van Eyck?
Answer: Ghent Altarpiece.
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The Daya Bay experiment in Hong Kong due to start in 2007 is intended to investigate the theta-1-3 `mixing angle' of their oscillation, by indirectly measuring the disappearance of the antimatter counterpart. Evidence of `sterile' ones predicted by the seesaw mechanism which only interact via gravity has caused controversy, and the seeming gap of those coming from the sun was explained when their oscillation between different flavor states was detected. For ten points, name these subatomic particles coming in electron, tau, and muon flavors, and thought to not have mass until recently.
Answer: neutrino
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A set of possessions in this work is bought by the pastor Tribulation Wholesome and his partner, who believe that they are helping to care for a group of orphans. Another character tries to see the Queen of Fairy while blindfolded, gagged, and stuffed in a water closet, having lost most of his money gambling. Pertinax Surly, posing as a Spanish Don, encounters Dame Pliant, who along with her brother Kastril has come to see the title character. Surly is a friend of Sir Epicure Mammon, who thinks Dol Common is a mad aristocrat thanks to the machinations of Face. Lovewit's house is used by Subtle to con the local citizenry in, FTP, what play by Ben Jonson?
Answer: The Alchemist
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Throughout their existence, a debate raged over the consequences of employing the "link system" on them. Politically favored ones had first use of MTS loans, and their output was the subject of the article "Dizzy from Success," which slowed the pace of their formation. Divided based on size and the source of managers into kolkhoz and sovkhoz, the process of forming them led to the Ukrainian genocide and the "liquidation of the kulaks." For 10 points, name these organizations, the basic structure of agricultural production in the Soviet Union.
Answer: collective farms
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This work was composed after its composer abandoned an opera based on Hans Christian Andersen's The Emperor and the Nightingale. Early moments in this work include an appearance of thirteen maidens who play a game with golden apples and dance a "round dance." The first tableau ends with "profound darkness," while the second, far shorter tableau includes the revival of the Petrified Knights. The title character was a breakout role for Tamara Karsavina, and that character meets Ivan in the garden of Kaschei the Immortal, whose lackeys later participate in the "infernal dance." FTP name this ballet about a mythical flaming creature by Igor Stravinsky.
Answer: The Firebird or Zar-ptica or L'Oiseau de feu
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He created the NF system of set theory and, with Hilary Putnam, made an "indispensability argument" for the reality of mathematical entities. He advocated looking to the limits of a formal language in order to determine the "ontological commitments" of any statement in that language in his The Ways of Paradox and Ontological Relativity, and he identified logical reductionism and the analytic/synthetic distinction as the titular fallacies of another work. For 10 points, name this American analytic philosopher, the author of Word and Object and "Two Dogmas of Empiricism."
Answer: Willard Van Orman Quine [do not accept Willard Van Orman Quince]
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Native groups here include the YotaYota, Kurnai, and Kulin , and one area of this place, bounded on the north by the Avoca river, features the Den of Nargun and Ninety-Mile Beach, accessible from Bairnsdale. It is divided by Port Phillip Bay into a basalt plain and the plains of Gippsland, and minor urban destinations here include Melton and Mildura, while brown coal is mined in the Latrobe Valley here. Its current incarnation was begun when John Pascoe Fawkner landed on the banks of the Yarra River. FTP, name this state in southeastern Australia with capital at Melbourne, named for a 19th century Empress of India.
Answer: Victoria
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TB. This practice was at issue in the abortive 1955 case of Naim v. Naim, in which a state ignored a Supreme Court order to gather more evidence. The California case of Perez v. Sharp found Fourteenth Amendment protection for this practice in 1948, drawing on a broader federal precedent in Meyer v. Nebraska. Bans on it were upheld in 1883's Pace v. Alabama if the two people involved received the same penalty, but after a Virginia judge upheld a ban on this practice by appealing to the geographic intent of God, the Supreme Court finally protected it in 1967. For 10 points, name this practice protected in Loving v. Virginia.
Answer: interracial marriage [accept miscegenation or other exact equivalents]
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TB. Due to its propensity to clear the renal system in three to four hours, patients' urine was often collected in early treatment protocols to reuse and recover it. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin famously elucidated its structure in the early 1940s, enabling its mass production. The name refers to a group of Beta-lactam antibiotics that share the basic Penam skeleton, with the formula R-C9H11N2O4S, such as amoxicillin, ampicillin, flucloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and methicillin. It also refers to a specific member in its namesake group that is used to treat Gram-positive bacterial infections. For ten points, name this compound whose discovery was attributed to Alexander Fleming.
Answer: Penicillin
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TB. The books The Forged Classics and The Great Commonwealth opposed the rule of this person, who was accused of squandering the naval budget on the construction of a useless marble ship. That occurred around the time that this ruler's government was turning a skeptical eye to the Hundred Days of Reform and the Self-Strengthening Movement. One of the two other people who came to power in a coup by Prince Gong, this former consort of the Xianfeng emperor lost power after deciding to back the Boxers. For 10 points, name this mother of the Tongzhi emperor and effective ruler near the end of the Qing dynasty.
Answer: Cixi [or Tzuhsi; or Xiaoqin; or Xianhuanghou; or the Empress Dowager; or the Dowager Empress]
 
2007 Penn Bowl Bonuses by JHU A
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She often collaborated with Raoul Pugno on her own works, including La Sirene, FTPE:,
[10] Name this composer of Les Heures Claires and La Ville Morte, better known as a guide and teacher to countless composers in the early 20th century.
Answer: Nadia Boulanger
[10] Boulanger had all her students memorize books one and two of this Bach composition composed of a series of preludes and fugues.
Answer: The Well-Tempered Clavier
[10] One of Boulanger's more prominent students was this composer who collaborated with Gertrude Stein on what the Grove Dictionary of Opera claims is the "greatest opera of the 20th century," The Mother of Us All, along with Four Saints in Three Acts.
Answer: Virgil Thomson
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Name the present-day countries where these revolutions occurred, for 10 points each.,
[10] Worried that the Centre Union and National Radical Union's handling of the Aspida conspiracy signaled a possible move to the left, a group of military officers known as the "Colonels" seized power and ruled in this country from 1967 to 1974.
Answer: Greece [or the Hellenic Republic; or Elliniki Dhimokratia; or Ellas; or Ellada]
[10] The 1932 "Promoters Revolution" against Rama IX created constitutional monarchy in this country, which has seen an average of one military coup every four years since, including one in 2006.
Answer: Kingdom of Thailand [or Ratcha Anachak Thai; or Prathet Thai]
[10] In 2003, the Soviet-vintage govenrment of Eduard Shevardnadze was taken down by the Rose Revolution, led by Mikhail Saakashvili's National Movement party, in this country.
Answer: Georgia [or Sakartvelo]
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For 10 points each, name these situations in microeconomics.,
[10] This problem occurs when bidders exceed an item's market value in an auction.
Answer: winner's curse
[10] This theorem states that externalities can be eliminated when property rights are well-defined and transaction costs are low.
Answer: Coase theorem
[10] This condition occurs when there is no alternative allocation which can improve one person without diminishing another.
Answer: Pareto efficiency
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Name these T.S. Eliot works, FTPE:,
[10] Composed of parent and child nodes, each one has a root node at its head. Red/Black and B are special types.
Answer:
[10] In this last in first out structure, elements are pushed in and popped out
Answer: "The Hollow Men"
[10] This first in first out structure is commonly used by operating systems to control application scheduling and incoming requests.
Answer: "The Waste Land"
[10] The source of the lines "This is the way the world ends/Not with a bang, but a whimper," this Eliot poem begins with the Conradian epigraph "Mistah Kurtz‚ÄĒhe dead."
Answer: The Sacred Wood
[10] Beginning with "The Burial of the Dead" and concluding with a quote from the Upanishads in "What the Thunder Said," this long poem is Eliot's best-known work.
Answer:
[10] The first two essays in this collection examine "perfect" and "imperfect" critics, while later essays individually examine Swinburne, Blake, and Dante.
Answer:
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They hung out in the Vrindavana forest and danced the rasa. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this group of hundreds of female cow-tenders whose previous worship of Durga was diverted upon seeing a certain avatar of Vishnu.
Answer: Gopis
[10] The Gopis are all in love with this guy, who Vishnu became in order to defeat Masna, and who received the epithet "Gopinath" or "lord of cow-herders" for his involvement with the Gopis. He is also the consort of Radha and Rukmini and the narrator of the Bhagavad-Gita.
Answer: Krishna [or Kistna; or Kristna; or Krsna]
[10] Among Krishna's other exploits was being killed by an arrow to the heel fired by this hunter, who mistook Krishna for a deer.
Answer: Jaras
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Name these Jane Austen novels from characters, for ten points each.,
[10] Elizabeth Bennet, Fitzwilliam Darcy.
Answer: Pride and Prejudice
[10] Elinor Dashwood, Edward Ferrars.
Answer: Sense and Sensibility
[10] Anne Elliot, Captain Frederick Wentworth.
Answer: Persuasion
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A famous one includes a stuffed angora goat, a tire, a police barrier, paint, a tennis ball, and the heel of a shoe, FTPE:,
[10] Name this type of artwork that derives its name from the joining together of unrelated objects.
Answer: Combine
[10] The best-known creator of Combines, including the one described above, Monogram.
Answer: Robert Rauschenberg
[10] In one of Rauschenberg's paintings, he "erased" this artist of the Woman series.
Answer: Willem De Kooning
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Answer the following about pancreatic hormones, for ten points each.,
[10] Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus require regular injections of this hormone.
Answer: Insulin
[10] Insulin is produced by these clusters of pancreatic endocrine cells.
Answer: Islets of Langerhans
[10] Delta cells within the islets of Langerhans are known to produce this hormone, which inhibits the release of insulin and slows digestive activity.
Answer: Somatostatin
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Name these works of August Strindberg, FTPE:,
[10] The milkmaid tells Arkenholz, the only character who can see her, that Hummel had a hand in her death in this play. Eventually, the Mummy tells everyone that it was Hummel who fathered "the girl," which leads to his death.
Answer: The Ghost Sonata or Spoksonaten
[10] In this novel, the would-be poet Arvid Falk has a nervous breakdown after being disillusioned by the journalism industry. His brother Charles gets involved with the corrupt Triton insurance company, which eventually falls apart.
Answer: The Red Room or Roda Rummet
[10] The fiancée of this play's title character leaves her after an incident with a horsewhip, which leads her to make love to the valet Jean. At the end of the play she leaves the room with her lover's razor, probably suicidal.
Answer: Miss Julie or Fröken Julie
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Name these suffragists, for 10 points each.,
[10] This editor of The Suffragist met Alice Paul in a British prison and returned to the U.S. with Paul, where the pair jointly led the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage. She was later jailed for chalking slogans on the D.C. sidewalks.
Answer: Lucy Burns
[10] This proponent of "Pantarchy" was the 1872 presidential candidate of the Equal Rights Party and exposed the indiscretions of Henry Ward Beecher.
Answer: Victoria Claflin Woodhull Blood [accept Victoria Claflin]
[10] This author of Why Wars Must Cease succeeded Susan B. Anthony as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and formulated the "Winning Plan" to secure the Nineteenth Amendment. She then transformed NAWSA into the League of Women Voters.
Answer: Carrie Chapman Lane Catt
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Name these Pacific islands from clues, for ten points each.,
[10] These islands with capital Saipan are a commonwealth territory of the United States. They are named after the Earth's deepest ocean trench which borders them on the east.
Answer: Mariana Islands
[10] This group of islands contains Guadalcanal and is named after an Old Testament biblical figure.
Answer: Solomon Islands
[10] This tiny territory of New Zealand is comprised of three coral atolls with a total area of 12 km2. A small part of its income comes from selling internet domain names ending in .tk.
Answer: Tokelau
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Name these leaders of Brazil, for 10 points each.,
[10] This son of John VI declared himself the first emperor of independent Brazil before fleeing back to Portugal.
Answer: Dom Pedro I of Brazil [ or Pedro IV of Portugal; prompt on Pedro]
[10] As president from 1930 to 1945 and 1951 to 1954, this Brazilian "Father of the Poor" established the autocratic Estado Novo.
Answer: Get√ļlio Dorneles Vargas
[10] This army officer participated in the coup against Jo√£o Goulart in 1964. Following the brief puppet government of Ranieri Mazzilli, this man became president, remaining so until 1967. His regime passed the Institutional Acts, which allowed a succession of military men to rule by decree until 1985.
Answer: Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco
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FTP each, Identify these terms from Physical Chemistry:,
[10] Its units are given as dynes per centimeter and surfactants are used to decrease it. It can be thought of as the effort by molecules on the liquid boundary to minimize their energy.
Answer: Surface tension
[10] It explains why mercury will form a convex meniscus in a glass cylinder while water forms a concave one.
Answer: capillary action
[10] It is defined as the resistance of a fluid to deformation by a shear stress and its SI units are Pascal times seconds:
Answer: viscosity
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Minor operas by this man include Ezio and Tigrane, FTPE:,
[10] Name this composer of an opera about the wife of Admetus, Alceste.
Answer: Christoph Willibald von Gluck
[10] Gluck composed a pair of operas based on plays about this character "at Aulis" and "Among the Taurians."
Answer: Iphigenia or Iphigene
[10] Gluck is probably best remembered for this opera about a musician who travels to hell in search of his wife.
Answer: Orfeo ed Euridice or Orpheus and Euridice
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It was first organized by Gorgidas, who supposedly took the advice of Pammenes and recruited romantic pairs on the belief that members would thus fight more fiercely for each other. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this group of 300 elite soldiers within the fourth-century Theban army.
Answer: the Sacred Band
[10] While the Theban army as a whole was commanded by Epaminondas, this man led the Sacred Band during the period of Theban ascendancy and helped win the battles of Tegyra and Cynoscephalae.
Answer: Pelopidas
[10] Perhaps the greatest success for Theban arms during the time of the Sacred Band was this 371 defeat of King Cleombrotus's Spartans, where the "oblique order" and stacked left wing tactics won the day.
Answer: Battle of Leuctra
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Answer these questions about some similarly-named figures, FTPE:,
[10] In the "Nausicaa" chapter of this work, Gerty Macdowell stands posed while Leopold Bloom masturbates before her. It's by James Joyce.
Answer: Ulysses
[10] "Greusome Gertie" is the name given to the electric chair in this Ernest Gaines novel, in which Jefferson is falsely accused of murder and condemned to execution.
Answer: A Lesson Before Dying
[10] Gerty Farish is the cousin of Lawrence Selden, who loves Lily Bart in this novel by Edith Wharton.
Answer: The House of Mirth
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Name these NBA players who were traded in 2006, for 10 points each.,
[10] This incredibly overrated ball-hog was league MVP in 2001, when he "led" the 76ers to a finals loss to the Lakers. In December, he was traded to Denver for Joe Smith, Andre Miller, and draft picks.
Answer: Allen Ezail Iverson
[10] In July, the Grizzlies picked up Stromile Swift and Rudy Gay and sent this forward to the Rockets. He won an NCAA title and National Player of the Year honors at Duke in 2001 and, in 2006, led the Grizzlies in steals and blocks in his fifth season in Memphis.
Answer: Shane Courtney Battier
[10] The Bucks sent T.J. Ford and cash to the Raptors in June in exchange for this forward, the seventh overall pick in the 2006 draft out of UConn, who holds the Raptor rookie records for points and rebounds in a game.
Answer: Charlie Alexander Villanueva
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Electrons like to move around. Questions about their doing so, for ten points each.,
[10] This is the term given to a chemical reaction where the oxidation state of an involved element changes.
Answer: redox
[10] This is the term describing a redox reaction where the same element is both oxidized and reduced (usually in different forms). A notable example is the reaction of chlorine gas and water.
Answer: disproportionation
[10] Redox systems in batteries are often described in terms of concentration and resulting electrochemical potential by this equation, often presented in a version suitable at 25 degrees C.
Answer: Nernst equation
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It revolves around the knowledge that the prisoner Osmyn is actually Alphonso, husband to Almeria, FTPE:,
[10] Name this play, notably the source of the proverb "Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned."
Answer: The Mourning Bride
[10] The Mourning Bride is by this author, better-known for plays like Love for Love and The Old Bachelor.
Answer: William Congreve
[10] The problems that arise from Mirabell's love for Millamant are at the center of this Congreve play, which also features the nymphomaniacal Lady Wishfort.
Answer: The Way of the World
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Extra. He ruled Sweden from 1697 until 17 For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this king who saw a reversal of his initial successes in the Great Northern War and eventually signed the 1721 Treaty of Nystad, ceding Baltic territories to Russia under Peter the Great.
Answer: Charles XII
[10] Although Charles dragged the war out for another 12 years by intriguing with the Turkish sultan, combat and Sweden's hopes were realistically ended by this 1709 battle on the Vorskla River in the Ukraine, where Peter and Menshikov broke a Swedish siege.
Answer: Poltava
[10] Charles briefly succeeded in creating a strong, allied Poland by making this German-born king sign the Treaty of Altranstädt, which put Stanislaw Leszczynski on the Polish throne. This guy was eventually restored, and the War of the Polish Succession broke out upon his death.
Answer: Augustus of Saxony [or Frederick Augustus I; or Augustus II of Poland; or Augustus Frederick; or Augustus the Strong; or August Fryderyk; or August Mocny; or August der Starke; prompt on Augustus]
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Extra. According to popular belief, it is the presence of this amino acid in turkey that makes people who eat it become drowsy afterwards. For ten points each name,
[10] This amino acid is the precursor to niacin.
Answer: Tryptophan
[10] Tryptophan can be converted into this neurotransmitter for regulation of mood, appetite, and sleep with the activity of the enzymes TPH and DDC.
Answer: Serotonin (Accept 5-HT)
[10] After the conversion from tryptophan to serotonin, the activity of 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase can convert serotonin into this hormone that is produced by the pineal gland, key to circadian rhythms and the biological clock.
Answer: Melatonin
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Extra. There are fourteen of them, and on the third, seventh, and ninth, Jesus falls. For 10 points each,
[10] Name this series depicting the Passion, which starts with the condemnation of Jesus and ends with his entombment.
Answer: Stations of the Cross [or Way of the Cross]
[10] At the fifth station, this bystander must help Jesus bear the cross.
Answer: Simon of Cyrene [prompt on partial answer; accept Simon the Cyrene]
[10] At the next station, this woman gives a cloth to Jesus which he uses to wipe his face. Later French belief says that she married Zaccheus and left the cloth, with the image of Jesus' face on it, in Rome.
Answer: St. Veronica of Golgotha

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