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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 Penn Bowl Tossups by Illinois
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He had the head of Syrian governor Avidius Cassius sent to him and it is debatable as to whether or not his wife had a hand in it. He would later drive out a Parthian force attempting to invade Syria and, during an expedition across the Danube led by this ruler, the Germans invaded and laid siege to Aquileia. In 147 he was granted the tribunicia potestas. Married to the legendary beauty Faustina, he declared his brother Lucius Verus co-emperor. His name was changed after his adoption by Antoninus Piu and he would be succeeded by his son, Commodus. For 10 points, identify this component of the "Five Good Emperors."
Answer: Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [accept Marcus Annius Verus]
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This painter commemorated Eddington's expedition to verify General Relativity with Mercury Passing in Front of the Sun, while a figure like Mercury is seen in Into the Night. His series of Irredescent Compositions are reminiscent of stained glass. His best-known sculpture, sometimes known as Lines of Force, is usually titled after a student's Fist. A crescent moon is dim compared to the title object of his Street Light. His breakthrough was Abstract Speed + Sound. A dachshund is walked by a woman in a black skirt in his Dynmism of a Dog on a Leash. For 10 points, name this artist, a follower of Marinetti and mentor to Boccioni and many other Italian Futurists.
Answer: Giacommo Balla
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A certain Aristotles takes the place of one main character for the second part of this work, which contains the earliest instance of the third man argument, that of infinite sequences of telescoping Forms, which can seemingly be resolved by the understanding that forms do not participate in themselves present in a later work. One side seeks to resolve an apparent paradox by positing that objects may participate in both the forms of Unity and Plurality, the latter of which was claimed not to exist by the other side in the beginning. For 10 points, name this Platonic dialogue in which Socrates debates Zeno and his master, the titular Eleatic philosopher.
Answer: the Parmenides
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His film studio produced The Life of Brian and is known as Handmade Films. This artist's fondness for Jelly Babies led to his bands being periodically showered with them. This musician appeared as L'Angelo Misterioso on Goodbye by Cream, especially the single "Badge." This organizer of the Concert for Bangladesh lifted the end of "Hey Jude" for "Isn't It a Pity" and was sued by Bright Tunes Music for "unintentionally copying" the Chiffons' "He's So Fine" with "My Sweet Lord" on his 1971 triple LP All Things Must Pass. For 10 points, name this singer of "Taxman," "Something," and "While My Guitar Gently Weeps," the lead guitarist of the Beatles.
Answer: George Harrison [prompt on L'Angelo Misterioso before read; prompt on or Spike Wilbury or Nelson Wilbury]
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This region, whose large cities include Katowice and Ostrava, was, by 990 CE, under the control of a nation that would control it until it became a duchy under a the Piast Dynasty. The lines of Dukes gradually died out, and this area passed to the crown of Bohemia, where it stayed until 1740, though the crown of Bohemia passed to the Hapsburgs. It was then as an Austrian possession that it was seized by Frederick the Great of Prussia from Maria Theresa during the War of Austrian Succession. For 10 points, name this region in central Europe, now mostly part of Poland again that also borders Germany and the Czech Republic.
Answer: Silesia
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In one of his novels, a clothes presser, while reading a newspaper, has a premonition about a man entering his apartment. Another of his novels opens with a biographer writing about D. H. Lawrence. The maid of a liquor dealer likes to eat lunch in the bathroom in his short story "Black is My Favorite Color." A sculptor is put off by Rubin's commentary in Rembrandt's Hat. After besting Whammer Whambold, the protagonist of still another of his novels is shot by Harriet Bird and later gets involved in a plot to wrest part ownership from Pop Fisher. For 10 points, identify this author of The Fixer and a story about a star player for the New York Knights, The Natural.
Answer: Bernard Malamud
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This work's first section aims to find an "Interpretive Theory" and is titled for a technique meant to impute meaning via context. Its sequel is 1983's Local Knowledge. Using thick description to discuss such situations as "Internal Conversion" and the Balinese cockfight, this work defines its titular concept as "a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which people communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life." For 10 points, name this work containing essays about the analysis of societies; perhaps the best-known work of Clifford Geertz.
Answer: The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays
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Banana and superbanana particles can be found in one of these objects, which is separated from its companion by VLF wave-particle resonant interactions, which give rise to the "safe zone." Because their large gyroradius leads to neutralization, high-energy protons are depleted from the outer one of these, but not the inner. Sourced by solar wind, cosmic ray neutron decay, and perhaps the aurorae via Birkeland currents, these bodies were discovered by the Explorer and Sputnik satellites. For 10 points, name these torii of radiation entrained by the Earth's magnetic field, so-called belts named for an American astrophysicist.
Answer: the Van Allen radiation belts
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This writer describes how "Commerce and Plenty shine" and recommends that America "sheathe the Sword that bade the Brave attone / With guiltless Blood for Madness not their own." This poet tells the glories of the imperial queen with a faithful tongue in "On Imagination." The author of an elegy for George Whitfield as well as a poem concerning the death of Reverend Dr. Sewell, she asked God to direct and guard from on high in "The King's Most Excellent Majesty" and, after a resettlement, she became aware "there's a God, that there's a Savior too" in "On Being Brought from Africa to America." For 10 points, name this colonial African-American poet.
Answer: Phyllis Wheatley
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One of these compounds sometimes called Kitahara is more commonly known as Danishefsky's one of these and, due to its electron richness, is highly useful in perhaps their best-known use. Allene is an example of the cumulated variety of these compounds, though the most stable type of these has conjugated double bounds separated by a single bond and is therefore known as conjugated. The Diels-Alder reaction occurs between a species named for its ability to attract these and one of these compounds. For 10 points, name these chemicals, hydrocarbons with two double bonds, which are perhaps best known in their 1,3-buta form.
Answer: dienes [prompt on hydrocarbons before cumulated]
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This person took was once ordered to occupy the State House until the state Supreme Court could sort out the mess. He served as president of his alma mater, Bowdoin College, and later as Governor of Maine, a position from which he was catapulted into by his fame as a Colonel in the U.S. Volunteers during the Civil War. During the war, he received the formal surrender of the Confederate forces at Appomattox, but he is most famous for his actions as commander of the twentieth Maine Volunteer Regiment. For 10 points, name this man, whose actions at Gettysburg earned him the nickname "Lion of the Round Top."
Answer: Joshua Chamberlain
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A small hill at its upper right stands in front of a silvery tree which draws the eye to the background figures, one of whom is seemingly an adolescent tying up her hair. A study for the figure at right exists in the Art Institute and has her red plait obscured by her shoulder and her hands cupped, as she is in the act of tormenting the figure with sticks in her hair reclining on a white slip at left by splashing her. For 10 points, name this 1887 painting in which five nude or semi-nude women are engage in the titular activity; a well-known work by Auguste Renoir.
Answer: The Bathers [or Les baigneuses]
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This creator of Penthesilea's double-edged halberd gave birth to the Kakodaimones, the causes of man's misfortunes, and was assisted in birthing Horkos by the Furies. Hercules was confused by Aporia and her after watching an apple grow after he hit it. She appears in the Iliad being sent to the ship of Odysseus and is cited in Seven Against Thebes as the deity of arguments. The only deity not initially present at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, she crashed it and ultimately started the chain of events leading to the Trojan War by throwing an apple inscribed "to the fairest." For 10 points, identify this companion of Ares; the goddess of discord and strife.
Answer: Eris [accept Discord or Strife until the end]
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One character in this novel fires a small cannon at night, much to the amusement of the Aged P. In the end, Clarriker & Company acquires a new partner. One chracter dies after dreaming about his late wife pulling on him One character stays in Satis house, which has a brewery and iron bars on the windows, where all the clocks have been stopped. Mr. Provis becomes wealthy through sheep farming in New South Wales and dies after killing Arthur Compeyson. Whenever the protagonist needs money, he goes to Mr. Jaggers. Orlick does in Mrs. Joe, the protagonist's sister, with a hammer. For 10 points, identify this Dickens novel centered on Philip "Pip" Pirrip.
Answer: Great Expectations
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This King of France was the last of the direct Capetian line, being succeeded by his nephew of the House of Valois, Phillip VI. He was a successful monarch, his own coronation established the concept of Salic law in France, thus disinheriting Edward III of England, who had more direct claim, and with help from his sister, Isabella, Edward's wife, he seized English possessions in France and managed to have Edward II overthrown in England. However, he also expelled the Jews from France and increased taxes for use in the Hundred Years War. For 10 points, name this King of France, whose name is not Phillip, though it is often affixed with "the Fair."
Answer: Charles IV of France [accept Charles the Bald of Navarre; or Charles le Chauve de Navarre; or Carlos el Calvo de Navarre; or Charles I of Navarre; accept Charles the Fair or Charles le Bel or Carlos el Hermoso until "Fair"; prompt on Charles; or Charles I; do not accept or prompt on Charles the Bald or Charles le Chauve]
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The main character in this story imagines himself planting a tree at home, which his children consecrate with wine and milk. The protagonist compares his hatred for the man who teaches him the lute to hating heaving itself. He delays his wedding by two years but, after returning home, climbing a pear tree, and seeing his wife comb her hair, he returns to his teacher, whom he had met during a lantern festival. Taught by the Master of the Perfect Word, the protagonist stays in a bamboo hut until he becomes an old man. For 10 points, name this story in which Han Fook sets out to perfect the titular writing craft, a work by Herman Hesse.
Answer: "The Poet"
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A rank-two tensor in general, this quantity in no longer applicable when dislocation movement becomes important, a point approximately concomitant with the so-called proportionality limit. It is given for a homogeneous system as Lame's parameter over Poisson's ratio times the quantity one plus Poisson's ratio times the quantity one minus twice Poisson's ratio. This quantity has units of pressure and is proportional to the spring constant for a spring since it gives the ratio of stress to strain. For 10 points, name this object, the constant of proportionality in Hooke's law, which is usually known for the British polymath who conducted a notable double slit experiment.
Answer: Young's modulus [or modulus of elasticity; or elastic modulus; or tensile modulus]
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An algorithm that approximately solves this problem is due to Rabin and Miller and significantly outperforms the basis for the Atkin-Goldwasser-Kilian-Morain Certificate. that deterministic solution uses the elliptic curve factorization method, but is still in EXPTIME. Wagon presented strong evidence that the deterministic form of this problem is in P in 1991, a suspicion confirmed with the release of the big-O of natural log to the twelve AKS algorithm, which utilizes cyclatomic groups. Not particularly good solutions to this problem are given by the Lucas-Lehmer test and Fermat test. For 10 points, name this problem of determining whether a number is composite or not.
Answer: primality testing
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The genus Sapindaceae is alternatively named for this object. Its name can be translated as "woman in ice" or "sacred winds of the moon." Located in the southern part of the Avenue of Volcanoes, its collapse temporarily dammed the Rio Chambo. About 20 miles northwest of Riobamba, it was first explored by Alexander von Humboldt. Its sister peak in the Cordillera Occidental is Carihuairazo. One of the routes up it is the Whymper route, named for the first man to scale it. Its summit is the furthest point from the center of the Earth. For 10 points, identify this South American peak, the tallest in Ecuador and second tallest in the Andes.
Answer: Chimborazo
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This work was described as requiring its most famous performer to "forget you are a virtuoso," though it is not nearly so simple as the same composer's later Album for the Young. Proceeding in a cycle beginning and ending with G major, this collection's movements are almost all in ABA form. A harmonic resolution in the fourth piece is said to represent a granted wish, leading to the fifth piece, "Quite Happy." It opens with "Of Foreign Lands and People" and closes with "The Poet Speaks," and its seventh section is the famous "Traumeri" or "Dreaming." For 10 points, name this collection of piano miniatures by Robert Schumann that recall vignettes from his youth.
Answer: Kinderszenen [or Scenes from Childhood]
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The smaller subunits in these structures have a structural protein known as nebulin and are bound by the protein CapZ. These bodies' namesake reticula release a chemical that forces exposure of cross binding sites on a protein bound to tropomyosin dimmers; that chemical is calcium and that protein is actin. These structures' centers are in a region named for the German for bright, the H-zone, and are known as M-lines. Titin binds the thick filaments comprising theses structures to the I-band Z-lines that they lie between. Appearing as the striation in cardiac and voluntary muscles, for 10 points, name this basic unit of the muscular myofibril.
Answer: sarcomeres
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Its namesake "responsive megaloblastic anemia" is caused by a mutation in the SLC19A2 gene. Composed of a substituted pyrimidine joined via a methylene bridge to a five-membered ring with nitrogen and sulfur, this vitamin's structure was established by R.R. Williams. It is the namesake of a pyrophosphate coenzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism, such as the decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids. For 10 points, name this vitamin, a deficiency of which is common in diets with high amounts of polished white rice that leads to a nervous system disease known as beriberi.
Answer: vitamin B1 (accept thiamin(e); or aneurin(e); or antiberiberi factor)
2008 Penn Bowl Bonuses by Illinois
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His marriage to Elizabeth Woodville created a good deal of rancor and contributed to his 1470 deposition, though he was able to resume the throne in April, 1471. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Yorkist king of England, the eventual victor at Tewksbury.
Answer: Edward IV [accept Edward, Earl of March; prompt on Edward; prompt on Earl of March]
[10] This archetypical Kingmaker and able diplomat prompted Edward's candidacy for the English throne, but later defected to Henry VI and Louis XI, compelling Edward to flee to the Netherlands.
Answer: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick [accept either underlined part; prompt on Richard; prompt on Neville; prompt on the Kingmaker]
[10] This battle, fought on Hadley Green on Easter Day, was Edward's most important victory after Tewksbury, and saw him crush Warwick, who was killed on the field.
Answer: the Battle of Barnet
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Answer the following about a pair of poems for 10 points each.,
[10] The title figure of this poem stood "by the billows desolate" and "with mighty thoughts elate" and he finds a place to "strike terror in the Swede."
Answer: "The Bronze Horseman" [or "Medny vsadnik"]
[10] Dedicated to the queens of the author's soul, this poem features a dwarf who gets tangled up in his own beard. Chernomor's cap makes one of the title figures invisible.
Answer: Ruslan and Lyudmila [or Ruslan i Lyudmila]
[10] "The Bronze Horseman" and Ruslan and Lyudmila were written by this Russian poet.
Answer: Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin
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One current theory attributes these objects to mergers of binary systems, since they are too hot for their initial mass, appearing to be younger than other members of their clusters. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these types of stars that seem to violate normal stellar evolution and have a characteristic color.
Answer: blue stragglers
[10] Many of the known blue stragglers can be found in this kind of stellar cluster. Tightly bound and spherical, they are often satellites of galactic cores, which they are older than.
Answer: globular clusters
[10] Globular cluster blue stragglers can be picked out because they deviate greatly from the cluster sequence curve on this dual-namesake luminosity vs. temperature semi-log plot.
Answer: a Hertzsprung-Russel diagram
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The inventor of the Familial Informant Narrative Procedure, more commonly known as the "Lost in the Mall" technique, this psychologist is best known for studying misinformation effects. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this psychologist, currently a professor at Irvine.
Answer: Elizabeth F. Loftus
[10] Most of Loftus' work deals with this faculty, especially with the degree to which it can be influenced by a therapist or interviewer via misinformation effects.
Answer: memory [accept close equivalents]
[10] Another of Loftus' experiments involved subjects viewing a videotape of this sort of event, then hearing it described with the words "hit" or "smashed into."
Answer: a car accident [accept close equivalents]
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Identify the following black literary characters who were killed either because of or by their lovers, for 10 points each.,
[10] Convicted for the rape of Mayella Ewell, he tries to escape from prison and would have made it if not for his left arm.
Answer: Tom Robinson [accept either underlined part]
[10] Killed with rat poison, his murderer liked to sleep with his corpse, as proven by a single long gray hair.
Answer: Homer Barron [accept either underlined part]
[10] Her parents were killed in the East St. Louis riots of 1917 and she has an affair with Joe Trace but, after she leaves him, he shoots her. At her funeral, Joe's wife Violet attacks her corpse.
Answer: Dorcas Manfred [accept either underlined part]
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Answer the following about a Chinese leader, for 10 points each.,
[10] Joining in with the rebel forces of Kuo Tzuhsing, he captured Ch'u-chou and later declared himself Emperor.
Answer: Hung-wu [or Hongwu; or Kao-ti; or T'ai Tsu; or Chu Yuan-chang]
[10] The Hung-wu emperor began his ascendancy to power as the leader of this White Lotus society-based rebellion that drove the Mongols out of China.
Answer: the Red Turbans
[10] The Hung-wu emperor's march on Peking caused Togon-temur to flee, ending the Yuan dynasty and allowing Hung-wu to found this dynasty.
Answer: the Ming dynasty
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This collection's 1711 publication by Etienne Roger (row-JAY) did a great deal to popularize its composer, who was then violin master at the Ospedale (us-puh-DOLL-lay) della Pieta. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this collection of twelve pieces for one to four violins, with a name meaning approximately "Musical Invention."
Answer: Violin Concerti, for violins, strings
[10] This composer known as Il Prete Rosso wrote L'estro armonico as well as The Four Seasons.
Answer: amp; continuo "L'estro armonico", Op. 3, RV 265
[10] The publication of L'estro armonico did a good deal to popularize this form, as all its pieces are in this form for violins, strings and contino.
Answer: Antonio Lucio Vivaldi
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A recent UN estimate stated that forty thousand people per month are dying in this nation due to conflict involving rebels led by Laurent Nkunda and others. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this large central African nation where fighting is current centered in North Kivu Province.
Answer: the Democratic Republic of the Congo [or Republique Democratique du Congo; accept Congo (Kinshasa); prompt on Congo; do not accept "Republic of Congo" or "Congo (Brazzaville)"]
[10] Nkunda claims to be protecting members of this ethnic minority who fled to DR Congo from neighboring Rwanda during after latter country's 1994 genocide to escape persecution by Hutus.
Answer: Tutsis
[10] This current president of DR Congo has heretofore been unable to crush or placate General Nkunda. Having succeeded his father Laurent in 2001, he defeated Jean-Pierre Bemba in the elections of 2006.
Answer: Joseph Kabila
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Identify the following George Orwell novels, for 10 points each.,
[10] At the end of the novel, which includes Snowball, there is an argument over alleged cheating at cards and Frederick uses counterfeit money to buy leftover timber.
Answer: Animal Farm
[10] Gordon Comstock, the author of Mice, decides to sell out after all in this novel.
Answer: Keep the Aspidistra Flying
[10] In this novel, Ellis blackballs an Indian candidate for entry to the European Club and Maxwell, a British forest ranger, is hacked to death.
Answer: Burmese Days
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This conjugate reaction for forming carbon-carbon bonds is formally the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion compound to an alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this reaction originally performed by its namesake with ketone enolates.
Answer: the Michael addition
[10] Forming a beta-hydroxy ketone, which has characteristics of both aldehydes and alcohols, this reaction also uses a ketone enolate, which is added to an aldehyde by dehydration.
Answer: the aldol condensation
[10] The Robinson variety of this type of reaction combines the Michael addition and aldol condensation. It is in general a reaction in which a new ring is formed.
Answer: an annulation
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Identify the following about a geographic feature of Africa for 10 points each.,
[10] Also known as the Joliba, this river rises on the east side of the Fouta Djallon highlands. Its tributaries include the Sankarani and the Tinkisso.
Answer: the Niger River
[10] At Lokoja, the Niger is joined to this tributary, the its largest. With a name meaning "Mother of Water" this river it is sometimes connected to the Logone through the Mayo-Kebbi tributary.
Answer: Benue River
[10] The Niger River empties into this gulf via the Niger delta.
Answer: Gulf of Guinea
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Identify the following pieces of legislation from the first half of the twentieth century for 10 points each.,
[10] Also known as the White Slave Traffic Act, it made illegal the transport of women across state or national borders for prostitution.
Answer: the Mann Act
[10] An amendment to Section 2 of the Clayton Antitrust Act, it made it illegal to sell goods at different prices to distributors in order to reduce competition.
Answer: the Robinson-Patman Act
[10] Passed in 1906, it gave the ICC the power to regulate interstate railroad rates as it forbade railroads from raising them without approval.
Answer: the Hepburn Act
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Identify the following British Prime Ministers for 10 points each.,
[10] As chairman of the London Conference, he helped establish the independence and protection of Belgium. He believed that Austria had to be a great power in order for Europe to be politically independent.
Answer: Henry John Temple, Lord Palmerston
[10] During his second administration, several Factory Acts were passed on the legal status of trade unions. He went against the advice of the Foreign Office when purchasing Ismail Pasha's shares of the Suez Canal Company.
Answer: Benjamin Disraeli
[10] His administration oversaw the creation of the National Health Service and he led the Labour Party through what became known as the "Bevanite" quarrel.
Answer: Clement Attlee
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When used to solve Poisson's equation in E&M in mks, these are functions of r given r-prime having Laplacian equal to minus the delta function of r minus r-prime. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these functions named for a British mathematician that give the potential due to a charge distribution when convolved with the distribution.
Answer: Poisson Green's functions [prompt on G or K]
[10] Equivalent to the method of Green's functions where applicable, this method from E
Answer: the method of images
[10]amp;M allows one to find the potential due to a charge by creating the namesake fictitious charge in a region bounded by a "mirror" equipotential.
Answer: Coulomb's law
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Name each of the following East Asian religions of relatively recent vintage for 10 points.,
[10] Officially founded by Li Hongzhi (hong-ZHEE) in 1992, its rejection of modern medicine and belief that world events since 1900 have been controlled by aliens are among the reasons the Chinese government repressed it.
Answer: Falun Gong [or Falundafa; prompt on Religion of the Dharmic Wheel or close equivalents]
[10] Headquartered at the Holy See of Tay Ninh (dai neen), this Vietnamese syncretic religion is named for an epithet for the supreme god of Daoism, from whom Ngo Van Chieu (woah van chew) claimed to receive messages.
Answer: Cao Dai [prompt on High Tower or close equivalents]
[10] Officially one of the Kyoha of Shinto, this quasi-Buddhist religion was founded by Nakayama Miki, who instituted a worship emphasizing ecstatic dancing and mental acts of faith.
Answer: Tenrikyo [prompt on Religion of Divine Wisdom or close equivalents]
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This architect's works in Mantua are San Andrea and San Sebastiano and date from around 1470, though he is better known for Florentine works like Santa Maria Novella. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this architect, the prototypical "Renaissance man."
Answer: Leon Battista Alberti
[10] Alberti spent a great deal of time under the patronage of this Florentine family, for whom he designed and built a namesake Palazzo and Chapel.
Answer: the Ruceallis
[10] Beginning at the behest of Leonello d'Este, this seminal tome of Renaissance construction was dedicated to Pope Nicholas V when it was published in 1452.
Answer: Ten Books on Architecture [or De re aedificatoria]
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Assuming throughout that y is a dependent variable, x an independent variable, and n an integer constant, name each of the following namesake differential equations for 10 points.,
[10] The second-order equidimensional equation, its homogeneous form is x-squared y-double-prime plus x y-prime plus y equals 0. It is named for a Swiss mathematician who noted that vertices plus faces minus edges equals 2.
Answer: the Euler differential equation
[10] Arising in the radial Laplace problem in cylindrical coordinates, it has the form x-squared y-double-prime plus x y-prime plus quantity x-squared minus n-squared times y equals 0, and admits namesake or Hankel solutions.
Answer: the Bessel differential equation
[10] With homogeneous form x-squared y-double-prime plus x-squared y minus n times quantity n minus 1 times y equals 0, it arises when finding generators for Lie groups, and its solutions are x times spherical Bessel functions.
Answer: the Riccati differential equation
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Identify the following about works written by Australians for 10 points each.,
[10] Ella Natwick is married to an invalid in this Patrick White short story. Ella notes that the same pink-and-brown Holden drives by at the same time every day and the driver ends up dying in Ella's arms.
Answer: Five-Twenty
[10] In this Thomas Keneally novel, Dowie Stead represents the prototypical Australian male and leads the hunt for the title character, a murderer who had rejected his ancestral roots.
Answer: The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith
[10] "Bliss" centers on the institutionalized Harry Joy, who leaves his wife and kids to move to a rain forest commune and plants trees. It was written by this author of Oscar and Lucinda.
Answer: Peter Carey
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Name the following about a battle of the Napoleonic Wars for 10 points each.,
[10] One of Napoleon's early victories, this July 21, 1798 battle fought near Embabeh was made strategically worthless by Nelson's destruction of the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile.
Answer: the Battle of the Pyramids
[10] The Battle of the Pyramids featured Napoleon's first use of this formation, executed with one or more divisions, which would be perhaps Napoleon's greatest tactical innovation.
Answer: square
[10] The loss of the Egyptians at the Pyramids led to the downfall of this dynasty that originated as slave-soldiers, though they fought brilliantly under Murad Bey.
Answer: Mamluks

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