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2008 Penn Bowl Tossups by Extra Replacement Questions
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An alternative method to this reaction involves the use of chloro-sulfonic acid to make a ketene intermediate. Formulated in the 1880s, this reaction usually involves an anhydride intermediate followed by a keto-enol tautomerization step, although it competes with a free radical mechanism at low temperatures. The product of it is often reacted with ammonia to make alpha amino acids, or undergoes hydrolysis to create alpha hydroxy acids. This reaction, which is often catalyzed by a phosphorous trihalide, involves alpha-halogenation of carboxylic acids. For 10 points, name this triply-eponymous reaction.
Answer: This process is aided by serine argenine rich proteins, such as SC35, that bind to ESE sequences. The role of U2 auxiliary factor in it is to recognize a polypyrimidine tract and help BBP bind to the branch site. In Drosophila, Sxl is a repressor of this event that regulates sex determination. Inhibited by hnRNP1, the alternative type of it results in isoforms. Achieved by two trans-esterification reactions resulting in a lariat-shaped object, this event is carried out by a complex consisting of snRNPs [snurps]. For 10 points, identify this post-transcriptional modification in which introns are removed. splicing
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Reinhardt and Clark researched an analog of this effect in the collisions of Bose-Einstein condensates, and Andreev bound states can contribute to it. An example of the internal type of this effect is the longitudinal NMR in super-fluid helium. It allows a precise determination of the ratio e/h, and this effect can exist in AC and DC varieties. This basis for a SQUID can detect very small magnetic fields and was predicted by its namesake 22-year-old Brit. For 10 points, name this effect that can occur when a few nanometers thick layer of aluminum oxide separates two superconductors, which allows Cooper pairs to tunnel across the junction.
Answer: Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction/halogenation
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For increasing altitude, it can be replaced by the Chapman function when finding atmospheric absorption and this word or Euler is used to describe the numbers on the left-hand border of a zigzag triangle. A root-finding method of this name does not need the formula for the derivative and can be generalized by Broyden's method. Related to cosh by the Gudermannian function, its derivative is secant times tangent. Equal to the ratio of the hypotenuse to the side adjacent to a given angle, its value is always equal to or greater than one. For 10 points, identify this word used to describe a line intersecting a curve at two points, equivalent to the reciprocal of the cosine.
Answer: Josephson effect
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Penn Bowl XVII: The Friends and Enemies of Modern Music
Answer: secant
 
2008 Penn Bowl Bonuses by Extra Replacement Questions
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Safranin is used after decolorizing the crystal violet with ethanol or acetone. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this procedure for dividing bacteria into two classes, named for a Danish scientist.
Answer: Gram stain(ing)
[10] Gram staining was vital in classifying bacteria in the first edition of this man's namesake Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, which was published in 1923.
Answer: David Bergey
[10] Volume 2 of the 2nd Edition of Bergey's Manual centers on this large phylum of "purple" bacteria that is divided into five classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon.
Answer: proteobacteria
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It occurs via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway to create a total of two ATP molecules. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this cytosolic pathway in which glucose is degraded into two molecules of pyruvate.
Answer: glycolysis
[10] In glycolysis, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase produces this coenzyme, three of which are made in the Krebs cycle. It is later oxidized in Complex I of the electron transport chain.
Answer: NADH [accept reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; do NOT accept NAD or NAD+]
[10] Galactose can enter glycolysis via the pathway named for this Argentine scientist.
Answer: Luis Leloir
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This weak base has a trigonal pyramidal shape according to VSEPR theory. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this compound formed in the Haber process, over 80% of which is used in fertilizer.
Answer: ammonia [prompt on NH3]
[10] Sodium in liquid ammonia is often used in this reaction named for an Australian chemist. It reduces the ring of an arene, such as benzene, to a non-conjugated diene, such as 1,4-cyclohexadiene.
Answer: Birch reduction
[10] Another famous Australian chemist is this co-developer of VSEPR theory with Ronald Gillespie.
Answer: Ronald Sydney Nyholm

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