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View Packets Tournament Editor
2007 Penn Bowl Tossups by Editors 2
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Silvio Pettirossi airport was formerly named for this man, who endorsed Luis María Argaña in the elections of 1993 in an attempted to rebuild his power base. His longtime second-in-command was the colorful drug smuggler and stock manipulator Andrés Rodríguez Pedotti, who nonetheless had an attack of conscience and led the coup to depose this dictator. Durign his rule, he knowingly harbored Josef Mengele and helped patronize the construction of the Itaipú dam, after coming to power by means of a coup against Federico Chávez in 1954. For 10 points, name this Colorado Party leader who ruled until 1989 in Paraguay.
Answer: Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda
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The Horner scheme is a common computer-science exercise as a method for evaluating them, and the Legendre ones results from solving Laplace's equations in spherical coordinates. Chebyshev's fill an important role in interpolation theory and provide a method of writing trig identities solely in terms of the originating functions. Tartaglia and Cardano devised formulas for solving up to fourth degree ones, but Abel proved that fifth degree ones have no general algebraic solution. For 10 points, name these mathematical constructs composed of coefficient and associated variable terms.
Answer: polynomial
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Aaron Copland made an abortive attempt to write a musical based on this man's novel The Tragic Grove. A farming couple in Maine dissaproves of the loud partying by the title ethnic group in one of his short stories, and this author of The Courting of Susie Brown also described a visit from Pluto Swint that convinces one man that albinos have telepathic powers, leading to a redoubling of Ty Walden's efforts to find gold. Another of his novels featured a harelipped temptress and a marriage performed by the bride, who is a preacher, which is the union of Bessie and Dude Lester. For 10 points, name this husband of Margaret Bourke-White and author of "Country Full of Swedes," God's Little Acre, and Tobacco Road.
Answer: Erskine Preston Caldwell
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He said that all appearances comprise the "phaneron," a world made wholly of signs. He also defined induction as the movement from random sample to population and created a new type of probabilistic syllogism which he labeled "abduction." He described the importance of hypothesis-generation to the scientific method, but never finished his magnum opus A System of Logic, Considered as Semiotic. Ernst Schroeder's treatise on logic is nonetheless based on the work of this man, who was fired from his job as a mathematics professor at Johns Hopkins because his wife was a Gypsy. For 10 points, name this author of "The Fixation of Belief" and "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" who greatly influenced pragmatism.
Answer: Charles Sanders Peirce
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There is one in the corner of the Landaeur Altarpiece, and another as the "man of sorrows." The earliest known is a silverpoint of a long-haired figure in a cap, done at age thirteen. Of three more prominent ones, executed at ages twenty-two, twenty-six, and twenty-eight, the first depicts the subject holding a thistle, and the last one shows a fur coat-clad subject with a striking resemblance to a broad-chinned Jesus. The middle one shows the subject wearing gloves and was created at the same time as the "Apocalypse" series. FTP, name these pictures which show both the talent and the appearance of the creator of Melancholia I.
Answer: Albrecht Dürer's self-portraits [accept obvious equivalents; prompt on partial answers such as "self portraits" or "paintings by Dürer"]
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Bronze sculptures by Julie and Omri Amrany sit directly outside of it, and it borders the village of Ashwaubenon on three sides. In 1965, it was the site of a ninety yard punt by Don Chandler, and in 2000, Derek Freeman made a juggling overtime catch here. In 1993, playing a road game here, John Elway was sacked two consecutive times while trying to bring the Broncos into field goal range. In the same year, LeRoyButler jumped into the stands after scoring a touchdown, creating its namesake "leap." For 10 points, identify this "frozen tundra" named for the founder of the Green Bay Packers.
Answer: Lambeau Field
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The Amadori rearrangement is a common side path of this reaction, with the resulting ketosamines often reacting with creatine present in the reaction environment to create potentially harmful heterocyclic compounds such as quinolines and pyridines. Another is formation of brown polymers that lend characteristic colors to many of its products. Shorter sugars tend to react more favorably, and water tends to suppress the process, since the end result of the reducing sugar carbonyl interacting with an amino acid amine is dehydration. For 10 points, name this fundamental reaction key to cooking, a form of browning.
Answer: Maillard reaction
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Derived from the Scottish practice of Crann Tera, the modern aspect of this activity was first performed by William J. Simmons, though actually it was invented by Thomas Dixon. Virginia v. Black allowed it to be banned only when it is intended to intimidate, though Justice Thomas's concurrence claimed that it is necessarily intended to do so. The law at issue in that case thus differed from the one overturned twelve years earlier in R.A.V. v. St. Paul, which made it a crime to do this for any reason. For 10 points, identify this practice associated with the Ku Klux Klan, illegal in several states.
Answer: cross burning
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Two answers required. One is home to the Cathedral of San Giusto, the other to the Tower of the Seven Cloaks. One is the capital of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, the other the capital of Zachodniopomorskie. One is the former seat of the Dukes of Pomerania, found near the mouth of the Oder, and the other was the leading port of Austria-Hungary, which was divided between Yugoslavia and Italy following World War II. They became linked by a 1946 speech in Fulton, Missouri, delivered by Winston Churchill. For 10 points, name these two cities, one "on the Baltic," and one "on the Adriatic," between which the Iron Curtain ran.
Answer: Stettin [or Szczecin] and Trieste [or Tergeste]
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In Islam, these people can practice "zuhd," and one group of them is known as the Sanusiyah, which manufactures perfume. In Buddhism, the status of mahathera is a possible honor for some of them, who undergo the upasampada procedure to become a bhikku and follow the vinaya. In Christianity, almost all of these people practice cenobitism, and their lifestyle was founded by Pacomius of the Thebeiad and Anthony of Egypt. For 10 points, the Benedictine Rule guides what cloistered individuals, who devote themselves to religion apart from the world?
Answer: monks [or nuns or hermits or similar]
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This form was used in the collections Yearning, A Handful of Sand, and Tangled Hair, and its masters included the leader of the Pan Society. This kind of poem often used "pillow words" and depicted such scenarios as a question and answer or a maiden's reply to a suitor. It ends with two lines of seven onji each, and was displaced as the favored form at court in the fifteenth century by the renga. For 10 points, name thise Japanese poetic form of five lines.
Answer: tanka [prompt on waka]
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Horst Augsbach catalogued the works of a theorist of this instrument, Johann Joachim Quantz, whose designs were superceded by Theobald Boehm. Walter Piston wrote a ballet about an "incredible" player of this instrument. One solo piece for it is Debussy's drama Syrinx, and it also portrays the title character of Vivaldi's Il Cardellino. Leading jazz performers on it include Jeremy Steig, Pixinguinha, and Herbie Mann, and it was also the instrument of James Galway and Jean Pierre Rampal. FTP, name this instrument which portrays the flying bird in Peter and the Wolf and Papageno in Mozart's opera about a "magic" one.
Answer: the flute
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Artificial modification of them by adding esters results in the ability to store sodium in the hydrophobic region formerly thought inhospitable to cations. One with a sphingosine backbone is known, although glycerol more commonly serves that function. The Davson-Danielli model describing them was superseded in the early 1970s by freeze-fracture photos indicating that proteins were not exclusively on the outside of the lipid bilayer, leading to the currently accepted fluid mosaic model of their organization. For 10 points, name these primary components of cell membranes.
Answer: phospholipids
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When traveling north on the Via Flaminia, one did this immediately after the intersection with the Via Aemilia. Immediately before oen particular incident of this, a crowd of buglers had gathered to listen to a shepherd play the pipes, and this action was ordered by snatching one of the bugles and blowing upon it. It occurred four days after Gaius Marcellus gave the gift of a sword, and it violated the Lex Cornelia Majestatis. Inspiring the phrase "alea iacta est," the army that was supposed to stay in Cisalpine Gaul illegally entered Italy proper by doing this, starting the civil war against Pompey. For 10 points, identify this action performed in 49 BCE by Julius Caesar, now symbolic of any unreversable transgression.
Answer: crossed the Rubicon
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His poetry includes the volume Angle of Geese, and he wrote a novel about a painter who goes by the pseudonyms Set and Loki, The Ancient Child. He wrote a historical book divided into chapters about "The Setting Out," "The Going On," and "The Closing In," which ends by describing the Sun Dance. In addition to that history of the Kiowa, he described a World War II veteran's drunken return to Walatowa, where he moves in with his grandfather Francisco and works as a woodchopper for Angela St. John before two run-ins with the abusive L.A. cop Martinez convince Abel to return to the pueblo. For 10 points, name this author of The Way to Rainy Mountain and House Made of Dawn.
Answer: Navarre Scott Momaday
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A fish is placed next to it by Bron, who prepared the way for its arrival by dispatching his twelfth son Alain. One person dies soon after coming upon it in Corbenic, a fortress in Sarras. Its properties were overhauled by Robert de Boron, and one must ask "who is served" by this object in order to lift the curse on a certain land. Wolfram von Eschenbach said that it is a stone which fell from the sky, but it is more oftne described as an object used by Jesus at the Last Supper and then employed by Joseph of Arimathea to gather blood during the Crucifixion. For 10 points, the Fisher King guards what mystical cup, eventually attained by Sir Galahad?
Answer: the Holy Grail [or the Sangreal]
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Speculative evidence for it has been observed through strong gravitational lensing in the Abell 1689 and Bullet clusters, as well as more recently in the form of possible detection of axions in the 1-1.5 MeV range. Zwicky and Rubin's observations of anomalous mass density distributions has led some to postulate Modified Newtonian Dynamics as an alterative to this explanation. WIMPs and MACHOs are also alternative theoretical forms, and recent research by Cambridge postulates they are limited to clusters 1,000 miles across. For 10 points, name this category of matter that does not interact with electromagnetic radiation.
Answer: dark matter
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This ruler commissioned Theophraste Renaudot to open the first newspaper in France. He faced several revolts in the name of his brother Gaston, the duke of Orleans, as well as a late plot by his Master of the Robes, the Marquis de Cinq-Mars. His wife, who was coveted by George Villiers, conspired with his mother in the Day of the Dupes, though this man kept power away from his wife Anne of Austria and mother Marie de Medicis by placing trust in his chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu. For 10 points, name this king of France from 1610 to 1643, who was succeeded by the Sun King.
Answer: Louis XIII [prompt on Louis; accept Louis le Juste]
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Oliver Goldsmith's theory of the theater distinguished between "laughing comedy" and this kind of comedy, and a James Barrie poem describes "Tommie" as this. Doris Lessing wrote about these kind of "agents in the Vorlyn empire," while, along with "naïve," this word describes a John le Carre "lover." Frederic Moreau and Mr. Yorick are the protogonists of two more works with this adjective in the title. Harold Brodkey, Victor Shklovsky and Laurence Sterne all used it to describe a "journey," while Joyce Carol Oates is the other person besides Gustave Flaubert to use it in reference to an "education." For 10 points, give this common term.
Answer: "sentimental"
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The Fossatti brothers added a "secret lodge" to this building in the 1840s. Here, one can find the latest example of the "tilting" technique in the Deësis panel, which depicts a green-clad John the Baptist to the right of an enthroned blue-and-red Jesus. An image of Gabriel and Christ Pantocrator is found near the Imperial Door in this building, which was one of the first to use an endonarthex and large pendentives. Those supported what Procopius called a "floating roof." FTP, name this domed church, designed by Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus under the patronage of Justinian I in Byzantium.
Answer: Hagia Sophia [or Santa Sophia; or Church of the Holy Wisdom; or Ayasofya Camisi]
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TB. Its first president pledged to resign if Franklin Roosevelt was re-elected, did so, and was succeeded by Philip Murray. That first president was also the first man to lead a successful strike against General Motors, John L. Lewis. This group dominated among steel, rubber, and automaker employees and was formed in order to advocate the creation of unions for all workers under one employer, rather than for all workers in a trade. Its third leader was the UAW chairman Walter Reuther, who then negotiated its re-merger with the group it had left in 19 For 10 points, name this umbrella union which, since 1955, has been hyphenated to the American Federation of Labor.
Answer: The Congress for Industrial Organization
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TB. The military march in this opera is taken from the composer's earlier "Alahor in Granata," and the story had previously been adapted by Daniel Auber as Le Philtre. One character compares himself to Paris giving a golden apple to Aphrodite when he romances a woman with a flower in a gun, which leads to another man singing "Una furtiva lagrima." Not knowing that his rich uncle has died, that character enlists in the army to get twenty scudi in order to pay Dulcamara for more Bordeaux, which he believes to be the title object. For 10 points, Belcore accepts Adina leaving him for Nemorino in what comic melodrama by Donizetti?
Answer: The Elixir of Love [or L'Elisir d'amore]
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TB. His Heptaplus is a discussion of the Book of Genesis, and he wrote a long meta-commentary on Benivieni's notes to a translation of the Symposium, the Platonic Discourse on Love. His other works about Platonism inclue Of Being and Unity. Kepler was influenced by this man's denunciation of astrology, and he was the first Christian to base arguments on the Kabbala. Innocent VIII dashed his plans, laid out in his Oration on the Dignity of Man, to defend 900 philosophical theses to an audience. For 10 points, name this associated of Marsilio Ficino and leading Florentine humanist.
Answer: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Conte Di Concordia [prompt on della Mirandola]
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TB. Fugacity is formally considered as a coefficient modifying this property, so it is expressed in the same units and is equivalent to it in ideal conditions. Enthalpy is derived from the measure of heat capacity when this is held constant, which is 5/2 times the universal gas constant times the temperature. The static and stagnation types are related by the Mach number of the fluid in question, and the vapor type is determined by temperature via the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. For 10 points, name this scalar quantity measured in SI units of pascals and defined as force per unit area.
Answer: pressure
 
2007 Penn Bowl Bonuses by Editors 2
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Volcanoes' lava emissions contribute significantly to their differing structure. Different types of volcano structure, for 10 points each.,
[10] This type, of which Paricutin is an example, is often built from pyroclastic flow, is relatively short, and tends to erupt only once and for relatively short durations. Pumice is often found on its slopes.
Answer: Cinder cones
[10] Composed of repeated basaltic lava flows, they tend to be among the largest volcanoes. Kilauea and Olympus Mons are prominent ones.
Answer: Shield volcanoes
[10] These are made up of alternating layers of lava and other ejected material such as ash and stones. Tall and conical, Mt. Ararat, Stromboli and Vesuvius are well-known ones.
Answer: Stratovolcanoes
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His crush on Susana San Juan did not prevent him from becoming a serial rapist, or from sleeping with Eduviges Dyada on his wedding night. For 10 points per part:,
[10] Name this no-good rich guy who is eventually killed by his son Abundio Martínez in a Juan Rulfo novel.
Answer: Pedro Paramo [prompt on Paramo]
[10] Pedro Paramo was adopted for the screen by what more prominent Mexican author of The Old Gringo and Where the Air is Clear?
Answer: Carlos Fuentes
[10] Similar themes about rich and powerful Latin Americans behaving badly may be found in this novel, about the son of the prostitute Bendicion Alvarado, who roasts a treasonous general at a state dinner and organizes 918 heads of his enemies in a filing cabinet after someone feeds his family to dogs.
Answer: The Autumn of the Patriarch [or El otono del patriarca]
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This couple supposedly met while making a film about their "Splendiferous Zeppelin Escapades." For 10 points per part:,
[10] The names "Brangelina" and "TomKat" inspired Stephen Colbert to come up with what joint name for Hollywood's greatest celebrity pairing, consisting of William H. Macy and Felicity Huffman?
Answer: Filliam H. Muffman
[10] Huffman can actually be seen on Desparate Housewives as this mother of four and ADD pill addict, who is both the wife and co-worker of Tom.
Answer: Lynette Scavo [accept either or both names]
[10] Huffman also played producer Dana Whittaker on this Aaron Sorkin quasi-sitcom set at an ESPN-like show, where Macy guest-starred as network executive Sam Donovan.
Answer: Sports Night
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It was approved in a 1963 plebiscite and ultimately made 2.5 million households into landholders. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this omnibus reform program introduced in Iran, which also included women's suffrage and the establishment of worker's representation on management councils.
Answer: the White Revolution [or Enghelab-e Sefid]
[10] Working through prime minister Asadollah Alam, the White Revolution was undertaken by this autocratic ruler of Iran from 1941 to 1979.
Answer: Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi [prompt on partial answer; prompt on Reza Shah Pahlavi to distinguish him from his father of that name]
[10] The darker side of Mohammed Reza Shah's rule was seen in the growing power of this secret police organization, originally instructed to root out members of the Tudeh party but eventually responsible for the torture, death, or detention of all manner of political dissidents.
Answer: SAVAK [or The Organization of National Security and Information; or Sazman-e Amniyyat va Ettela'at-e Keshvar]
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It was led by Louis Hjelmslev and influenced the "stratificational grammar" of Sydney Lamb. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this linguistic circle, also known as the glossematic school, which sprung directly from the work of Saussure and is named for the city where Hjelmslev taught.
Answer: Copenhagen school
[10] Denmark has a long tradition of importance in linguistics, dating back to the work of this researcher who worked out the grammar of Old Norse and discovered the consonant correspondences across Indo-European languages that were used to develop Grimm's Law.
Answer: Rasmus Kristian Rask
[10] Rask was the first to prove that this language branch belonged to the Indo-European group. It includes Manx, Breton, Scottish Gaelic, and Cornish and is further divided into the Insular and Continental groups.
Answer: Celtic language branch
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Name these groups from the paintings of Paul Cezanne for 10 points each.,
[10] Barnes and Louvre versions of this painting exist. One has several pipes hung on the wall as the titular men gather around a table with a drawer in it, and the other shows only two participants. Neither has any visible indication of what is being gambled.
Answer: The Card Players [or Les joueurs de cartes]
[10] This series includes several "large" examples and one "at rest." In these paintings, women face away from the viewer and men stare directly out of the canvas, and most figures are nude or nearly so.
Answer: Bathers
[10] Cezanne painted this mountain over sixty times, often as seen from Les Lauves.
Answer: Le Mont Sainte-Victoire
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It is built on Frenchman Hill, Berg Hill, and Government Hill and contains castles built by Blackbeard and Bluebeard. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this city, named either for a Danish queen or for the island on which it sits.
Answer: Charlotte Amalie [or St. Thomas]
[10] Charlotte Amalie, or St. Thomas, is the capital of this territory, which also includes St. Croix and St. John.
Answer: U.S. Virgin Islands [or Virgin Islands of the United States]
[10] Though considered part of Puerto Rico, this island is actually closer to the U.S. Virgin Islands, being about fifteen miles off the west coast of St. Thomas. Mount Resaca and the Puerto Grande bay are found here.
Answer: Culebra Island [or Isla de Culebra]
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Stuff about fundamental laws of electromagnetism, for 10 points each.,
[10] This Frenchman's law states that the curl of the magnetic field is equal to the current density vector.
Answer: Ampere's law
[10] Ampere's law is one of four equations that completely describe basic electromagnetism, named for an English physicist.
Answer: Maxwell's equations
[10] Maxwell added this term to Ampere's law to account for conservation of energy when charging or discharging capacitors. It can often be ignored.
Answer: displacement current
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Explorers dispatched by him reached Gomes, Tristao, and Cada Mosto along the coast of the Gambia, and he patronized Dinis Dias's expedition to the mouth of the Senegal. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this son of Philippa of Lancaster and King John I of Portugal.
Answer: Henry the Navigator [or Henrique o Navegador; prompt on Prince Henry]
[10] John and Henry were members of this Portuguese dynasty, which John in fact founded. It lasted from 1385 until 1580, when António, Prior Of Crato, was unable to prevent Portugal from being absorbed into Spain.
Answer: House of Aviz
[10] A critical role in the founding of the Aviz monarchy was played by this "Holy Constable," who commanded the Portuguese forces that defeated Castile at Atoleiros and Aljubarrota.
Answer: Nuno Álvares Pereira
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Name these Polish authors, for 10 points each.,
[10] This author of Forefathers' Eve and Konrad Wallenrod wrote what is possibly the only national epic which takes place entirely outside of the country in question, the Polish romance Pan Tadeusz.
Answer: Adam Bernard Mickiewicz
[10] This poet was writing anti-socialist material as early as 1954's Questions to Put to Myself and became popular with Calling Out to Yeti. She later satirized herself in "Review of an Unwritten Poem."
Answer: Wislawa Szymborska
[10] He took inspiration from Borges to publish reviews of fake books in A Perfect Vacuum and One Human Minute, but he may be better known for writing intellectual science fiction such as Mortal Engines, Cyberiad, and Solaris.
Answer: Stanislaw Lem
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Fei Lian and Feng Bo were two names for the Chinese god of this, while Hanui-o-Rangi oversees it for Polynesians and Hurakan for Mayans. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this phenomenon which often has four gods associated with it in various mythologies.
Answer: the winds [accept obvious equivalents]
[10] This son of Eos and Astraeus is the the Greek god of the north wind and was responsible for kidnapping Oreithyia.
Answer: Boreas
[10] This Aztec god of the winds, an aspect of Quetzalcoatl, uses his breath to start the motion of the sun and caused the maiden Mayahuel to become the first human to fall in love.
Answer: Ehecatl
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He wrote such works as the Psalmus Hungaricus and Dances of Galánta, but may be better known for his ethnomusical pursuits. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this co-author of Folk Music of Hungary, who spent fifteen years collecting those songs throughout the country.
Answer: Zoltán Kodály
[10] Kodály collaborated with this countryman, a celesta fan and composer of The Miraculous Mandarin, the Concerto for Orchestra, and Mikrokosmos.
Answer: Béla Bartók
[10] If one wants to hear Hungarian music from a Hungarian conductor, turn to this student of Kodály and Bartók, who was director of the Royal Opera throughout the 1960s and was the first to record the entire Ring Cycle.
Answer: György/Georg Stern Solti
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It had silver steps, bejeweled golden feet, and two tails of the namesake animal made of diamonds and rubies attached to the back. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this throne used by the later Mughal emperors before it was stolen by the Persiah Shah, who lost it.
Answer: Peacock Throne
[10] The Peacock Throne was built for this Mughal, whose other construction projects included the Red Fort and the Taj Mahal.
Answer: Shah Jahan [or Prince Khurram]
[10] A replica Peacock Throne was built during this Iranian dynasty, which was founded by Agha Mohammed Khan in 1779 and ruled until the accession of the Pahlavis in 1925.
Answer: Qajars Dynasty
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Benzene isn't interesting until it is functionalized. Name these benzene derivatives for 10 points each from a brief description.,
[10] Terephthalic acid, a major polymer ingredient, is often made from this coal-tar derivative and petroleum component also known as dimethylbenzene,
Answer: Xylene
[10] Often used as a dye feedstock, this compound replaces a hydrogen with a single amino group.
Answer: Aniline
[10] Catechols, resorcinols, and hydroquinones all contain two of this functional group that denotes alcohols.
Answer: OH
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Name these authors who took "voyages," for 10 points each.,
[10] He described a canoe excursion through Belgium and France in An Inland Voyage and also wrote The Master of Ballantrae, The Wrong Box, and A Child's Garden of Verses.
Answer: Robert Louis Stevenson
[10] Rachael Virance falls for Terrence Hewet in The Voyage Out, a novel by this author of The Waves and To the Lighthouse.
Answer: Adeline Virginia Stephen Woolf
[10] Voyage to the End of Night is one translation of the title of a book about Bardamu, by this author of Conversations with Professor Y and Death on the Installment Plan.
Answer: Louis-Ferdinand Destouches Celine
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This name was coined by Trotsky at the Twelfth Party Congress. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this graphical intersection of industrial inflation and agricultural depression which hit the Soviet economy in 1923.
Answer: the scissors crisis
[10] The scissors crisis occurred in the midst of this response to the Kronshtadt Rebellion and economic fatigue, which reprivatized some agriculture and small shops and brought back the monetary system.
Answer: New Economic Policy
[10] The NEP replaced this failed previous approach, which attempted to eliminate opposition to the Bolsheviks and procure grain for the Red Army via total nationalization, central planning by the Supreme Council of the National Economy, and forced labor.
Answer: War Communism
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It was founded by Ngo Van Chieu and named after a Taoist epithet for God meaning "high tower." For 10 points per part:,
[10] Name this delightfully weird Vietnamese syncretic religion which holds that Victor Hugo, Sun Yat Sen, and Julus Caesar were all saints.
Answer: Cao Dai
[10] Cao Dai believes that God continues to speak to the Cao Dai priesthood via the corbeille a bec, an apparatus which is essentially identical to this device used to communicate with ghosts by Western spiritualists in the nineteenth century and now manufactured by Hasbro.
Answer: a ouija board
[10] Among the behavior demanded of Cao Day laymen is to observe this practice for ten days out of each month. It was practiced year-round by Pythagoras, Gandhi, the Norbertine order, and Jeremy Bentham.
Answer: vegetarianism [accept obvious equivalents]
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The title character dies in battle, a departure from the historical model who was burned at the stake as a heretic. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1801 play about Joan of Arc.
Answer: The Maid of Orleans [or Die Jungfrau von Orleans]
[10] The Maid of Orleans was written by this author of The Piccoliminis, the Wallenstein trilogy, and the poem "Ode to Joy."
Answer: Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller
[10] In this Schiller play, Count von Moor disowns Karl due to the machinations of Franz, so Karl joins the titular group and acts as a hamhanded metaphor for the values of the student movement in Schiller's time.
Answer: The Robbers [or Die Räuber]
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The Carnot cycle opens the doors to a wonderful world of other thermodynamic cycles. Name some terms describing them, for 10 points each.,
[10] This describes a cycle in which the volume of the system is unchanging, such as that in a bomb calorimeter.
Answer: Isochoric
[10] Defined as a process with an infinite number of steps, each of which in and of itself exerts no work and during which the entropy change is zero, it leads to the integral formulation of work done for a thermodynamic cycle.
Answer: Reversible
[10] A process in which no heat is exchanged with the surroundings, it often occurs with a sudden change in gas pressure in a closed system.
Answer: Adiabatic
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Name these relatives of Robert E. Lee, for 10 points each.,
[10] Robert E. Lee married the granddaughter of this woman, descended from her first marriage to Daniel Parke Custis.
Answer: Martha Washington [accept Martha Custis; accept Martha Dandridge; prompt on Martha Washington]
[10] This man wrote the line describing George Washington as "first in war, first in peace" et cetera, and led the taking of Paulus Hook. He was later governor of Virginia and helped put down the Whiskey Rebellion.
Answer: Henry Lee [or Lighthorse Harry Lee]
[10] This great-uncle participated in the Raleigh Tavern meetings and submitted the Resolutions for Independence to the First Continental Congress. He served as president of the Congress in 1783.
Answer: Richard Henry Lee [prompt on Richard Lee]
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Extra. Name these Charles Gounod operas, for 10 points each.,
[10] The title characters sing the duet "O nuit divine" and are married by Friar Laurence. The character Stéphano stands in for Balthasar in the source text, and cello interludes stand in for gettin' busy.
Answer: Roméo et Juliette [or Romeo and Juliet]
[10] The title character explains his wishing for youth in "A moi les plaisirs" and is eventually granted Marguerite by Mephistopheles, leading to the death of Valentin.
Answer: Faust [do not accept any extraneous words; such works as "The Damnation of Faust" are not operas and were written by other people who are not Gounod]
[10] Based on an epic by Frédéric Mistral, and containing the best scene in operatic history of someone being severely beaten with a trident, it follows the title character's attempt to avoid Taven's prophecy by pursuing the peasant Vincent, against the wishes of her father Ramon and her suitor Ourrias.
Answer: Mireille
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Extra. He attempted to put forth an entirely rational proof of the existence of God and the truth of Christianity in his magnum opus, Christianity Niot Mysterious. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this philosopher who also wrote Life of Milton, Origins of the Jews, and Pantheisticon.
Answer: John Toland
[10] Toland drew on similar ideas put forth in The Reasonableness of Christianity, by this empiricist who also wrote An EssayConcerning Human Understanding and some treatises on government.
Answer: John Locke
[10] This pacifist author of The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism and A History of Western Philosophy took rationalism in another direction when he explained rationalist atheism in Why I Am Not a Christian.
Answer: Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell of Kingston Russell, Viscount Amberley of Amberley and of Ardsalla
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Extra. Name some famous supernovas from clues, for 10 points each.,
[10] This 1054 explosion, noted as occurring in daylight by the Chinese, was rediscovered in the 1700s by Charles Messier.
Answer: Crab Nebula
[10] This supernova, observed 20 years ago, is about 168,000 light years away and was notable as the first chance modern astronomers had to see one, as well as confirming theoretical predictions about neutrino production.
Answer: SN1987A
[10] The last known supernova in the Milky Way, this remnant occupies a prominent position in the constellation of the same name, named for Andromeda's vain mother and Cepheus' wife.
Answer: Cassiopeia A
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Extra. The town of Cool Clary is in an uproar because Jennet Jourdemayne has been accused of turning Skipps into a dog. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this play in which Thomas Mendip attempts to confess to various crimes out of a desire to be hanged, but ends up skipping town with the accused witch instead.
Answer: The Lady's Not for Burning
[10] The Lady's Not for Burning was written by this author of A Phoenix Too Frequent, who did uncredited revisions to the script for Ben-Hur.
Answer: Christopher Fry
[10] Other authors who fixed Karl Tunberg's terrible Ben-Hur script alongside Fry were Maxwell Anderson and this author of Creation, Julian, and Myra Breckenridge.
Answer: Gore Vidal

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