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View Packets Tournament Editor
2007 Penn Bowl Tossups by Chicago B
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One of the military commanders under his administration wrote Holland and Belgium in their Mutual Relations. He appointed Adalbert Falk to be Minister of Education during one of his domestic programs, which was opposed by the Zentrum party. He was more strenuously opposed by Eduard Kullman, who tried to assassinate him after he issued the May Laws. He used a dispute over the succession to the Spanish throne to alter the Ems telegram, and he fought the influence of Catholicism in the kulturkampf. For 10 points, name this engineer of the Franco-Prussian War and first Chancellor of Germany.
Answer: Otto von Bismarck
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The 1923 Supreme Court case Adkins v. Children's Hospital concerned a law establishing one of these. In a 1946 paper, George Stigler accounted for positive effects of them by noting that employers act as monopsonists in certain sectors. The 1985 case Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority allowed the continuing existence of these by upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act. A 1995 book by Card and Kruger controversially denied that they have any disemployment effect. For 10 points, the 110th Congress's Democratic leadership has stated an intent to raise what price floor, the lowest legal compensation by a for-profit employer for an hour of work?
Answer: minimum wages
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His hobbies include raising show turtles and taking correspondence courses in Russian. He often relies on his right-hand man Octavio, whom he employed to destroy a ventriloquist dummy that triggered his childhood anxiety. The only document he has signed with his real name is the neighborhood block charter; for all else he uses the alias "Rusty Shackleford." He is oblivious to the fact that his wife Nancy cheated on him for fifteen years with the lead singer of Big Mountain Fudgecake, migraine therapist John Redcorn, who is thus the biological father of his son, Joseph. For 10 points, name this chain-smoking conspiracy theorist and neighbor of Hank Hill on King of the Hill.
Answer: Dale Gribble [prompt on Gribble; accept Dale Gribble; accept Rusty Shackleford before it is read; accept Rusty Shackleford before it is read]
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Plateaus in the western part of this nation include the Nechako and Chilcotin, while mountains in the eastern part of this country include the Monteregian hills and the Long Range Mountains. This nation's northernmost drainage basin includes rivers such as the Liard, Parsnip, and Peace, while islands in its largest bay include the Belcher Islands, the southernmost part of this nation's newest territory. It's tallest peak is Mt. Logan, and it may become politically important due to the discovery of oil sands in one of its western provinces. For 10 points, name this country, home of the Athabasca, Fraser, and Mackenzie rivers and the Great Bear Lake, with capital at Ottawa.
Answer: Canada
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In one of this man's works, Noorna, disguised as a crone, meets the barber Shibli just before he performs the title action, while the titular lowly boy meets and marries the upper class Rose Jocelyn in Evan Harrington. The speaker describes himself as the pilot of his own life after his wife cuckolds him in this author's best-known poem, Modern Love, but he is better known for a novel in which the prohibition of female encounters until the protagonist turns 25 leads to a young man's travails, The Ordeal of Richard Feverel. FTP name this author, also known for a novel in which the title character's relationship with Laetitia Dale reveals the harm of his excessive pride, The Egoist.
Answer: George Meredith
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In his "The Nature of the Physical World," he postulated the Two Tables paradox to demonstrate the incommensurability of common-sensical and scientific inquiry. In that same work, he also promoted the first incarnation of the infinite monkey theorem, which held that "if an army of monkeys were strumming on typewriters, they might write all the books in the British Museum." More a scientist than a philosopher, however, he explained the pulsation of Cepheid variables, though he is better known for his work on black holes, in which he unsuccessfully opposed the idea of the Chandrasekhar limit. He also unsuccessfully attempted to establish the fine structure constant as exactly 1/137, a value now known as his number. For 10 points, name this British astrophysicist who discovered proof of gravitational lensing?
Answer: Arthur Stanley Eddington
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One of this man's works features the titular dark-skinned man in a gold-trimmed red garment with absurdly huge buttons, while a more recognizable one depicts a bird on the shoulder of the eponymous stein-bearing crone. A black shirt with red frills adorns the titular clown in his Jester with a Lute, and the titular woman's breasts are nearly popping out in Gypsy Girl, but he is better known for portraits of figures like Jacobus Zaffius and the Company of Saint George. Best-known, however, is a painting of a mustachioed hat-wearing man notably not performing the titular jocular action. FTP name this Haarlem painter best-known for his The Laughing Cavalier.
Answer: Frans Hals
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In the composer of this work's autobiography, he remarks that he was inspired to create it after viewing Titian's Assumption of the Virgin in Venice. Controversy surrounds the image of a bird flying out of a thornbush in this work, which features the "Midsummer Magic" music and the "Wahn" monologue. One of the title characters is beaten in the street while searching for Eva Pogner, who confides in the cobbler Hans Sachs about her anxiety over the contest at the center of this opera. Walther van Stolzing eventually saves her from the evil Jewlike Sixtus Beckmesser in, FTP, what opera about a vocal contest in a German city by Richard Wagner?
Answer: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg or The Mastersingers of Nuremberg (do not accept any mix of the two, listen carefully)
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In the preface to a book of his lectures this writer notes that the literary critic Henry Louis Gates was one of his students at Cambridge. He served a lengthy prison term that he described in the book of poems A Shuttle in the Crypt and in the memoir The Man Died. His novels include The Interpreters and Season of Anomy, and his satirical plays include Kongi's Harvest and The Trials of Brother Jero, but this author is best known for dramas that delve into Yoruba myth, like The Lion and the Jewel. For 10 points, identify this author who also wrote a play in which Olunde attempts to stop his father, the title servant, from committing suicide, Death and the King's Horseman.
Answer: Wole Soyinka
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Arthur Pap theoriezed! a "functiona!" kind of this. David Hume termed it the "relations of ideas" as opposed to "matters of fact." An early version of it can be found in Plato's Meno, in which it takes the form of the "theory of recollection." Kant appealed to it for "necessary truth" and asserted its transcendental nature, claiming that it involved form rather than content, and that moral principles can only be discovered through it rather than experience. For 10 points, name this epistemological concept, a type of knowledge that is gained independently of empirical or "a posteriori" knowledge.
Answer: a priori knowledge/reasoning
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Genera in this phylum include Haemonchus, Necator, Ancylostoma, and Trichuris. These creatures' ameoboid sperm is believed to be the only eukaryotic cell without G-actin, and they mate through the use of a chitin-coated spicule and often with the aid of specially bent tails. To avoid dessication, their epidermis secretes a keratin cuticle, which also means that they molt. Some also have cilia, but all move primarily through their hydrostatic skeleton. Sensory structures called phasmids can be found near their anus, which serves as the end of the pseudocoel of these triploblastic creatures, which include biological superstar C. elegans. For 10 points, name this phylum of worms that are round.
Answer: Nematodes [accept Nematoda, Nemata, or Nemates]
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Robert Conrad was elected mayor of Philadelphia after being revealed as a member of this group. In Massachusetts, it helped elect Senator Henry Wilson, while in Indiana it recruited congressman Schuyler Colfax. One member was the only man to defeat Boss Tweed in an election. Their presidential candidate was a former Comptroller of New York who led the Silver-Grey Whigs, while their vice-Presidential candidate was Kitchen Cabinet member Andrew Donnelson. For 10 points, name this political party formed out of the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, which nominated Millard Fillmore for President and was defined by its secrecy and opposition to Catholic immigrants.
Answer: Know-Nothing Party [or American Party]
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His father was killed during Lord Dunmore's War, and his boyhood home was destroyed in the Battle of Piqua. His collaborators included Isaac Brock, a brother with whom he captured a fort commanded by William Hull, and Henry Proctor. After adopting the economic theories of Joseph Brant, he broke with Black Hoof and decribed the abdication of land claims. Henry Proctor failed to show up to his final battle near Chatham, where he was killed, possibly by Richard Mentor Johnson, after rising to prominence as the brother of Tenskwatawa, a prophet. For 10 points, name this Indian leader, the loser at the Battle of the Thames and the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Answer: Tecumseh
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The Egyptian general Ganymedes and regent Pothinus were both this type of person. One of them, Judar Pasha, won the battle of Tondibi against Askia Ishaq II, putting an end to the Songhai Empire. The theologian Tertullian claimed that Jesus was one of these, which was believed by the Russian Skoptzy sect. In China, one of these was responsible for the Tumu Crisis, while an influencial group of them was known as the Ten Attendants, and one of them is credited by Gavin Menzies with discovering Greenland, Antartica, and the Americas in 1421. Apart from Zheng He, they were often used to guard harems. For 10 points, name this type of court official, who has been castrated.
Answer: eunuchs
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A key point in this novel comes when one of the characters realizes that a book written under the pseudonym Joseph Emory Prank was actually written by her acquaintance Miss Lavish. Miss Lavish had written about an actual event: a woman is kissed on a violet-covered terrace while wandering in search of Mr. Eager and Mr. Beere. This woman eventually breaks off her engagement to Cecil Vyse, and instead marries the man who had kissed her in Florence, George Emerson. Lucy Honeychurch is the heroine of?for 10 points?this E.M. Forester novel, which takes its title from her lodgings in Florence, from which one can see the Arno River.
Answer: A Room with a View
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After he came to power, he sent Wulfstan of Haithabu to the Baltic and fought the battle of Wilton. Made a Consul of Rome at the age of five by Pope Leo IV, this man forced Guthrum convert to Christianity and sign the Treaty of Wedmore after winning the Battle of Edington. He allegedly spied on his opponents by entering their camp as a minstrel, which allowed him to extend his lands all the way to Watling Street, deep into the Danelaw. He is credited with creating the shire system as well as standardizing English law. For 10 points, name this king of Wessex, called "the Great."
Answer: Alfred the Great
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In Contact, Carl Sagan quipped that there was enough of this compound in galactic cloud W-3 to completely satisfy the entire population of the planet for the age of the solar system. Although used by humans since at least the Neolithic period, it was first isolated through distillation by Persian alchemists in the Abbasid Caliphate. Recent evidence has shown that this compound can in fact increase the growth of the bacterium responsible for pneumonia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections, contradicting a common conception about the ability of this compound to kill budding infections. For 10 points, identify this organic compound with empirical formula C2H6O used as a fuel additive and in adult beverages.
Answer: Ethanol [accept: Ethyl Alcohol or Grain Alcohol]
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One of this figure's forms, Khepri, was originally a separate deity with the head of a dung beetle. In another form he is combined with the ram-headed god Heryshaf, and in yet another he is depicted as the youth Nefertum, who masturbated the Ennead into existence. During his most important task, one of his protectors is Mehen, a snake-like deity with a namesake board game, while other assistants include Thoth and Seth. Seth uses a blade to accomplish what this figure usually does by transforming into a giant cat, namely, killing Apophis. Originally the chief god of Heliopolis, he was eventually merged with the Theban Amun. For 10 points, name this Egyptian solar deity.
Answer: Ra [or Re]
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Although she claims that she is just on leave from from her job teaching high school English, she was actually fired for an inappropriate behavior with a student, and she was evicted from the low-rent Flamingo Hotel for her wild sexual affairs. These affairs are largely motivated by the guilt she feels as a result of the death of her husband, Allen Grey, who killed himself after she discovered that he was gay. At the end of the play, she is taken off to a mental institution, as she reveals that she has "always depended on the kindness of strangers." For 10 points, name this Southern belle, the female lead in Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire.
Answer: Blanche DuBois
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In 1964 Cotton elucidated the first report of bonding interactions specifically between these type of orbitals, in dirhenium complexes. The splitting between their e-gerade and t-1-gerade sets is directly proportional to the colors displayed by inorganic complexes, and the crystal field model was an early attempt to explain their orientations in space. The conventional z-squared one is actually a combination of two possible solution to the Schrodinger equation. For ten points, name these atomic orbitals with principal quantum number, and with one more node than p orbitals, originally "diffuse" in spectroscopic measurement.
Answer: d orbitals
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TB. Major Effingham becomes a father figure in this character's life after his parents are killed by Mingo Indians. He refers to himself as a "younker" and fondly remembers attending Reformed church in Albany, suggesting that he may be of partial Dutch descent. He cries out to his protégé Oliver and to Oliver's wife Elizabeth after the death of his friend Chingachgook, and he ends up giving Chingachgook's son Uncas his gun Killdeer. La Longue Carabine, Lap Ear, Pigeon, and Hawkeye are among the nicknames of?for 10 points?this character, the hero of James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales.
Answer: Natty Bumppo [prompt on any of the above nicknames before they're mentioned, and also on "Straight Tongue," Deerslayer," "Pathfinder," "Leatherstocking," "Trapper"]
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Extra. This term was used by Fred Hoyle in the 1980s as part of his promotion of the theory of panspermia, but its most well-known meaning has its roots in an 1850 book by Patrick Edward Dove. In 1873, Paleyite botanist George James Allman used the current meaning of the term at the annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, but it is perhaps most famously associated with the Wedge Document, which outlined a public relations campaign meant to sway public opinion and policy and to obtain charitable funding for the Discovery Institute. However, John Jones found that it did not meet the Daubert Standard for scientific evidence in his decision in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District. For 10 points, name this pseudoscientific theory that attempts to supplant Darwin's theory of natural selection with a biogenesis that involves a reasoning creator?
Answer: Intelligent Design [accept Behe-creationism or other euphemisms from people who do not wish to dignify "intelligent design" by implying that it is something other than Biblical creationism]
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Extra. Members of this class were initially prohibited from building tall houses or using saddles, and Mutawakkil forbade them from using horses at all and required them to wear blue and yellow turbans. Under the Ottomans, each group that fell under this heading, which was accorded to the Mandeans, but not the Yazidi, received a hierarchical place in the millet system. A person in this class had to provide three days of lodging to a Muslim upon request, was exempt from military service, and had to pay the jizya tax. For 10 points, identify this second-class but protected status given to non-Islamic monotheists such as Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians under Islamic rule.
Answer: dhimmi [or Peoples of the Book; or Ahl al-Kitab]
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Extra. These pieces were taken from the composer's Opus 8 collection, which he named "The Contest Between Harmony and Inventions." The composer noted that the viola part in the second movement of the first piece was imitating the bark of a dog, and in the sonnet that the composer wrote to accompany it, a goatherd sleeps in a meadow strewn with flowers. In the sonnet that accompanies the third piece, the composer describes the peasants' celebration of the harvest, and the fourth sonnet mentions an icy snow. For 10 points, name this collection of violin concertos written by Antonio Vivaldi to represent different times of year.
Answer: The Four Seasons
2007 Penn Bowl Bonuses by Chicago B
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Identify the following types of vector fields from vector calculus, FTPE.,
[10] In this type of vector field, the curl is zero, meaning that such a field can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar potential. In fluid mechanics, such a field is practically synonymous with lamellar field.
Answer: Irrotational field or Conservative field
[10] This type of vector field is characterized by having zero divergence. Examples of such a field include the velocity field of an incompressible fluid flow and any magnetic field.
Answer: Solenoidal vector field
[10] A vector field that both irrotational and solenoidal, this type of vector field has both zero curl and zero divergence, meaning it satisfies its namesake's equation.
Answer: Laplacian field
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Answer these questions about 18th century French writers for 10 points each.,
[10] The composer of Le Devin du Village is better known today for his philosophical work The Social Contract.
Answer: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
[10] Published between 1715 and 1735, this picaresque novel by Alain-René Lesage follows the titular hero as he meets such characters as the quack Sangrado and the seducer Don Mathias.
Answer: The Adventures of Gil Blas of Santillane or Histoire de Gil Blas de Santillanne
[10] This author of Lucien Leuwen is primarily remembered for a novel about the rise and fall of Julien Sorel, The Red and the Black.
Answer: Stendahl or Marie-Henri Beyle
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Ruling between 1512 and 1520, this Ottoman Sultan overthrew his father Bayezid II and put all of his brothers and nephews to death upon his accession, leading to his nickname. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this father of Suleyman the Magnificent.
Answer: Selim I [or Selim the Grim; or Selim Yavuz; prompt on Selim]
[10] A decisive 1517 victory at the Battle of Ar-Raydaniyah allowed Selim's forces to storm this nearby city and incorporate a huge tract of land into the empire.
Answer: Cairo
[10] The conquest of Cairo destroyed this North African empire run by slaves from Central Asia and made their lands part of Ottoman territory.
Answer: Mamluk Empire/Dynasty etc
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ANSWR: Count Almaviva,
[10] Unfaithful to his wife, he attempts to reinstate the tradition of droit de seigneur in order to sleep with his servant, Susanna, before she marries Figaro.
[10] Depply enamored with the countess, he helps her catch her husband by posing as Susanna in his garden.
Answer: Cherubino
[10] Figaro had promised to marry Marcellina, his old housekeeper, and he becomes enraged that he plans to marry Susanna. He's also irked that Figaro facilitated the union of the Count and Rosina, whom he had planned to marry. However, in Act III Figaro is revealed to be his son.
Answer: Bartolo
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Identify the following things from the history of abortion in America, for 10 points each.,
[10] The premise for constitutional protection of abortion relies on the right to privacy, which was set forth in this 1965 Supreme Court case involving a state ban on contraceptives.
Answer: Griswold v. Connecticut [accept Connecticut v. Griswold]
[10] In 1992, the Supreme Court ruling in this case upheld the rights of states to pass certain restrictions on abortion, such as waiting periods and notification of the parents of minors, but declined to overturn Roe v. Wade.
Answer: Casey v. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania
[10] In 1984, Ronald Reagan instituted this policy, prohibiting US foreign aid to organizations that practice or promote abortion. Critics sometimes call it "the gag rule," and its formal name comes from the city where it was first announced.
Answer: Mexico City Policy
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Reginald Blyth wrote a history of the use of this form, which originated in the first three lines of an earlier type of verse. For 10 points:,
[10] Identify this Japanese verse form, which consists of three lines and 17 syllables.
Answer: haiku [accept hokku]
[10] The 17th century master of the haiku was this poet, many of whose best-loved poems are contained in the collection The Narrow Road to the Deep North.
Answer: Matsuo Basho [accept also Matsuo Munefusa]
[10] This late 19th century poet and columnist for the journal Nippon is credited with revitalizing the haiku. Many of his poems are translated in the collection Songs from a Bamboo Village.
Answer: Masaoka Shiki
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Identify the following compounds from biology, some of which may contain carbon.,
[10] This three-carbon compound is the result of glycolysis.
Answer: Pyruvic Acid [accept Pyruvate]
[10] This four-carbon compound, which decomposes to Pyruvate, is an important intermediary of the citric acid cycle.
Answer: Oxaloacetic Acid [accept oxosuccinic acid or oxalacetic acid]
[10] CAM plants store Carbon in their vacuoles as this substance, which they later break down into pyruvate and CO2.
Answer: Malate
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His autobiographical novel Black Snow satirizes Stanisalvsky and the Moscow Arts Theatre. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this author, whose plays include The White Guard and "The Day of the Turbans."
Answer: Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov
[10] Bulgakov's most famous novel is this one, in which the devil comes to Moscow and fucks shit up.
Answer: The Master and Margarita
[10] Bulgakov wrote a tragedy about this life of this playwright, whose plays include "George Dandin" and "The Doctor in Spite of Himself."
Answer: Moliere or Jean-Baptise Poquelin
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It was first theorized in a group of works in the 1910s that included Transformations and Symbols of the Libido. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this part of the mind said to contains archetypes and other primordial ideas common to all mankind, which causes the commonality of myths across cultures and the "synchronicity" of personal events.
Answer: the collective unconscious
[10] The idea of the collective unconscious was created by this Nazi charlatan, who also wrote Psychological Types and had a famous sissy fight with Freud over whose made-up pseudoscience was better.
Answer: Carl Jung
[10] Many of the new-age mush-heads who enjoy the work of Jung were first introduced by this only work of popularization he wrote, a 1961 book that discusses the development of mythology and Jung's religious ideas.
Answer: Man and His Symbols
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Answer these questions about the Harlem Renaissance for 10 points each.,
[10] Edited by Alain Locke, who heralded a "spiritual Coming of Age" in the title essay, this 1925 anthology included contributions from James Weldon Johnson and Countee Cullen.
Answer: The New Negro
[10] Another contributor to The New Negro was this poet, better known for his poems "Theme for English B" and "The Negro Speaks of Rivers"
Answer: Langston Hughes
[10] This 1923 work by Jean Toomer wove together poems and stories. The final section, "Kabnis," is a semi-autobiographical portrait of a city-born man teaching school in rural Georgia.
Answer: Cane
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Answer these questions about Dada for 10 points each.,
[10] The ZĂĽrich branch of the dada movement centered around this nightclub, founded by Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings in 1916, which was named for the author of Zadig and Zaire.
Answer: Cabaret Voltair pe (do not accept or prompt on "Voltaire")
[10] The term "ready-made" was coined by this Dadaist, whose sculpture Fountain is the most famous example.
Answer: Marcel Duchamp
[10] This Dadaist from Hanover gave the name Merz to the collages and sculptures he assembled out of everyday objects.
Answer: Kurt Schwitters
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Identify these baseball players who have made news in the 2006-2007 offseason for 10 points each.,
[10] The Red Sox paid fifty-one million dollars just to negotiate with this Japanese pitcher, whom they signed to a six-year contract.
Answer: Daisuke Matsuzaka [prompt on Dice-K]
[10] This long-time first baseman for the Houston Astros announced his retirement after fifteen seasons.
Answer: Jeff Bagwell
[10] This White Sox shortstop was arrested in the Dominican Republic for allegedly shooting two men, one of whom was an Italian Naval officer.
Answer: Juan Uribe
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[5/5] The word mafic stems from the combination of these two elements, of which mafic minerals have especially high concentrations. Name them for five each.,
[10] FTP, this is the term for a fine-grained, or aphanitic, mafic rock. "Pillow" ones form on the seafloor when lava emerges from underneath the oceanic crust.
[10] Also FTP, this is the coarse-grained (or phaneritic) chemical equivalent of basalt. It usually forms when magma becomes trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools into a crystalline mass.
Answer: Magnesium and iron Basalt
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His piece "The Swan of Tuonela" was originally intended as the prelude to a planned opera called The Creation of a Boat. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this composer, whose works include seven symphonies, the Karelia Suite and the Valse Trise.
Answer: Jean Sibelius
[10] The most famous work of Sibelius is this patriotic tone poem from 1900, which borrowed some melodic material from a similar piece by Emil Genetz.
Answer: Finlandia
[10] The last major work of Sibelius was this 1926 tone poem, which represents the Finnish pine forest and its god.
Answer: Tapiola
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Answer the following about a stereochemical concept and its applications, for ten points each.,
[10] Often explained as `handedness', this refers to the nonsuperimposability of mirror images of the same molecule, or stereoisomers.
Answer: chirality
[10] Pasteur used this compound derived from winemaking to elucidate the first discovery of chirality.
Answer: Tartaric acid or sodium ammonium tartrate
[10] Tartaric acid is used in the chiral resolution and synthesis of this Schedule II controlled substance also known as speed or crank.
Answer: amphetamine (sulfate)
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Identify the following rulers of Poland, for 10 points each.,
[10] This Polish king defeated the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. The bagel was supposedly invented in his honor.
Answer: John III Sobieski [accept Jan III Sobieski; prompt on partial answer]
[10] The last Communist ruler of Poland was this military officer, who came to power in a coup in 1981 and declared martial law. He is famous for always wearing sunglasses, even indoors or at night.
Answer: Wojciech Jaruzelski
[10] This dynasty of kings, originally from Lithuania, ruled Poland from 1386 to 1572. Other rulers of this family, founded by Władysław, included Louis II of Hungary.
Answer: Jagiellon Dynasty
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Identify these Aztec gods, for 10 points each.,
[10] This was the war god whose name means "left-handed hummingbird."
Answer: Huitzilopochtli
[10] This god of rain and fertility was responsible for floods and droughts.
Answer: Tlaloc
[10] This dog-headed skeleton and twin brother of Quetzalcoatl guides the dead to Mictlan and guides the sun from sunset to morning.
Answer: Xolotl
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Identify these early cabinet members from clues, for 10 points each.,
[10] This former general was George Washington's first Secretary of War.
Answer: Henry Knox
[10] Henry Knox was succeeded as Secretary of War by this man, the author of the continental army's field manual. Back home in Massachusetts, he was also the leader of the Essex Junto political machine.
Answer: Timothy Pickering
[10] In 1801, this Swiss immigrant and staunch fiscal conservative was appointed Secretary of the Treasury. He later helped negotiate the Treaty of Ghent.
Answer: Albert Gallatin
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Identify the following geographic features of Russia from clues.,
[10] Russia's borders with Kazakstan and Mongolia are home to this mountain chain, which is the namesake of a language family that includes Turkish. Its highest peak is Belukha.
Answer: Altai Mountains
[10] Russia includes this main river of Siberia, which is the 10th longest river in the world and runs through the city of Yakutsk before it enters the Arctic Ocean.
Answer: Lena River
[10] Near St. Petersburg lies this major lake, the largest in Europe. It features its own subspecies of ringed seal.
Answer: Lake Ladoga
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Name these logical things, for 10 points each.,
[10] This "method of denying" allows one to conclude from the premises "if p then q" and "not q" that "therefore, not p."
Answer: modus tollens
[10] This principle states that the negation of "both p and q" is equivalent to "not p or not q or both not p and not q."
Answer: DeMorgan's Theorem/Law etc
[10] The modern vocabulary of logic, including the notions of quantifiers and variables, was created by this man in such works as Conceptscript and The Foundations of Arithmetic.
Answer: Gottlob Friedrich Ludwig Frege
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Extra. Identify these Old Testament prophets, for 10 points each.,
[10] The book of this prophet, who wrote during the start of the Babylonian exile, contains visions of a field of bones and of wheels in the sky from which four-faced creatures emerge.
Answer: Ezekiel [or Yehezqel]
[10] This prophet spends his book, the longest of the prophetic books, predicting the doom of the nations persecuting Judah, warning Judah against idolatry and injustice, and predicting the coming of the Messiah.
Answer: Isaiah [or Isaias; or Yesha'yahu]
[10] This contemporary of Isaiah and first of the twelve minor prophets calls out Israel for rampant idolatry. Early on, God orders him to marry a harlot named Gomer.
Answer: Hosea
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Extra. Given a description of a geologic period, name it FTPE:,
[10] Major diversification of life, most modern animal phyla appear, trilobites are numerous.
Answer: Cambrian
[10] Modern corals and teleost fish appear, as do the first mammals and crocodiles, and many modern insect clades. Pterosaurs stalk the skies, and ammonoids are extremely common.
Answer: Triassic
[10] Archaic mamals diversify and evolve, and the first large mammals emerge. Primitive whales diversify, and the reglaciation of Antartica occurs.
Answer: Paleogene

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