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View Packets Tournament Editor
2007 Penn Bowl Tossups by Brown
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The narrator of this work, which takes place on Sullivan's Island, is approached his by friend, formerly of an old Louisianan French Huguenot family, but the title object is handed over to Lieutenant G? before the narrator can see it. A Newfoundland dog and the slave Jupiter accompany the narrator and his friend to a large tulip tree, where a great treasure is discovered as a result of the decoding of a message by Captain Kidd. This leads William Legrand to a ledge at Bessop's Hotel where he can spot the right location with a telescope. FTP, identify this story whose title object is an useless insect of a certain metallic appearance, a work of Edgar Allen Poe.
Answer: "The Gold Bug"
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Between 400 BCE and 70 AD, the cities of Zinchecra and Garama flourished in this region, while the western section of it had formerly been colonized by Hanno the Navigator. The cities in this region were later conquered by Lucius Cornelius Balbus, and the Garamantes were subjugated by Rome. The Haratin flourished there until conquered by the Sanhaja, who introduced the camel to the region, and the namesake ancient tree of its southern region was destroyed by a truck in 1973. Its highest peak is Emi Koussi, in the Tibesti range, which along with the Air and Ahaggar ranges divide the region into the Tenere and Lybian sectors. FTP name this huge desert of north Africa.
Answer: Sahara Desert
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The theme of gaiety recurs frequently in this poem, first by reference to poets that "are always gay," and later with regard to Hamlet and Lear, who are watched by Ophelia and Cordelia. This poem's famous first lines reference "hysterical women" who fear that "Aeroplane and Zeppelin will come out, pitch like King Billy bomb-balls in," but more famous are the two last stanzas which describe three Chinese men carved into the titular object, whose every "crack? seems a water course or an avalanche." For ten points, identify this William Butler Yeats poem about a scene depicted on the titular stone.
Answer: Lapis Lazuli
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The Hell-Vollhard-Zellinsky reaction is used to brominate the alpha carbon of these molecules, and they can be synthesized via disproportionation of an aldehyde. Derivatives of them often go through addition-elimination reactions via a tetrahedral intermediate. Applying a solution of Grignard [Grin-yerd] reagents to dry ice is way to synthesize them, as is the hydrolysis of nitriles by sulfuric acid and heat. The butyric variety is responsible for the smell of rancid butter, and the formic variety was originally isolated from ants. Showing up as a characteristic "bite" around 3000 wavenumbers on an IR spec, FTP, what is this class of molecules that contains a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to a hydroxyl group?
Answer: Carboxylic Acid (Prompt on "Acid")
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The title creatures of one of his short stories carry a pink baby-doll-wearing balladeer away from the hands of Captain Ezequiel, who is then transformed into a horntree. The street urchin Baldo is influenced by the titular voodoo priest in Jubiaba, while Ricardo is seduced by the titular bordello owner in Tieta, the Goat Girl. In a better-known novel, the owner of the Vesuvius bar, Nacib Saad, admires the titular mulatto cook for her aroma and skin color, while a recipe precedes each of the five sections of Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands. FTP name this Brazilian author of Gabriela, Clove and Cinnamon.
Answer: Jorge Amado
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He campaigned on the "one hundred days of decision" plan, which was derailed by his weak finance minister, Walter Gordon. George Grant's Lament for a Nation attacked this man's administration for allowing the testing of foreign cruise missiles, after his opposition to nuclear weapons helped him win election over John Diefenbaker. Earlier, in the cabinet of Louis Saint Laurent, this man's role in mediating the Suez Crisis won him a Nobel Peace Prize. For 10 points, name this Liberal Party member who oversaw the adoption of an official flag and national anthem as prime minister of Canada from 1963 to 1968.
Answer: Lester Bowles Pearson
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The Sachs-Wolfe effect observed in the cosmic microwave background is an example of one form of this phenomenon. The Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric can be used to derive the cosmological form of this phenomenon, which was measured by Vesto Slipher, resulting in a famous law. The Ives-Stillwell experiment demonstrated the special-relativistic form of this effect by measuring time-dilation, and in astronomic applications it is usually given as a dimensionless number equal to one plus the emitted frequency over the observed frequency. For ten points, identify this increase in wavelength as light moves away from the observer, most famously manifested in the relativistic Doppler effect.
Answer: redshift (accept gravitational redshift before "cosmological")
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His articles for The Dial were collected in The Vested Interests and the Common Man. The inefficiency of business institutions was the focus of his The Instinct of Workmanship, and he looked at the bright side of autocracy in Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution. He advocated technocracy in 1921's The Engineers and the Price System, claimed that war is caused by the competition among national business interests, and founded institutional economics. For 10 points, identify this American who formulated the concepts of "pecuniary emulation" and "conspicuous consumption" in The Theory of the Leisure Class.
Answer: Thorstein Bunde Veblen
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During "Our Worlds at War, " he was released from teleporter suspension by the Suicide Squad to fight Imperiex. Imperiex charred him to a skeleton, but he was healed and given to Darkseid ("dark side"). Created by Bertron, he was named by Booster Gold, whom he handily slapped around along with Blue Beetle and Guy Gardner after emerging from the depths of the Earth. He was killed twice, once in front of the Lincoln Memorial and earlier in a major 1993 event, where he fell in front of the Daily Planet moments before his opponent. For 10 points, name this monster responsible for the "Death of Superman" story.
Answer: Doomsday [or The Ultimate]
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A "bronze atrocity by Barbedienne," sits on the mantle in the location in which this play takes place. The characters' period of introspection ends with an outbreak of the song beginning with "What a crowd in Whitefriars Lane!" One character then volunteers to be a mirror for another character. The journalist from Rio admits to having deserted from the war, while two other women admit to having extramarital affairs. While the former housewife attempts to stab Inez with a paper knife at this play's end, she fails to afflict any damage, as she, Garcin, and Estelle are already dead. It is revealed that "Hell is other people" in, FTP, what play by Jean-Paul Sartre?
Answer: No Exit or Huis Clos
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It can be given indirectly by Merten's formula, and the double-integral formulation is equivalent to Catalan's integral, which yields this quantity. If a large number n is divisible by all primes less than or equal to n, then the average amount by which the quotient is less than the next whole number is equal to this quantity. It is the limit as n goes to infinity of the nth harmonic number minus the natural log of n, and it is unknown whether it is irrational or transcendental. First calculated to 16 decimal places by one of its namesakes and denoted by a symbol introduced by the other one, for ten points, identify this number approximately equal to 0.577216 and denoted by a Greek letter.
Answer: gamma or Euler-Mascheroni constant (accept "e" before "Catalan's")
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It resolved little and was followed the next year by the Battle of Siffin. One army marched out from the Valley of the Lion before this battle and asked for "qasas," but found that even Kaab b'Sur's presence in the middle of the battlefield failed to help. Losing commanders at this battle included Talhah and az-Zubayr, and it is often called the beginning of the first fitnah. Fought around the city of Basra, it was the first clash over the issue of avenging the murder of Uthman, and it secured the power of Ali, who defeated Aishah. For 10 points, identify this 656 battle, named for the mount from which Aishaha led her forces.
Answer: Battle of the Camel
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This author's unfinished works include the operas The Tree of Science and The New World. With the composer of the piano fantasy Africa this man completed Guirard's unfinished opera Fredegonde, and he first gained success with a symphonic overture to Pierre Corneille's Polyeucte. Ariane becomes the sixth wife of the titular Duke in an opera with a libretto by Maurice Maeterlinck, Ariane and Bluebeard, and Iskender steals a flower from the titular winged creature on the steps of a temple to Ormuzd in his one-act ballet La Peri. Better known is a "symphonic scherzo after a ballade of Goethe." FTP name this French composer, best-known for The Sorcerer's Apprentice.
Answer: Paul Dukas
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Its fifth article mandated the enactment of public sanitation projects, while its sixth exempted the Isle of Pines. Its namesake was the Connecticut Republican who attached it to the Army Appropriations Act at the urging of Elihu Root. It was abrogated in 1934 under the Good Neighbor Policy of the FDR administration, thus ending this provision's ban on foreign treaties and the right to U.S. intervention on behalf of the independence of a certain country, though the lease on Guantanamo Bay was maintained. For 10 points, name this 1902 rider outlining US policy towards Cuba, which replaced the earlier Teller Amendment.
Answer: Platt Amendment
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The polyphase variant of this algorithm improves its efficiency by reusing emptied files, while the bitonic variant requires the same number of steps regardless of input sequence but is not stable. Particularly suited for inputs that are accessed sequentially, it typically performs worse than another similar algorithm despite the fact that its theoretical average and worst-case runtimes are the same. Since the function at the center of this algorithm requires at most 2n operations, where n is the sequence length, its time complexity is "big-O of n log of n." For ten points, identify this divide-and-conquer sort, which breaks the input sequence into subsequences that are recursively sorted and then recombined.
Answer: merge sort
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Upon leaving his apartment, this work's protagonist sees a poster saying, "If you break the law, you can't win!", foreshadowing his demise after he is forced down from the top of a water tank with ice-cold water from a hose. In court, Buckley successfully condemns the protagonist to the death penalty, but visits by the Communist Jan Erlone and his attorney Max lead him to conclude that, "What I killed for, I am!" This work's protagonist was probably not referring to the killing of his girlfriend Bessie but to his accidental murder of Mary Dalton as a poor black chauffeur for the rich Dalton family. FTP, name novel about Bigger Thomas by Richard Wright.
Answer: Native Son
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Near the end of the Iliad, Achilles compared Priam to this character. Her sister-in-law Aedon's envy accidentally caused the death of Aedon's son Itylus, who turned into a nightingale. One of the daughters of this wife of Amphion and daughter of Tantalus changed her name from Meliboea to Chloris, meaning "the pale one." She was probably pale after witnessing the wrath of the gods on behalf of Leto, who punished this woman for claiming superiority based on number of offspring. For 10 points, Apollo and Artemis killed most or all of the children of what woman of Greek mythology, who turned to stone as she wept?
Answer: Niobe
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Its inclusion in its present location was justified by a Latin couplet composed by the future Urban VIII, and its room also contains a painting by Dosso Dossi on the same theme as this work. The artist's last commission for the man in whose namesake museum it stands today, it depicts one participant with one arm outstretched behind him and the other on the body of the other participant, according to the poetic work on which it is based. Noted for its depiction of laurel leaves stemming from one character's fingertips, this is, FTP, what Gianlorenzo Bernini sculpture depicting the metamorphosis of a nymph pursued by a Greek god?
Answer: Apollo and Daphne
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One of his ministers founded Cormeilles and Lire abbeys and drew up the "laws of Bréteuil." Armies under this king attacked the Isley of Ely to dislodge the rebels Morcar of Northumbria and Hereward the Wake, while he also stifled the Revolt of the Earls and the Harrying of the North. He also built the Tower of London before he was succeeded by his son, nicknamed "Rufus." He took advantage of Harold Hardrada's attack on Stamford Bridge to fight a tired army under Harold Godwinson, and eventually commissioned the Domesday Book after winning at Hastings. For 10 points, name this first Norman king of England.
Answer: William I [or William the Conqueror; or William the Bastard; prompt on William]
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It praises "the sleepy ones" as well as relativism, which it terms "the thousand and one goals." It attacks those who self-deceive about their motivations, such as the "pale criminal." Camels, dragons, and lions represent the "three metamorphoses" of one section, while another argues against dualism in "On the Despisers of the Body." The title character hangs out with an eagle and a snake and puts forth the idea of "eternal recurrence," which, along with creating the "meaning of the earth," must be understood to become the "overman." For 10 points, name this Nietzsche volume which takes as its mouthpiece a Persian prophet.
Answer: Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None [or Also Sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen; or Thus Spake Zarathustra]
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TB. This movement's ideas were adopted by Scipione de Ricci at the Synod of Pistoia and applied to other disciplines in such books as Logic, or the Art of Thinking. Many of its views were summarized in the tract "On Frequent Communion," whose author was defended in the Provincial Letters. Its founder accused the Jesuits of Pelagianism in the Augustinus, and it was condemned in "Cum Occasione" and "Unigenitsum," bulls issued by Innocent X and Clement XI. For 10 points, Mère Angélique made Port Royal the center of what French movement against Papal Catholicism, founded by a Bishop Cornelius?
Answer: Jansenism [accept Jansenist heresy, etc]
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Extra. This author's pseudonymous The Dance of Life may have been an answer to The Dance of Death, itself written by Thomas Harcourt and this author under the pseudonym William Herman. Marian Mendenhall is told that Lieutenant Herman Brayle was bitten by a snake in "Killed at Resaca", and other stories include The Fiend's Delight and Cobwebs from an Empty Shell. The protagonist of his best-known work, a Southern gentleman from Alabama, is eventually hanged from the titular structure. Author of "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge," this is, FTP, what author, also known for his satirical lexicon The Devil's Dictionary?
Answer: Ambrose Bierce
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Extra. This organ uses selenium as a cofactor in its normal function, and it develops as a mass of cells at the floor of the pharynx about 3 to 4 weeks after conception. Diseases affecting this organ include Hashimoto's disease, in which autoantibodies destroy its follicle cells. Other diseases include Ord's Disease, Graves' Disease, and Plummer's Disease. Abnormalities in it can cause cretinism or myxedema, and tumors of it are usually treated with radioactive iodine capsules. FTP, name this gland formed at the base of the neck, which secretes triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
Answer: Thyroid
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Extra. Edvard Munch painted two versions of his own of this work, but Munch's versions feature his former lover Tulla Larsen in a role left out of their predecessor. Remaining obscure after the imprisoning of one known as "the Incorruptible" at the Hôtel de Ville, this work was praised by Baudelaire, who stated that its title figure could now challenge Apollo. the title character's right arm dangles lifelessly, while in his left hand is a letter on which the viewer can see the name of Charlotte Corday. FTP, identify this painting by Jacques-Louis David that depicts a leader of the Reign of Terror stabbed in his bathtub.
Answer: The Death of Marat
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Extra. It was the namesake of a 1575 "confession" presented to Maximillian II, and its religious dissenters were recognized in 1609's Letter of Majesty. George Podiebrady was the last native king here, Charles I of this kingdom became Holy Roman Emperor in 1355 as Charles IV, and it was ruled until 1306 by the Premyslid dynasty founded by Otokar I. This kingdom was also home to the conflict between the Utraquists and the Taborites, theological allies of Jan Hus. For 10 points, identify this region whose capital was the site of the incident sparking the Thirty Years War and which was subsumed into Czechoslovakia in 19
Answer: Bohemia [or Cechy or Bohmen]
 
2007 Penn Bowl Bonuses by Brown
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It depicts the wife of Pierre Gautreau. FTPE:,
[10] Name this portrait featuring the titular figure clad in a black dress, her hand on a round table and her face turned away.
Answer: Madame X
[10] This artist painted Mrs. Henry Marquand and Lady Agnew along with creating Madame X.
Answer: John Singer Sargent
[10] A boy pours an unidentified beverage on the right while an old man converses with a hat-wearing youth on the left of this painting, in which Sargent depicts an Iberian room.
Answer: A Spanish Interior
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Answer these questions about a butt-buddy of James Boswell, FTPE:,
[10] Boswell is known for his "Life of" this man, author of Lives of the Poets.
Answer: Samuel Johnson
[10] An imitation of Juvenal's 10th satire, this Johnson poem mocks prayer and notably invokes Democritus. Its title is a reference to Ecclesiastes.
Answer: The Vanity of Human Wishes
[10] The Abyssinian title character of this Johnson novel leaves his home in Happy Valley with Nekayah and Imlac in search of imperfection.
Answer: Rasselas
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Identify some things about a procedure in biology, FTPE:,
[10] This procedure is used to "knock down" genes by injecting a strand of RNA that is antisense to the mRNA of the gene. Craig Mello and Andrew Fire won a Nobel Prize for it in 2006.
Answer: RNA interference
[10] This ribonuclease, critical in the RNAi pathway, cleaves double-stranded RNA into small fragments about 20-25 nucleotides long. Its' thought to have evolved as a response to dsRNA viruses.
Answer: Dicer
[10] A barrier to treating disease with RNA is the presence of this class of proteins, which are traditionally released in response to viral infection; the presence of long double-stranded RNA activates their release.
Answer: Interferons
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After being exiled to Ush-Terek, Oleg Filimonovich Kostoglotov is sent to the title place for treatment, FTPE:,
[10] Name this novel, in which Kostoglotov meets the communist bureaucrat Pavel Rusanov and refuses his treatments for the titular disease to preserve his sexual appetite.
Answer: Cancer Ward or Rakovy korpus
[10] Cancer Ward is a novel by this author, better-known for One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.
Answer: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
[10] This Solzhenitsyn novel, whose title refers to Dante's Inferno, is set in the mildest level of the Stalinist prison system. Inmates include Gleb Nerzhin, a writer, and Lev Rubin, a communist imprisoned for knowing Germans.
Answer: First Circle or V kruge pervom
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Except the last, each of this work's fourteen variations is dedicated to a friend of the composer. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this work of music, a work of Edward Elgar whose title indicates that there is a mystery behind its theme.
Answer: Enigma Variations
[10] The ninth variation of the Enigma Variations is titled this, named after his best friend Augustus J. Jaeger, with whom Elgar discussed Ludwig van Beethoven's slow movements. It also shares its name with a biblical giant.
Answer: Nimrod
[10] This tenth variation is named after Miss Penny, the daughter of William Meath Baker. Its title is also the name of a character in Mozart's Cosi fan tutte and another in Dryden's All for Love.
Answer: Dorabella
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Only two of his royal buildings have survived, the second being the Queen's Chapel at St. James Palace. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this architect who famously collaborated on masques with Ben Jonson.
Answer: Inigo Jones
[10] Jones is famous for popularizing the ideas of this Italian architect in England. This man's work includes the Four Books of Architecture as well as the Villa Rotunda.
Answer: Andrea Palladio or Andrea di Pietro Della Gondola
[10] This is Jones' other surviving royal building; begun in 1622, it consists of one large chamber whose ceilings are decorated with di sotto in su frescoes by Rubens.
Answer: the Banquetting House at Whitehall (do not accept or prompt on Whitehall, which is the palace itself and not designed by Jones)
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It preceded the Anti-Rightist Movement and the Cultural Revolution. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this movement that was initiated by the Chinese Communist Party in an effort to increase constructive criticism of the government; the criticism came in torrents, and crackdowns ensued.
Answer: The Hundred Flowers Campaign/Movement
[10] This premier of China initiated the Hundred Flowers Campaign in the 1950s; Mao overrode him to stop the campaign when the criticism became too harsh to handle. This man continued as premier through the opening of Chinese-American relations
Answer: Zhou Enlai [or Chou En-lai]
[10] The Hundred Flowers movement reversed the persecution of ideological "elements" associated with this man, the former party spokesman on art. He had edited the works of Lu Xun and advocated a personal, rather than orthodox, communist literature.
Answer: Hu Feng [or Zhang Mingzhen, or Zhang Guangren; prompt on Hu]
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Taking place on June 27th, it results in the death of Tessie Hutchinson who screams, "It isn't fair, it isn't right" at the work's end. FTPE:,
[10] Name this short story that sees the title action conducted by Mr. Summers and carried out by boys like Bobby Martin, who has stuffed his pockets full of stones.
Answer: The Lottery
[10] This American author of We Have Always Lived in the Castle, The Sundial, and The Haunting of Hill House wrote "The Lottery."
Answer: Shirley Jackson
[10] Jorge Luis Borges wrote about a lottery in this city, where the lotteries contained no moral force and were thus a failure. At the work's end, it is revealed that this city "is nothing but an infinite game of chance."
Answer: Babylon [accept "The Lottery in Babylon"]
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Answer the following about some related concepts in physics, for ten points each:,
[10] Denoted by L, this quantity is conserved for circular motion because the product rule for cross product derivatives applied to the radius and momentum vectors results in parallel vectors and a zero cross product for dL/dt.
Answer: Angular momentum
[10] Due to the electron's ability to take on different spins, how many degrees of rotation are required to restore its spin (orbital angular momentum) vector to its original value?
Answer: 720 degrees
[10] Dimensional analysis of the units of this constant, 6.626x10^-34 Joule*seconds, were the first indication that angular momentum is quantized.
Answer: Planck's constant
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While Muriel's mother phones in from New York, her husband is out on the beach with Sybil Carpenter. FTPE:,
[10] This is what short story, where Seymour Glass introduces the title aquatic creatures to Sybil before shooting himself in the head?
Answer: A Perfect Day for Bananafish
[10] "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" is a short story in Nine Stories by which author, who also penned Franny and Zooey and a novel featuring Holden Caulfield.
Answer: J. D. Salinger
[10] Another story in this Salinger collection is this story, where Mary Jane and Eloise discuss the latter's first husband Walt, who died wrapping a little Japanese stove. It formed the basis for the 1949 film My Foolish Heart.
Answer: Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut
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Robert Merton incorporated it into his "strain theory" and analyzed "social structure and" this concept in a 1938 paper. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this sociological concept which describes a state of disconnect from, or absence of, universal values.
Answer: anomie
[10] Perhaps the most famous use of anomie is in this book, which postulates an anomic form of the titular phenomenon along with fatalistic, egoistic, and altruistic causes.
Answer: Le Suicide
[10] Merton completed Social Structure and Anomie shortly after receiving his Ph.D. under this structural-functionalist, who introduced Durkheim's work to American sociology in 1937's The Structure of Social Action.
Answer: Talcott Parsons
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Identify some contemporary video games for 10 points each.,
[10] This latest entry of the Legend of Zelda series on the Nintendo Wii features Link turning into a wolf; there's also a Gamecube version, but it's sold out everywhere.
Answer: The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess
[10] This next entry in an acclaimed series by Hideo Kojima is to be released in 2007, featuring an aged Solid Snake deployed in the Middle East. Other characters making the move to the Playstation 3 include Hal "Otacon" Emmerich, Liquid Snake, and Revolver Ocelot.
Answer: Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots [accept "Metal Gear Solid: Guns of the Patriots"]
[10] Will Wright, the creator of The Sims, is currently working on this game set to be released in 2007, in which you guide a creature from the unicellular "tide pool" stage to the "space-faring civilization" stage.
Answer: Spore
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Given the following first lines of Wallace Stevens poems, name the poem, FTPE:,
[10] "Just as my fingers on these keys/ Make music, so the self-same sounds/ On my spirit make a music too."
Answer: Peter Quince at the Clavier
[10] "Call the roller of big cigars,/ The muscular one, and bid him whip/ In kitchen cups concupiscent curds."
Answer: The Emperor of Ice Cream
[10] "She sang beyond the genius of the sea./ The water never formed to mind or voice,/ Like a body wholly body, fluttering/ Its empty sleeves."
Answer: The Idea of Order at Key West
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It is a family of subsets of some set X, such that any union of its elements is a subset of that family, as is any intersection of finitely many elements of that family. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify the term for this family of subsets, which also includes both the empty set and X, and which also names a branch of mathematics.
Answer: topology
[10] This topological invariant represents the non-intersecting closed curves that can be drawn on a surface without separating it. It can also be given by one minus half the Euler characteristic and is 2 for a Klein bottle.
Answer: genus
[10] This theorem states that there does not exist an everywhere nonzero tangent vector field on the 2-sphere. It implies that there is a point on the Earth's surface with zero horizontal wind velocity.
Answer: hairy ball theorem
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After it, William H. Winder was court martialed, and Secretary of War John Armstrong resigned. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this battle in the War of 1812, where James Monroe and the president watched the namesake "races" begin as Robert Ross chased the Americans away in Maryland and marched into Washington to burn the capital.
Answer: Battle of Bladensburg
[10] This woman, the wife of the then-president, saved various historical artifacts from a burning White House following the battle.
Answer: Dolley Madison
[10] Among the items Dolley Madison saved was a portrait of George Washington allegedly painted by this artist, whose George Washington portrait known as the "Athenaeum Head" currently resides on the dollar bill. Accordeing to white house hist soceity
Answer: Gilbert Stuart
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It was discovered in Helium-4 in 1938 by Pyotr Kapitsa. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this phenomenon, in which a fluid's viscosity drops to zero at low temperatures.
Answer: superfluidity
[10] The superfluid transition of helium-4 occurs at this point on the graph of the heat capacity versus temperature.
Answer: lambda point or transition
[10] In 1941, this physicist formulated a phenomenological theory of superfluidity. He is better known for a namesake theory of phase transitions and another phenomenological theory formulated together with Vitaly Ginzburg.
Answer: Lev Davidovich Landau
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Answer the following about the Vienna Circle, for 10 points per part.,
[10] The discussions of the Vienna Circle gave rise to this school of philosophy, which rejects all subjective experience and metaphysics in favor of the statement that scientific knowledge is all knowledge.
Answer: logical positivism [prompt on positivism; accept logical empiricism]
[10] This member of the Vienna Circle argued for the elimination of metaphysics from human discourse in Pseudoproblems in Philosophy. He also wrote The Logical Structure of the World.
Answer: Rudolf Carnap
[10] This author of A World of Propensities was a notable critic of the Vienna Circle. He argued that falsifiability is the criterion that distinguishes scientific theories from non-science in The Logic of Scientific Discovery.
Answer: Sir Karl Raimund Popper
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Name these Supreme Court decisions involving the separation of church and state, for 10 points each:,
[10] This 1962 decision struck down the practice of saying the Lord's Prayer in public school. Potter Stewart's dissent cited religious language in the Pledge of Allegiance and coinage, arguing that those things don't establish a state religion.
Answer: Engel v. Vitale [or Vitale v. Engel]
[10] This 1986 case struck down the teaching of "creation science" in Louisiana as unconstitutional via the Lemon Test. Seventy-two scientists signed an amicus curiae brief arguing against the scientific merits of creationism.
Answer: Edwards v. Aguillard [or Aguillard v. Edwards]
[10] In 2000, the Rehnquist court ruled that certain student-led Christian prayers before football games are unconstitutional in this decision. Naturally, Rehnquist, Scalia, and Thomas dissented.
Answer: Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe [or Doe v. Santa Fe Independent School District; prompt on Doe]
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He performed his namesake action upon Jesus in the Jordan river. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this guy who was imprisoned by Herod Antipas for denouncing Herod's marriage to his brother's ex-wife and eventually beheaded at the request of Salome.
Answer: St. John the Baptist [accept St. John the Forerunner; accept St. John the Precursor, prompt on St. John]
[10] The Gospel of Mark equates John the Baptist with the returned form of this prophet, who railed against Jezebel's cult of Baal and brought down "fire from heaven" upon Azariah.
Answer: Elijah [or Elias; or Elia; or Eliyyahu]
[10] Elijah also condemned King Ahab for putting this man to death out of a desire to expropriate his vineyard.
Answer: Naboth
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It forced Romania to cede southern Bessarabia to Russia, and it created an independent Bosnia-Herzegovina. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this 1878 treaty, signed after the successful siege of Pleven and the capture of Adrianople by Russian forces at the conclusion of the final Russo-Turkish War.
Answer: Treaty of San Stefano
[10] The Treaty of San Stefano created this state as an autonomous principality stretching from the Danube to the Aegean. Its size was greatly reduced during the Congress of Berlin.
Answer: Bulgaria
[10] This Austrian foreign minister provoked the Congress of Berlin by his strenuous objections to the large size of an independent Bulgaria. He also engineered the Austro-German alliance that led Austria to join World War I and was in charge of the final constitutional negotiations for a unified Austria-Hungary.
Answer: Julius/Gyula, Graf Andrassy von Csikszentkiraly und Krasznahorka
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Extra. Loki cut off this goddess's hair and was forced to have a wig of finely spun gold made for her. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this wife of Thor.
Answer: Sif
[10] Sif's golden wig was made by the sons of this dwarf, who also made Skidbladnir and Gungnir as gifts for the Aesir.
Answer: Ivaldi
[10] Loki lost a bet to Brokk and Eiti since they were able to create this as a better gift than those items, and then gave this hammer to Thor to make peace.
Answer: Mjollnir

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