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View Packets Tournament Editor
2007 Penn Bowl Tossups by Berkeley
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Occasional hints of racism in this novel appear in the characters of Mexican priest Father Sarria, who is responsible for the rape of Angéle Varrian, and the villain S. Behrman, a vehicle for Jewish stereotypes. Among the locations in this novel are the Home Ranch, the Quien Sabe Rancho, and El Rancho de los Muertos, owned by Magnus Derrick, whose property Presley bicycles across at the beginning of the novel. Inspired by the Mussel Slough incident, it was the first book of its author's planned "Epic of the Wheat". For 10 points, name this Frank Norris novel detailing the struggle in frontier California between farmers and the railroad, which strangles them like the titular animal.
Answer: The Octopus
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It has been proved that its value for all even positive numbers is transcendental, but for odd integers, only its value for 3 has been shown to be irrational by Apéry, and that value is sometimes called Apéry's constant. Ramanujan came up with rapidly converging series for its value at odd integers, and his summation can be used to show that its value at -1 is -1/12, as well as the fact that it is zero for any negative even number, called the trivial roots, but the conjecture that all of its nontrival roots have real part 1/2 is one of the most famous unsolved problems in number theory. For 10 points, what is this function, the subject of a namesake hypothesis, closely related to the distribution of prime numbers?
Answer: Riemann zeta function
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During this dynasty, the minister Qin Gui committed an infamous act of treachery against the general Yue Fei, and the author of the Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government, Sima Guang, opposed the New Laws of Wang Anshi. Zhao Kuangyin formed it, and gunpowder, the magnetic compass, and moveable type were invented during this era, before the death of emperor Qinzong led to the decline of its Northern period, but its southern incarnation survived until the Mongol conquest. For 10 points, name this dynasty is credited with unifying China after the Ten Kingdoms and Five Dynasties periods.
Answer: Song Dynasty
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A stone in Fowey shares this name with the given name of Thomas Pynchon's niece, who directed such films as House of Ass. It is also the first name of the woman who won Olympic gold in skeleton in 2002, and it forms the name of a South Atlantic island group colonized by the British to keep an eye on St. Helena along with "da Cunha." Romanian Sami Rosenstock adopted this as a first name to write "The Inner Face" and "Seven Dada Manifestos." In addition to the poet Tzara, this is the name of the killer of Morholt and nephew of Mark of Cornwall. For 10 points, what is this name, borne by a knight in love with Iseult?
Answer: Tristan [do not accept "Tristram"]
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Léon Duguit used this man's ideas to develop a theory of law, while Lucien Lévy-Bruhl elaborated his notion of "group ideas" to explain the difference between primitive and modern socities. He called for studying "social facts," not individuals, in The Rules of Sociological Method. In another work, he stated that a certain organizational phenomenon was the result of population growth and subsequent change in social structure, rather than a conscious attempt to produce more. For 10 points, name the author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life and The Division of Labor in Society who founded French sociology.
Answer: Emile Durkheim
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His portrait of a child in a beret and gold chain exemplifies the tronie style he helped develop. His "Balaam and the Ass" was ripped from a work by his teacher, Pieter Lastman, while green light illuminates a sword, bow, and arrows hanging from the wall of a cave in his "The Raising of Lazarus." A man has his hand on the breast of his titular spouse in "The Jewish bride," but better known portraits include his self-portraits with Saskia. He is widely praised for his painting depicting the "writing on the wall," while an angelic girl stands out in the company of the titular military regiment of his best-known work. FTP name this artist of "The Night Watch."
Answer: Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
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One class of this phylum can vomit its internal organs at potential predators, which it can then regrow. That class, Holothuroidea, has microscopic ossicles with a sponge-like structure called stereom characteristic of the phylum, and has five rows of tube feet running along its body, thus exhibiting the symmetry characteristic of this phylum. Along with the sea cucumbers, this phylum also contains the Echinoidia, or sea urchins, and the Asteroidea, or starfish. For 10 points, what is this deuterostome phylum characterized by fivefold radial symmetry, the closest relatives of the chordates?
Answer: Echinodermata or echinoderms
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This term can refer to the most severe form of damnation in Sufism, a contraceptive diaphragm, or the guard of a government official's office door, and it literally means "barrier." Its requirement is implied by the sura "The Light" and more directly stated in a hadith about Asmaa. At first, it was restricted to Muhammad's wives as an indication of wealth, and many poor Muslims still consider it a luxury. As early as 1866, Richard Burton condemned it as "the slavery of one portion of humanity." For 10 points, give the Arabic word for a common interpretation of the Islamic injunction for female modesty, including veiling.
Answer: hijab [prompt veiling, etc before it is read; do not accept or prompt on chador, burqa, or other wrong answers]
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He wrote a "Greeting Prelude" after a happy birthday melody by C.F. Summy, while an "Intrada," a "song," a "Wedding Dance," and a "Cortege" are the titular components of his Four Norwegian Moods. Small vocal works include a set of songs about a tom-cat and a work in memory of Dylan Thomas, and he wrote a chamber concerto for an American estate, "Dumbarton Oaks." Also known for an oratorio the opera The Rake's Progress and a "Psalm Symphony," he is better-known for a work in which a peasant dances with a bear, Petrouchka. FTP name this Russian composer, remembered primarily for ballets such as The Firebird and The Rite of Spring.
Answer: Igor Stravinsky
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His Ordinatio, a commentary on Book I of Lombard's Sentences, was denounced by former chancellor John Lutterll. He fled with Bonagratia and Michael of Cesena to Pisa under the protection of Louis IV, because he was persecuted for defending Franciscan poverty and right of kings to tax the church in Opus nonaginta dierum. A student of Duns Scotus, he was the leading nominalist and became known as "Doctor Invincibilis." For 10 points, who said that "plurality should not be posited without necessity," thus creating his namesake "razor?"
Answer: William of Ockham
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In the seventh part of this work, the title character finds "relish sweet," "honey wild," and "manna dew." The work takes place when "The squirrel's granary is full,/And the harvest's done" and when "The sedge has wither'd from the lake/And no birds sing." The speaker has a dream in which he sees "Pale Kings, and Princes too" with their "starved lips in the gloam" who tell him that the title character has him in thrall. The speaker met the title character "in the meads" and makes her "a garland for her head," noting her long hair and wild eyes. FTP name this poem that describes a knight's encounter with the titular elflike pitiless woman, a work of John Keats.
Answer: "La Belle Dame sans Merci"
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For a massless bosonic gas, the density of this quantity in natural units is 2 pi squared times temperature cubed over 45 per spin state. The Sackur-Tetrode equation can be used to obtain the exact value of this quantity for a monatomic gas, while Claude Shannon is credited with the development of this quantity in information theory. Its partial derivative with respect to particle number gives the chemical potential, and with respect to internal energy the inverse temperature. Boltzmann was so proud of the expression he derived for this quantity that he placed it on his tombstone. For 10 points, what is this quantity, which, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is always globally increasing?
Answer: entropy
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Her father claims that before her wedding, this woman was "so opposite to marriage that she shunn'd / The wealthy curled darlings of our nation" and that her husband must have "abus'd her delicate youth with drugs or minerals / That weaken motion." Her mother had a maid, Barbary, who "was in love, and he she lov'd prov'd mad / And did forsake her: she had a song of `willow,'" which this character sings in similar circumstances, to Emilia, the wife of the man who uses her for revenge. For 10 points, name this woman in a Shakespeare play, daughter of Brabantio, victim of Iago, and wife of Othello.
Answer: Desdemona
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Its namesake later commented that he "could have traveled the length of the country by the light of bonfires burning his effigy." It called for arbitration committees to set damages for the blockade of the West Indies, established the "rule of 1756," and prohibited the use of American ports to supply pirates. Britain also agreed to remove remaining forts in American territory and recognize free navigation on the Mississippi. For 10 points, issues remaining from the Treaty of Paris were clarified in what 1794 treaty, negotiated for the U.S. by the least prolific author of the Federalist Papers and first chief justice of the Supreme Court?
Answer: Jay's Treaty [prompt on Treaty of London; accept Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation between His Britannic Majesty and The United States of America]
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The arts tower of Sheffield University is a nearly identical half-scale copy of this structure, which sits across the street from the Lever house. Mark Rothko revoked his series of paintings for the restaurant in this structure after realizing how expensive it was, and a backdrop for The Three Cornered Hat by Pablo Picasso now hangs there. Sculptures by Willem de Koonig and Henry Moore were at times placed off-center in the building's plaza, while large reflecting pools grace its North and South faces. Featuring the 24-hour Brasserie restaurant along with the Four Seasons, this is, FTP, what Park Avenue skyscraper designed by Philip Johnson and Mies van der Rohe?
Answer: Seagram Building
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One of this author's stories describes a bachelor trapped in a tower surrounded by the titular marshes. In one of his short works Alissa, in her quest for sainthood, tries to steer Jerome toward her younger sister Juliette, but actually wants him for herself. The novelist Julius, the vivisector Anthime, and the titular bastard are at the center of a scheme to fake a papal kidnapping in Lafcadio's Adventures, while the accidental suicide of Boris mortifies the title figures' leader, the nephew of the man who cares for Bernard Profitendieu, Edouard, in The Counterfeiters. Also the author of a novel about a gay pedophile, this is, FTP what author of The Immoralist.
Answer: Andre Gide
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It is home to the largest non-delta river island in the world, Sauvie Island. Believed by 17th-century cartographers to be an estuary to the mythical Straits of Anian, its mouth was first observed in 1775 by Bruno de Heceta. The site of Hanford, where plutonium enriching was performed during the Manhattan project, lies along it, and dams along its length include Wanapum, Chief Joseph, and the Dalles. Pasco marks the point of confluence with the Snake, while the Willamette flows into it at Portland. For 10 points, what is this river, the second-largest in volume in North America, which forms part of the Oregon-Washington border?
Answer: Columbia River
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One person by this name resigned after the Council of Sutri charged him with simony, and another was the Crescentii candidate deposed by Benedict VIII. One of them engineered the election of Rudolf Hapsburg as emperor, another canonized Francis Xavier and Teresa of Ávila, and another was urged by Catherine of Siena to move the Papacy back from Avignon. One dispatched Augustine of Canterbury to Kent, and another's Dictatus proclaimed that he could depose the emperor, leading to a confrontation at Canossa. For 10 points, what Papal name is shared with the engineer of a namesake calendar reform?
Answer: Gregory
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Long thought to have no direct physical meaning, the Aharanov-Bohm effect showed that a nonzero value for this quantity could cause a phase shift even in a region where its curl was zero. Its derivative is discontinuous across surfaces carrying surface current, and its very existence implies the nonexistence of magnetic monopoles, as the divergence of its curl is by definition zero. In the Coulomb gauge its divergence is set to 0, while in the Lorenz gauge its divergence is proportional to the negative partial derivative of the electric potential. For ten points, what is this quantity, whose curl is equal to the magnetic field?
Answer: vector potential [or magnetic potential]
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In one of this author's novels, the chief suggests that a boy ritually murder his stepfather when he decides to retire from sailing. A restaurant owner's attraction to an elderly conservative politician clashes with the radical beliefs of her husband in his novel After the Banquet, while anxiety over a planned mutiny leads to the suicide of Reiko and Takeyama Shinji in "Patriotism." In his first novel, the student Kochan realizes he cannot marry Sonoko after a prostitute fails to arouse him, while the stuttering Mizoguchi sets fire to the title structure in The Temple of the Golden Pavilion. Best known for a series including Spring Snow, this is, FTP, what author of The Sea of Fertility?
Answer: Yukio Mishima [accept Kimitake Hiraoka)
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TB. Their energy spectrum is characterized by a steepening at the "knee" at around 10 to the 16th electron-volts and another at the "ankle" at 10 to the 19th electron-volts, the latter possibly due to the GZK cutoff resulting from inelastic collisions with the cosmic microwave background. SuperKamiokande's initial observation of neutrino oscillation was made by comparing the interaction of these with Earth's atmosphere on the two sides of the earth, and Carl Anderson first discovered the positron using the interaction of these in a cloud chamber. Composed of approximately 87% protons and 12% alpha particles, for 10 points, what are these particles which bombard Earth's atmosphere from extraterrestrial sources?
Answer: cosmic rays
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Extra. Dhu Nuwas was the last king of the Himyarites, who ruled in what is now this country, and converted to Judaism, leading to a Jewish population persisting here until airlifted to Israel in Operation Magic Carpet. The Romans called the region "Arabia Felix" because of its trade in frankincense and myrrh, though now its inhabitants are partial to qat ["cot"]. One part of this country was dominated by Zaydi Islam and gained independence in 1918, but the rest was a British protectorate until 1967, instituting a Communist government in 19 For 10 points, name this Arab country unified as a single republic in 1990.
Answer: Republic of Yemen
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Extra. He seduced Tyro, the wife of his brother Salmoneus, and he founded the Isthmian Games to honor his nephew Melicertes. After Autolycus stole his cattle, he seduced Anticleia, leading some some sources to say he is the true father of Odysseus. He also revealed Zeus's abduction of Aegina in exchange for a drink of water, which led to his first death, but his undignified funeral resulted in him returning to teach his wife etiquette. He had earlier chained Death to a post, so, after his death of old age, he was kept too busy to think of more tricks. For 10 points, name this king of Corinth who must forever push a boulder up a hill.
Answer: Sisyphus
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Extra. Its goal was the "AA line" and it occurred in concert with Operation Silberfuchs. After it was launched, an unsuccessful counterattack was ordered at Suwalki and Lublin, and the prolonging of the battle at Vyzama helped slow it down. This initiatve did not begin to falter until a counteroffensive in the Yelets and Tula sectors used imported Siberian troops to fight in cold weather. It led to the execution of General Pavlov after Fedor von Bock's Army Group Center captured Minsk on the sixth day. For 10 points, what invasion launched on June 22, 1941 began the Nazi war on the USSR?
Answer: Operation Barbarossa
2007 Penn Bowl Bonuses by Berkeley
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King Dushyanta uses the jester Mathavya as an excuse to see her in a sacred grove, FTPE:,
[10] Name this maiden, the daughter of a Brahman and a water-nymph who appears in an eponymous play where she is "recognized."
Answer: Sakuntala
[10] This man is the author of Sakuntala.
Answer: Kalidasa
[10] An exiled Yaksha on a mountaintop engages the title entity to communicate with his lost fiancée in this long Kalidasa poem.
Answer: The Cloud Messenger or Meghaduta
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For such a tiny country, there sure are a lot of weird goings-on in Equatorial Guinea. For 10 points each:,
[10] A 2004 coup attempt against dictator Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo led by Simon Mann implicated the son of this former British Prime Minister.
Answer: Margaret Thatcher
[10] Obiang's son Teodorin was at one point romantically linked to this rapstress, who collaborated with Gwen Stefani on "Let Me Blow Ya Mind" and appeared in XXX, Barbershop, and an eponymous UPN sitcom.
Answer: Eve [or Eve Jeffers]
[10] Obiang's predecessor and uncle, Francisco MacĂ­as Nguema, executed opponents in groups of 150 while playing this tune made famous by Mary Hopkin, which looks back upon a tavern. It shares its name with another song, the opening theme to All in the Family.
Answer: "Those Were The Days"
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Answer these questions about the literary appearances of composer and musicologist Philip Heseltine, for 10 points each.,
[10] D.H. Lawrence first saw African art in Heseltine's apartment and imortalized him as Halliday in this novel about Ursula and Gudrun Brangwen.
Answer: Women in Love
[10] Heseltine was also the model for Coleman in Antic Hay, by this author of Brave New World.
Answer: Aldous Leonard Huxley
[10] Constant Lambert introduced Anthony Powell to Heseltine, and Powell drew upon the acquaintance to create Maclintick, who appears in Casanova's Chinese Restaurant, a volume in this twelve-novel sequence.
Answer: A Dance to the Music of Time
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Identify these human hormones for 10 points each.,
[10] Goiter is caused when the namesake organ is unable to make a sufficient amount of this hormone due to iodine deficiency.
Answer: thyroid hormone [accept also thyroxine]
[10] This glycoprotein triggers ovulation in females and testosterone production in males.
Answer: luteinizing hormone or LH
[10] This first hormone identified stimulates bicarbonate production to regulate the pH of the duodenum.
Answer: secretin
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His 2nd piano trio mourned the death of Jewish musicologist Ivan Sollertinsky, and his score for "The Bedbug" was written for Vladimir Mayakovsky. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this composer of the song cycle From Jewish Folk Poetry, symphonies on the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917, and a 7th symphony nicknamed "Leningrad."
Answer: Dmitri Shostakovich
[10] Stalin's disgust with this Shostakovich opera led to its being deemed in Pravda as "muddle instead of music." Retitled as Katherina Izmailova, it was based on a story by Nikolay Leskov, and its criticism led to the withdrawal of Symphony No. 4.
Answer: Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District
[10] Along with Symphony No. 10, this is the most often performed Shostakovich work. Subtitled "the creative reply of a Soviet artist to justified criticism," it features a notable part for tympani in its final Allegro non troppo movement.
Answer: Symphony No. 5 in D minor
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Identify these things about a Russian novel for 10 points each.,
[10] The protagonist spars with his university friend Arkady's father, Pavel Kirsanov, in this novel by Ivan Turgenev.
Answer: Fathers and Sons [or Fathers and Children or Ottsy i Deti]
[10] This nihilistic central character perishes of typhus at the end of Fathers and Sons.
Answer: Yevgeny Bazarov
[10] Bazarov's values are shaken when he falls in love with this young wealthy widow.
Answer: Anna Odintsova (accept either)
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He invented the triadic line to accomodate modern American speech. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this New Jersey pediatrician whose poetry is collected in Kora in Hell, Sour Grapes, The Desert Music, Pictures from Brueghel, and Paterson.
Answer: William Carlos Williams
[10] "By the road to the contagious hospital," Williams finds "one by one objects are defined," and bushes and trees that "enter the new world naked" as "rooted, they grip down and begin to awaken" in this first poem in its namesake 1923 collection.
Answer: "Spring and All"
[10] "So much depends" on the titular object of this Williams poem, which is "glazed with rain/water/beside the white/chickens."
Answer: "The Red Wheelbarrow"
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Identify these useful reagents (as opposed to all those useless reagents out there) for 10 points each.,
[10] These reagents can often be used as substitutes to Grignards, when a stronger nucleophile is called for.
Answer: organolithium reagents
[10] This reagent is used to distinguish aldehydes from ketones; when reacted with aldehydes a silver mirror is produced.
Answer: Tollens' reagent
[10] This reagent is also used to tell aldehydes from ketones. It produces a magenta or purple color when reacted with an aldehyde.
Answer: Schiff's reagent
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Florian Cajori called the publication of this man's The Analyst; or, a Discourse Addressed to an Infidel Mathematician the most spectacular event in British math history. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this dean of Derry and bishop of Cloyne, an idealist philosopher who claimed that "to be is to be perceived" and wrote Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonus.
Answer: George Berkeley
[10] This 1744 Berkeley treatise expounded on such important subjects as the medicinal virtues of tar-water, that substance's relations to a chain of being in the world from the senses to the mind, and how drinking pine sap proves the existence of God.
Answer: Siris
[10] Rejecting Descartes's geometrical interpretation, Berkeley wrote two works that attempted to explain this process, an "Essay towards a new theory of" this, and a "theory of" this, "vindicated and explained."
Answer: vision [prompt on equivalents]
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Answer these questions about one of the keystone experiments in establishing quantum mechanics, the Stern-Gerlach experiment, for 10 points each.,
[10] The Stern-Gerlach experiment established the quantization of this quantity.
Answer: spin [accept intrinsic angular momentum or orbital angular momentum, but do not accept or prompt on just "angular momentum"]
[10] The Stern-Gerlach experiment observed two spots on their photographic plate, indicating that the silver atoms used had this value for their spin.
Answer: 1/2
[10] This man used a version of the Stern-Gerlach apparatus to induce spin flips in electrons using a time-varying magnetic field; his eponymous "flopping frequency" describes this phenomenon.
Answer: I. I. Rabi
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Identify the following regarding early 20th century German art for 10 points each:,
[10] This group of Expressionist painters seceded from the Munich New Artist's Association in 1911 as a response to the rejection of one of Wassily Kandinsky's paintings from the Association's exhibition.
Answer: Der Blaue Reiter [or The Blue Rider]
[10] Though the group's name matches that of another Kandinsky painting, some insist it refers both to Kandinsky's belief that blue represents spirituality, and this co-founder's love for horses.
Answer: Franz Marc
[10] This was the Kandinsky painting that prompted the group's formation, which the Association had rejected from their exhibition on the grounds that it was "incomprehensible."
Answer: Angel of the Last Judgment
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Answer these questions about some related films FTPE:,
[10] This 1929 short, co-written by Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel, includes the famous scene of an eyeball being sliced open.
Answer: Un chien andalou [accept An Andalusian Dog]
[10] This 1933 Jean Renoir film stars Michel Simon as Maurice Legrand, a cashier married to a horrible woman who takes another, Janie Marèse's Lulu, as his mistress.
Answer: Un chienne [accept The Bitch or Isn't Life a Bitch?]
[10] Don Johnson plays Vic, the titular youth of this far superior L.Q. Jones film, who along with his companion searches for food and sex in a post-apocalyptic world. It's based on a story by Harlan Ellison.
Answer: A Boy and His Dog
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Identify the following concerning Iran in the 1950s, for 10 points each.,
[10] This company, today known as British Petroleum, aroused Persian wrath for taking up to eighty-five percent of Iranian oil profits in 1951.
Answer: Anglo-Iranian Oil Company [accept AIOC]
[10] In response, the AIOC's assets were expropriated under the Oil Nationalization Act passed by the Persian parliament, which is known by this name.
Answer: Majlis
[10] This man enforced the Oil Nationalization Act while serving as prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953, when he was overthrown in a coup orchestrated by the CIA and MI6.
Answer: Muhammad Mossadegh
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Augustus's daughter, Julia, was married three times. Name these husbands of hers, for 10 points each.,
[10] Her first husband was this cousin, who died in 23 BCE after two years of marriage. The largest theater ever built in the Roman empire was dedicated to his memory by Augustus in 13 BCE.
Answer: Marcus Claudius Marcellus
[10] In 21 BCE, Julia was married to this man, the admiral to whom Augustus owed victory at Actium. His second wife, whom he divorced to marry Julia, was Claudia Marcella, the sister of Julia's first husband.
Answer: Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
[10] After Agrippa's death in 12 BCE, Julia was married to this man, the successor to Augustus as emperor. He was forced to divorce his wife at the time: Vipsania Agrippina, Agrippa's first daughter.
Answer: Tiberius Claudius Nero [accept Tiberius Caesar Augustus]
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Name these things from the Wars of the Roses, for 10 points each.,
[10] This 1485 battle saw the defeat and death of Richard III. He may or may not have said something about a horse.
Answer: Battle of Bosworth Field
[10] Queen Margaret's Lancastrian forces defeated and killed Richard, the Duke of York and claimant to the throne, in this 1460 battle.
Answer: Battle of Wakefield
[10] In 1455, the First Battle of St. Albans saw Richard, Duke of York capture this Lancastrian monarch.
Answer: Henry VI [prompt on Henry]
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[5,5] For five points each, name the two immortal children, whose father was Zeus.,
[10] For 10 points, all or nothing, name the other two children, who were mortal because their father was Leda's husband.
[10] FTP This husband of Leda, who was installed on the throne by Heracles after the deposition of Hippocoon, was the father of Castor and Clytemnestra and oversaw the marriage of Helen to Menelaus under his namesake oath.
Answer: Pollux and Helen of Troy Castor and Clytemnestra
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Identify these William Faulkner works from notable characters for 10 points each.,
[10] In this novel, the Bundren family travels to bury their deceased matriarch Addie.
Answer: As I Lay Dying
[10] Joe Christmas murders Joanna Burden and is tracked down, killed, and castrated in this novel.
Answer: Light in August
[10] Bayard Sartoris figures prominently in this novel, especially its last story, "An Odor of Verbena", which deals with the post-war Southern honor.
Answer: The Unvanquished
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Answer these questions about the tallest volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons, for 10 points each.,
[10] Olympus Mons is this type of volcano, as it is built up from overlapping lava flows.
Answer: shield volcano
[10] Olympus Mons is located on this large Martian bulge straddling the northern lowlands and southern highlands.
Answer: Tharsis bulge
[10] Lying along the slopes of the Tharsis bulge is this 5000-km-long canyon system, though the term "canyon" is somewhat erroneous since it is produced by tectonic action.
Answer: Valles Marineris
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Answer these questions about non-contiguous countries FTPE:,
[10] This country consists of two separate pieces divided by the South China Sea: the southern part of its namesake peninsula and most of the northern part of Borneo.
Answer: Malaysia
[10] This country surrounded by Malaysia also consists of two noncontinguous parts, a larger containing the capital of Bandar Seri Begawan, and the smaller district of Temburong.
Answer: Brunei
[10] Azerbaijan constantly fights with this nation over rights to the exclave Nagorno-Karabakh. Despite lying propaganda to the contrary, the Turks really did kill a lot of its ethnic constituents.
Answer: Armenia
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Identify these nineteenth-century Supreme Court cases, for 10 points each.,
[10] In this 1819 case, the Supreme Court ruled that a royal charter constituted a contract, and was therefore protected against state interference.
Answer: Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward [accept Woodward v. Trustees of Dartmouth College]
[10] This 1895 case thwarted the government's attempt to enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act on an eponymous sugar monopoly.
Answer: U.S. v. E.C. Knight Company [accept E.C. Knight Company v. U.S.]
[10] This 1879 case found that the Mormon practice of polygamy was not protected from federal regulation under the First Amendment because of common-law traditions which made marriage subject to civil courts.
Answer: Reynolds v. U.S. [or U.S. v. Reynolds]
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Extra. They were discovered in desert caves near Qumran, Israel beginning in 19 For 10 points each:,
[10] Name the documents, including the only surviving copies of the Hebrew Bible written before 100 CE, as well as such new materials as the "Words of Moses" and the "Rule of the Congregation."
Answer: the Dead Sea Scrolls
[10] The scrolls are often attributed to this Jewish sect, which allegedly had a self-governing community at Khirbet Qumran and could be the same as the Boethusians. They denied physical resurrection and lived in a communal, ascetic fashion, and John the Baptist is sometimes called a member of this group.
Answer: Essenes
[10] Another theory maintains that Qumran was actually inhabited by this opposing Jewish sect, associated with the priestly class and temple leadership, whose main rivals were the Pharisees.
Answer: Sadducees [accept Tsedukim; accept Zadokites]
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Extra. Identify these questions about a certain class of algorithms for 10 points each.,
[10] This is the term used to describe a class of algorithms where the algorithm will always make the locally optimum choice at any given point.
Answer: greedy algorithm
[10] Probably the best-known greedy algorithm is this algorithm, namesake of a Dutch computer scientist, to find the single-source shortest path in a directed graph with edge weights.
Answer: Dijkstra shortest path algorithm
[10] Another greedy algorithm is this lossless compression algorithm which uses a variable-length coding based on the expected frequency of each character.
Answer: Huffman coding
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Extra. He established the Center of Genetic Epistemology at Geneva and published articles on albino sparrow and mollusks. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this developmental psychologist who explored his four-stage model in Judgment and Reasoning in the Child and The Origins of Intelligence in Children.
Answer: Jean Piaget
[10] During this stage reached by age six or seven, children can represent states of being mentally but cannot conceive of something changing from one state to another, think reversibly, or fully distinguish space and time.
Answer: preoperational stage [or preoperations]
[10] Piaget used this term to describe a preexisting action sequence used by infants to assimilate new information when presented with a new object or unforeseen consequences of an object.
Answer: scheme [or schema]
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Extra. Name these agreements between the U.S. and USSR, for 10 points each.,
[10] This 1972 treaty, signed along with the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, was the first accord limiting the ballistic missile arsenal of the US and the Soviet Union.
Answer: SALT I [or Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty; or Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement]
[10] The product of the 1975 Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, it ratified the postwar division of the continent, but also included civil rights provisions which proved instrumental in the diplomacy leading to the end of the Cold War.
Answer: Helsinki Accords [or Helsinki Declaration; or Helsinki Final Act]
[10] This 1990 treaty established equal limits for tanks, artillery, combat aircraft, and other combat equipment for NATO and the Warsaw Pact in Europe. That eventually paved the way for the removal of Soviet troops from former Warsaw Pact countries, while American troops remained in Germany.

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