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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 Minnesota Open Tossups by Minnesota
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A distinctive neurotoxin known as BMAA is produced in these organisms and is thought to be responsible for a variant of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that used to be highly prevalent among the Chamorro of Guam. Lawrence Johnson reclassified this phylum's families, which now include stangeriaceae and zamiaceae and some species have coralloid roots that contain symbiotic bacteria which help in nitrogen fixation. Thought to have evolved from the Medullosales due to their manoxylic wood and radiospermic seeds, they were ubiquitous from the late Permian through the Jurassic periods, but are now threatened due to their slow reproductive rate and habitat loss. For 10 points, identify this phylum whose plants bearing a single or cluster of large seedcones at the top of the center, that look like and are often confused with palms.
Answer: Cycads [or cycadophyta; or cycadophytes]
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The protagonist of the novel once penned a poem that praises his countrymen's "zest for life and jollity" that begins "God bless our noble fatherland." The protagonist returns to a bustling metropolis and is startled by the carcass of a dead dog while waiting for a taxi, after which he argues with his girlfriend about whether to see a movie. This novel insinuates that the protagonist's secretary, Marie Tomlinson, spies on him for the resentful William Green. One character in this novel named Sam is ironically referred to as "The Honorable," and its protagonist desires to marry a taboo osu girl. The protagonist is indebted to his village's Progressive Union, but his finances are strained when he finances Clara's abortion, and he is eventually arrested for taking a bribe. For 10 points, name this novel about Obi Okonkwo, the sequel to Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe
Answer: No Longer at Ease
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One of its namesakes has a lemma with Cantelli which states that if the probability for an infinite set of events is 0 if the sum of probabilities for all events is less than infinity, and the other names a theorem about uniform continuity of certain functions along with Cantor. A combinatorial proof for it was developed using finite bitstrings and Brouwer's fan theorem, and was developed by Macauley and Rabern. Tychonoff's theorem yields a result similar to this theorem, and accumulation points for an infinite set A which belong to A have finite covers according to this theorem which can be proved by the Bolzano Weierstrass theorem for real numbers. For 10 points, identify this theorem named after a German and a Frenchman, which states that any subspace which is compact has to be both bounded and closed.
Answer: Heine-Borel Theorem [accept in either order]
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This battle occurred after one side retreated from Ford Malden, and their commanding general allegedly left the troops with Colonel Warburton while he delivered his personal luggage and family to safety. A noted battle-cry during the fighting was "Remember the Raisin!," a reference to the earlier River Raisin Massacre. One combatant in this battle was later left off the 1840 Democratic ticket, leaving Van Buren without a runningmate, and used a Vice Presidential political slogan beginning "Rumpsey Dumpsey" that referred to events in this battle; that was Richard Mentor Johnson. The battle took place near a village of Delaware Indians who had been converted to Christianity by Moravian missionaries, which is why it is called Moraviantown by the British and Canadians. For 10 points, identify this October 5, 1813 skirmish in the War of 1812, the site where Tecumseh was killed.
Answer: Battle of the Thames [accept Battle of Moraviantown early]
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This adjective describes an object, that with "the breaches, and all that" is "so queer!" in the Oliver Wendell Holmes poem "The Last Leaf." James Masao Mitsui's 1997 anthology of his past poetry has this adjective in its title. A work with this adjective in its contains a man who claims that western romances take a "non-human, objective approach," and who finally assents to paint a woman drowning when she compassionately looks at her husband. In addition to that work which features O-Nami Shioda, another novel with this adjective in its title contains a servant named Weasel. That novel sees Don Eugenio attempt to make love to Frasquita, and features the miller Lucas. For 10 points, name this adjective that describes a "World" in a Natsume Soseki work, and a "Hat" in a Pedro Alarcon novel.
Answer: three-cornered [prompt on three; prompt on cornered]
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His first published work was a poem that begins by exhorting Hercules to "Fall...from Heaven, in tempests hurl'd and goes on to describe how the speaker's miseries "ever murmur." He invoked Botticelli's painting in another poem in the structure of Ficino that describes a garden tryst. In addition to "The Shadow of Night" and "Ovid's Banquet of Sense," he wrote a play in which the protagonist is caught up in the intrigues of Baligny, and the title character's ghost childes his brother Clermont to revenge him. He was thrown in jail after collaborating with John Martson and Ben Jonson on a Scotsman-bashing play about the goldsmith Touchstone. In another play, the Tamyra betrays the Count of Montsurry to have an affair with the title character, a brash courtesan of Henry III. For 10 points, name this British dude who wrote Eastward Ho! and Bussy D'Ambois, and who got his Homer looked into by John Keats.
Answer: George Chapman
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In one work by this artist, a tiny-waisted woman wears a purple ribbon around her stomach and lounges in a floral print chair. In another of this artist's works, a central man in the background wails at the ceiling, two guitarists strum, and a woman in a dramatically red dress raises a clenched fist while a white-skirted woman contorts in dance. In addition to Lady Agnew of Lochnaw and El Jaleo, this artist executed a mural series depicting the "Triumph of Religion" for the Boston Public Library. A line of blindfolded soldiers hold each others' shoulders in his Gassed. One of his paintings was criticized as "four corners and a void" and depicts two enormous vases and the four titular figures, one of whom sits on the carpet with a doll. He also painted two girls lighting Japanese lanterns in a twilight garden. For 10 points, name this painter of The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit; Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose; and a portrait of Pierre Gautreau's wife leaning against a table, Madame X.
Answer: John Singer Sargent
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Henry Madan suggested the names for these bodies. In the 1960s, one of these bodies was alleged to be hollow by S. Fred Singer, who supported the thesis of Iosif Scklovsky regarding it. One of these bodies has impact sites named after David Todd and Heinrich D'Arrest in addition to Reldresel and Limdoc. One of these bodies is the alleged source of the Kaidun meteor, and the nearly straight lines on its surface were discovered to be the result of ejecta from the body it orbits by the Express probe. The smaller of these objects has impact craters named after Swift and Voltaire, while the larger of these objects has a ten-kilometer wide impact site that is nearly as deep as its diameter, known as Stickney crater, and will eventually be pulled into the planet's surface. Discovered by Asaph Hall in 1877, for 10 points, identify these two irregularly shaped objects that orbit the red planet.
Answer: Phobos and Deimos [accept in either order; accept the moons/satellites of Mars; prompt on moons; prompt on satellites]
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This man abolished Oklahoma's grandfather clause in arguing Guinn v. U.S. as solicitor general, and he was the first president of the Council on Foreign Relations. He scored a major legal victory that limited the President's right to seize private property as counsel for the steel industry in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. vs. Sawyer. He was nominated for president in a bizarre convention, during which radio listeners tuned in to hear an enthusiastic Alabama delegation yelling "UNDERWOOD!" during each round of balloting. He suffered defeat in his defense of South Carolina's educational policies in Briggs v. Elliot, a companion case to Brown v. Board of Education. He was nominated for president after a standoff between William McAdoo and Al Smith, and he ran alongside Charles W. Bryan in an election that saw Robert La Follette carry Wisconsin. For 10 points, name this man who was the Democratic nominee for president in 1924 against Calvin Coolidge.
Answer: John William Davis
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He is sometimes considered to be the son of the deities of expediency and poverty, Porus and Penia, and he was depicted at Megara accompanied by such figures as Pothos and Himeros. Also thought by some to be a son of Iris and Zephyrus, a festival in his honor was held every five years at Thespiae, and the Dionysian Mysteries refer to him as "protagonus," or "the first-born," referring to the Theogony's claim that he sprang forth from Chaos. He carried torches, as well as a set of weapons that were half lead and half gold. His daughter with his most famous counterpart is Voluptas or Hedone, and an eagle, a river god, and some ants help that lover accomplish the tasks set to her by this god's mother after it was discovered that this god was secretly sleeping with that lover, Psyche. For 10 points, identify this bow-and-arrow wielding attendant to and son of Aphrodite, the Greco-Roman god of lust and love.
Answer: Eros [accept Cupid or Amor]
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This work singles out Waitz for his "distinct" point of view after deriding George Gliddon and Josiah Nott for falling into Nietzsche's trap of "higher instinct," noting that they fail to take "social conditions" into account. This seventh section of this work focuses on "convergent development" to argue for an "Evolutionary viewpoint," and its author concludes this work with an overview of "The Negro problem" in the United States. The fifth section of this work attacks the distinction between "higher" and "lower" languages, while its fourth section concludes that there is no correlation between brain size and ability. This work detailed the author's research among the Kwakiutl people of the Pacific Northwest, and concludes that "there is no fundamental difference between the ways of thinking of...civilized man" and the title person. For 10 points, name this first major Franz Boas work, which investigates the connection between race and civilization.
Answer: The Mind of Primitive Man
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One character in this novel responds "Very well--war!" when told that she can either be a lover or an enemy. One character tells her friend Sophie that she received her first love letter when her lover placed it on her harp, put it away, and then reminded her to practice. At this novel's end, one character joins a convent, another signs up with the Knights of Malta, and a third flees to Holland when she contracts a disfiguring case of smallpox. One character's mother sequesters her at her aunt Madame de Rosemonde's estate, where she is seduced by a man who has her room key. One character attempts to affect an affair between Gercourt's fiancee Cecile and Danceny, and also to seduce Madame de Tourvel. Featuring the intrigues of the schemers Valmont and the Marquise de Merteuil, for 10 points, name this epistolary novel by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos.
Answer: Dangerous Liaisons [accept Dangerous Acquaintances; or Les Liasons dangereuses]
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One adaptation of this collection grants large powers to rulers but implores citizens to retain their conscience. This collection's Targum caused a "great earthquake" when it was composed by Yonatan ben Uzziel, and selections from this collection are read after the Torah in the Haftara during Shabbat. Its poetic section of Acharonim contains the Trei Asar as well as the "Book of Comfort" while its narrative section of Rishonim describes the Battle of Gibea and the Judgement of Solomon. It contains books that compare Israel to a harlot, Hosea and proclaim God's love for all people, Amos. For 10 points, identify this section of the Hebrew Bible consisting of many foretellings by dudes like Ezekiel and Isaiah, and which falls between the Torah and the Ketubim.
Answer: Nevi'im [or Prophets; accept anything that suggests prophetic writings]
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One song by a group from this country describes "The one who sucks tequila from a cactus;" in the chorus of that song, Suffa notes that "it's all love, and it's all right/till we're all drunk, then it's all fights." That song is "What A Great Night" by this country's Hilltop Hoods. "Greater Reward" charted in the U.S. for an electronica group from here, Severed Heads. "Who's Gonna Save Us" and "What's On Your Radio" are songs by another band from this country, The Living End. One band from this country announced that "Fat boy, you gonna wait" until the title time of "Tomorrow," while another band expressed their desire to "stand with you on a mountain" and "bathe with you in the sea" in "Truly Madly Deeply." In addition to Silverchair and Savage Garden, this country is home to a band whose debut album Get Born contained the songs "Rollover DJ" and "Are You Gonna Be My Girl." The home of Jet, for 10 points, is which country whose other native bands include INXS, AC/DC, and Men at Work?
Answer: The Commonwealth of Australia
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His botched funeral saw his relatives forced to pay sixty schillings for his gravesite on the spot, and may have been marred with a fire or his bowels exploding when he was shoved into his sarcophagus. His marriage to a cousin required that they donate the "Men's" and "Women's" abbeys, dedicated to St. Stephen. His loyal advisers included his half-brothers Robert and Odo, who was instrumental in putting down a revolt led by Ralph de Guader. He forced the nobles of his kingdom to swear allegiance at the Oath of Salisbury, and he faced resistance from the pretender Edgar Aetheling. He elevated the Archbishop of Canterbury over York in the Accord of Winchester, put down the Revolt of the Earls, and married Matilda of Flanders. For 10 points, name this Domesday-Book-authoring, Battle-of-Hastings-winning first Norman king of England.
Answer: William I [or William the Conqueror; or William the Bastard; prompt on William; do not accept "William Rufus"]
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Jay Rosenberg wrote a 1994 work subtitled "[This work] for Human Beings" entitled Beyond Formalism, while Scott Soames discussed this work's "Unfinished Semantic Agenda" in a 2002 work. This work proposes the phrase "I exist" as a counterexample to "P is a posteriori iff P is contingent" by showing that "I exist" is both contingent and a priori. This work posits an "initial baptism" whereby the title action occurs, and it uses the example of "Hesperus equals Phosphorus" in formulating the "rigid designator." It refutes the Frege-Russell theory of definite descriptions in such sections as "A Puzzle about Belief" and "Speaker's Reference and Semantic Reference." For 10 points, name this book consisting of three Princeton lectures that provide the basis for the causal theory of reference, by Saul Kripke.
Answer: Naming and Necessity
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This person designed a church with a tall rectangular brick spire and a grid-like facade with a small window cutaway, the Christ Church Lutheran in Minneapolis, which is strikingly similar to this person's own First Christian Church in Columbus, Indiana. This architect collaborated with a younger colleague on the Buffalo's Kleinhans Orchestra Hall, and also designed the grid-inspired and stark white Des Moines Arts Center. He finished as the runner-up to John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood with an art deco design that was later made into Houston's Gulf Building. This runner-up in Chicago's Tribune Tower contest devised such National Romantic designs as his home country's National Museum and the iconic central arch of his Helsinki Central Railway Station. For 10 points, name this man whose son Eero designed the Gateway Arch.
Answer: Eliel Saarinen [do not accept Eero Saarinen; prompt on Saarinen; prompt on E. Saarinen]
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Colin Mackenzie performed three geographical surveys of this kingdom, and the Italian Jesuit Leonardo Cinnami established several missions here during the rule of Kanthirava Narasaraja. The Chikkadevaraja Vamsavali and Kalale Doregala Vamsavali are important historical texts from this polity, and this polity was established when Vijaya established his capital at Hadinaru and was thus ruled for a long time by the Wodeyar dynasty. This kingdom was usurped by a man whose son established a monopoly on its Sandalwood trade and signed the treaty of Seringapatnam, but had to give away his two sons to Cornwallis after losing another battle at Seringapatnam in the fourth of a series of wars. Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan once ruled, for 10 points, what kingdom which fought a series of wars against the British during the late 18th century in Southern India?
Answer: Kingdom of Mysore
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This person adapted a Holger Drachmann poem into his Sakuntala, and his second opera, Magic Fountain, was never performed in his lifetime. Some of his Norway-inspired works include the tone poem Eventyr, or Once Upon a Time, as well as the symphonic choral work A Song of the High Hills. His George Washington Cable-inspired opera Koanga repeated the "La Calinda" tune from the "Daybreak" movement of a suite which depicted the St. Johns River, while his most famous work is an opera in which the son of Manz and the daughter of Marti, Sali and Vreli, avoid the Dark Fiddler and eventually drown together. He included the Norwegian folk song In Ola Valley in his On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring and adapted a Percy Grainger arrangement of a folk song into his Brigg Fair. For 10 points, identify this English composer, a former orange grower whose works include Florida Suite and A Village Romeo and Juliet.
Answer: Frederick Albert Theodore Delius
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TB. This author wrote a "Novel in Dramatic Form" in which Black engages White in a lengthy philosophical discussion about Evangelical Christianity after saving him from killing himself by jumping in front of the title train. Another work by this author features Culla, who abandons the illegitimate child he sires with his sister in a forest. In addition to The Sunset Limited and Outer Dark, this author wrote a work in which the protagonist falsely runs Reverend Green out of town for pederasty and goatsex. That work features Tobin, the kid, and Judge Holden. In another of his works, Sheriff Bell investigates mysterious deaths revolving around a drug trafficking deal gone awry in the desert, while trying to protect the protagonist from a maniac who kills with a mysterious weapon which leaves no bullet. For 10 points, name this novelist of Blood Meridian who depicted Llewelyn Moss in No Country for Old Men.
Answer: Cormac [or Charles] McCarthy
2008 Minnesota Open Bonuses by Minnesota
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This author has written works like Abeng and Free Enterprise. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author who wrote about Clare's life in flashbacks as she rides a truck with a bunch of possibly suicidal guerillas in No Telephone to Heaven.
Answer: Michelle Cliff
[10] Michelle Cliff emigrated from this country to the United States. A novelist with this first name has penned works like Annie John and At the Bottom of the River.
Answer: Jamaica [accept Jamaica Kincaid]
[10] Another Jamaican writer was this Harlem Renaissance figure who wrote about Hopping Dick and Bita Plant in Banana Bottom, and Jake Brown and Congo Rose in Home to Harlem.
Answer: Claude McKay
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Name some things related to people who pronounce their own names in ways that make Rob Carson want to angrily slaughter thousands in Dynasty Warriors, for 10 points each.,
[10] This co-host of NPR's All Things Considered won a bunch of awards for a series of articles about crackhouse kid Dooney Walters. Much to Rob's chagrin, she pronounces her first name "MEE-shell."
Answer: Michele ("MEE-shell") Norris
[10] This asshole got so caught up in losing the 1970 Heisman race to Jim Plunkett that he started pronouncing his name differently. Lawrence Taylor later broke his leg, much to Rob's satisfaction.
Answer: Joseph Robert "Joe" Theisman
[10] Rob holds that a certain former Twins stud was awesome when everyone called him "Matt Luh-CROY," but when he asked people to call him "Matthew LEE-croy," he started sucking. The sucking culminated when he began suffering from this disease, which David Wells has also suffered from.
Answer: the Gout
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For 10 points each, name the following about the bastard child of the Know-Nothing and the Whig parties, the Constitutional Union party.,
[10] The Constitutional Union party nominated this Senator from Tennessee for President, but he only ended up carrying three states in the general election.
Answer: John Bell
[10] Bell won the electoral votes of this state, which despite allowing slavery, did not join the Confederacy in seceding from the Union. The Battle of Mill Springs was fought here during the Civil War.
Answer: Kentucky
[10] The Constitutional Unionists were very influential at two conventions led by John Carlisle in this city, which created a breakaway state that rejoined the Union after Virginia seceded.
Answer: Wheeling, West Virginia [or Wheeling, Virginia, I suppose]
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Here's a bonus on ROCKS! For 10 points each:,
[10] This series describes the order of crystallization of different minerals from cooling magma, and it ends in quartz and which has a continuous and discontinuous branch.
Answer: Bowen's Reaction Series
[10] Falling between pyroxene and biotite on the mafic branch of the series, these minerals are distinguished from pyroxenes by their 120ยบ cleavage and double-chain structure. Hornblende is a common example of this type of rocks.
Answer: Amphiboles
[10] This mica mineral is highly birefringent and very easily shows basal cleavage. It is a conspicuous component of most granites and falls between the feldspars and quartz on the reaction series. Its name comes from its use as window-glass in the namesake region.
Answer: Muscovite mica
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The protagonist of this play seeks a "city of light" and concludes that the title figure must stab him. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this play whose title character lures victims to their doom in a drowning pool by offering to show them "a picture of the colonel."
Answer: The Killer [or Tueur sans gages; accept The Killer without Guarantees]
[10] The Killer was one of Eugene Ionesco's four plays to feature this character, who also shows up in A Stroll in the Air and as a man who refuses to become the title animal in Rhinoceros.
Answer: Berenger
[10] Berenger also appears in this play by Ionesco as the titular ruler over a land that he has horribly mismanaged.
Answer: Exit the King [or Le roi se meurt; accept The King is Dying]
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Help Billy Beyer answer the following about the geography of Monica Marks, for 10 points each.,
[10] Billy wants to travel to Monica, Texas, which is located just east of this town near Texas's southern tip. This city is across the border from Matamoros, Mexico.
Answer: Brownsville, Texas
[10] It's a scant 978 miles, mostly on Highway 77 and Interstate 55, from Monica to Marks, which is located near Clarksdale in this state. Billy will drive all night, not even stopping to enjoy the majesty of this state's capital, Jackson.
Answer: Mississippi [or MS]
[10] On his long drive, Billy will have to avoid the temptations of this Harrison County gambling haven. Like its twin city, Gulfport, it is home to many casinos. Unlike Gulfport, it is the primary setting of many John Grisham novels.
Answer: Biloxi, Mississippi
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Indiana Jones isn't the only one who can eat brains. Name some mythical cerebrophages, for 10 points each.,
[10] Revived by bokor, these undead creatures were originally created by drugs as thralls to their masters. It is only in later adaptations that they became known for eating brains.
Answer: Zombies
[10] Conall Cernach used to enjoy delicious calcified brains. Perhaps his unusual snacks helped him defeat Lugaid to avenge the death of this other hero, who had previously showed him up in a beheading contest.
Answer: Cuchulainn [or Setanta]
[10] By eating Melanippus's brain, this father of Diomedes and member of the Seven Against Thebes scandalised Athena, who changed her mind and let him die.
Answer: Tydeus
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It allows for the expression of chemical potential in terms of entropy and pressure. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this equation which states that the summation over all components of the product of particle number times the potential differential is equal to the difference between pressure times the change in volume and entropy times change in temperature.
Answer: Gibbs-Duhem equation [either order]
[10] Properties such as entropy, which are difficult to measure experimentally, can be measured in terms of variables such as pressure, temperature, or volume according to this set of differential equations named for a Scottish dude.
Answer: Maxwell relations
[10] For a binary solution, this quantity can be obtained by integrating the Gibbs-Duhem equation over all mole fractions of a reference solute.
Answer: activity coefficient
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Children who have not developed it will believe that an object hidden under a blanket will have disappeared. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this psychological phenomenon, which describes the ability of young children to understand that things continue to exist even when removed from view.
Answer: object permanence
[10] According to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, children realize object permanence in this first developmental stage, roughly comprising the first two years after birth.
Answer: sensorimotor stage
[10] This Simon Fraser professor is a critic of Piaget's, and theorized the "somatic" stage as a parallel to Piaget's sensorimotor stage in his major theoretical work The Educated Mind.
Answer: Kieran Egan
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Niccolo Machiavelli found inspiration in this dude, who is the model for The Prince. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this badass who may just have fathered his sister Lucrezia's child, and was made cardinal by his father, Pope Alexander VI.
Answer: Cesare Borgia [prompt on Borgia]
[10] Among Cesare's military achievements were the conquests of Imola and Forli. Those places were then governed by Catherina of this family; Catharina's father Galeazzo Maria married Bona of Savoy but was assassinated in 1476.
Answer: Sforza
[10] Give either the real name or the papal name of this other Borgia pope, who was in power during the 1456 Siege of Belgrade, during which he excommunicated Halley's Comet.
Answer: Alphonso Borgia [or Callixtus III; prompt on A; prompt on A. Borgia]
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This poet is notable for collections like The Drunk in the Furnace and A Mask for Janus. For 10 points:,
[10] Name this poet who wrote "There is nothing for you to say" in his "Learning a Dead Language," and also wrote poems like "Leviathan" and "In the Winter of my Thirty-Eighth Year."ANSWER: William Stanley Merwin
[10] W.S. Merwin may be better known for his translations into English of such works as Yerma, by this Spanish author of Blood Wedding and Lament for the Death of a Bullfighter.
Answer: Federico Garcia Lorca
[10] Merwin also translated many of this Acmeist author of The Noise of Time's poems, which include "The Stalin Epigram."
Answer: Osip Emelyevich Mandelstam [accept Mandelshtam]
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This effect was discovered in the presence of a strong magnetic field when and saw the voltage plateau in units of e squared over h. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this effect which also comes in a fractional variety and was discovered by Klaus von Klitzing.
Answer: Quantum Hall Effect [do not accept or prompt on "Hall Effect"]
[10] This method gives the carrier density of a rectangular sheet of conducting material by measuring the Hall voltage of the sheet using some contacts at the corners of the sheet. It is named for a Dutch scientist.
Answer: van der Pauw method
[10] A special case of the plain old Hall effect, this effect sees the flow of a circular current when a radial current is applied to a conducting metallic disk placed perpendicular to a magnetic field.
Answer: Corbino effect
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A 1950 Senate election saw him defeat former Broadway star Helen Gahagan Douglas. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this politician who, as Vice President, engaged in the "Kitchen Debate" with Khrushchev.
Answer: Richard Milhous "Tricky Dick" Nixon
[10] During his 1950 Senate campaign, Nixon used this colorful nickname to smear Douglas and paint her as a Communist sympathizer because of her liberal viewpoints.
Answer: the Pink Lady
[10] After his election, Nixon would work with this senior Senator from California, who would later succeed Robert Taft as Senate Majority Leader. He is perhaps best known for his career as editor and publisher of the conservative Oakland Tribune during the 1960's, which ended with his suicide in 1974.
Answer: William "Bill" Fife Knowland
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A past UTC set helpfully points out that this construct is "not Mardi Gras," but that it does involve random mating. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this theorem which describes the distribution of gene alleles at a single locus when there are no evolutionary pressures acting on the locus.
Answer: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium or Law
[10] These entities can be used to graphically represent Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Named for an Italian statistician, they consist of an equilateral triangle and a symmetric parabola which intersects the base. That parabola contains all the equilibrium points.
Answer: De Finetti diagrams
[10] This principle states an asexually reproducing species will steadily accumulate random mutations and thus attempts to explain the evolution of sex.
Answer: Muller's Ratchet
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Wikipedia scholars exalt this symphony's "brassy fanfare" and notes that its third movement "digresses into a frisky dance-like passage." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1946 symphony, its composer's last, that uses as its theme of one of its composer's previous compositions, Fanfare for the Common Man.
Answer: Copland's Third Symphony [accept Copland's Symphony No. Three or other equivalents; prompt on Third or Three]
[10] This 1938 Copland ballet about the titular outlaw was partly the result of studying cowboy songbooks while in Paris. The title character dies in a shootout with Pat Garrett.
Answer: Billy the Kid
[10] Copland's one full-length opera was this 1954 work, inspired by James Agee's Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, about heroine Laurie Moss growing up on the Midwestern countryside.
Answer: The Tender Land
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This man pondered "Is there really no right answer in hard cases?" in his essay collection A Matter of Principle. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Oxford-based natural law scholar who wrote Law's Empire.
Answer: Ronald Dworkin
[10] Dworkin's mentor, whom he clashed with over the natural law/positivist debate, was H.L.A. Hart. Hart's seminal text is this work that distinguishes between primary and secondary legal rules and lays out Hart's legal positivism in a social context.
Answer: The Concept of Law
[10] Dworkin's concept of the "judge Hercules" from Law's Empire attempts to resolve the same problem as this man's "ideal speech situation." His dialogue with Joseph Ratzinger was published as The Dialectics of Secularization, and he also penned Theory of Communicative Action and The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere.
Answer: Jurgen Habermas
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She wrote an essay collection describing various world affairs titled The Algebra of Infinite Justice. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author who also wrote foreign policy critiques in Power Politics and War Talk.
Answer: Suzanna Arundhati Roy
[10] Arundhati Roy is best-known for this book about fraternal twins Rahel and Estha. Other characters include their mother Ammu and a pedophilic ghost pinned to a tree who asks passersby for cigars.
Answer: The God of Small Things
[10] Another Indian author, Raja Rao, is the addressee of this poet's only English-language poem. He is known for works like The Captive Mind, Bells in Winter, and A Song on the End of the World.
Answer: Czeslaw Milosz
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This leader's paramilitary force was known as The Corncob, which in Spanish is a homophone for "more hanging." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this caudillo who executed a pregnant Camila O'Gordon for adultery, and who was eventually overthrown by Justo Jose de Urquiza.
Answer: Juan Manuel de Rosas [or Juan Manuel Jose Domingo Ortiz de Rozas y Lopez de Osornio]
[10] This leader of the Generation of 1837, known in Argentina as "The Teacher," wrote a critique on Rosas called Facundo. He later served as Argentina's seventh president.
Answer: Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Albarracin
[10] This other opposition figure to Rosas's reign founded the newspaper La Nacion and led the Triple Alliance in its war against Paraguay.
Answer: Bartolome Mitre Martinez
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Name some stuff related to painters who painted St. Sebastian, and not necessarily full of arrows, for 10 points each.,
[10] One of the first examples of Sebastian iconography was this Sienese School painter's version, which was executed in an arched-shaped relief and is now displayed in the Museo di Capodimonte. He also painted a triptych of the Virgin and Child with Andrew and John the Baptist and a large Assumption of the Virgin triptych.
Answer: Taddeo di Bartolo [accept either]
[10] This artist's Saint Sebastian is in the Staatliche Museen of Berlin, and depicts a rather nonplussed saint with six arrows sticking in him, while a company of archers and cavalrymen look on from a path below. This artist also painted a noted Adoration for the Santa Maria Novella and a naked war god letting some mischievous satyrs play with his armor and weapons in Venus and Mars.
Answer: Sandro Botticelli [accept Il Botticelli; or Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi]
[10] This triptych's right section features Sebastian in a red cloak on a pedestal next to a column. This Grunewald work also portrays St. Anthony on the left panel and St. John the Baptist pointing towards the central crucifixion scene as a lamb stands by him.
Answer: Isenheim altarpiece
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
His works include History of English Literature, and Czech Language and General Linguistics. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Czech linguist who talked about the "Potentiality of the Language Phenomenon" in an early lecture about synchronic language, and later churned out works about semantics and functional syntax.
Answer: Vilem Mathesius
[10] Mathesius was a founding member of this group of linguists named for a city, whose ranks included Rene Wellek and Roman Jakobson.
Answer: Prague School
[10] This Russian was also a member of the Prague School. His best known work is likely Principles of Phonology, which defined the phoneme as the smallest unit within a language's structure.
Answer: Nikolay Sergeyevich Trubetzkoy

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