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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 Minnesota Open Tossups by Iowa
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This author wrote about a sacrificed man who imagines that he was in a twentieth-century hospital in his "The Night Face-Up." One of this man's short stories sees narrator transform into an aquatic salamander, and another story sees the narrator's negatives develop into torture scenes. In addition to "Aoxotl" and "Apocalypse at Solintiname," he wrote about a "cruel game" between a boy, a blonde, and a man in a parked car, broken up by Roberto Michel in another story. This author wrote a novel in which "the one I told you" recounts the Screwery's kidnapping of the Vip, while the Cuban's dreams are subject to Andres Fava's interpretations. Another of his novels sees the baby Rocamadour die during a party of the Serpent club, and features characters like Traveler, Morelli, La Maga, and Horacio Oliveira. For 10 points, name this author of "Blow Up," A Manual for Manuel, and Hopscotch.
Answer: Julio Cortazar
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A phenyl substituted one of these reacts with an alkyne to yield a substituted naphthol in the Dotz reaction. When treated with a Lewis Base, Tebbe's reagent can form one of these, and early attempts to isolate this functional group from the dehydration of methanol were fruitless. The active sites of enzymes can be characterized by the reaction of one of these formed by the photolysis of a diazo compound, and they are also formed during the decomposition of diazo compounds in an intermediate step in the Bamford-Stevens reaction. Triphenylphosphine attacks one of these to form an ylide in an intermediate step in the Corey-Fuchs reaction, and along with Grubbs' Catalyst, special members of this class of organic compounds can be used as catalysts for olefin metathesis, called the Shrock variety. For 10 points, name this class of organic compounds, which contain a carbon with an empty p-subshell.
Answer: Carbenes
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The winner of this battle employed a new tactic of creating an inverted wedge to trap the loser's chariots in a group of spearmen. After the eventual losers made early gains, they decided to loot instead of returning the previously captured Sisygambis. The winner of this battle broke pursuit of the loser's troops to aid his left flank, commanded by Parmenion, who was under pressure by the loser's right flank's commander Mazaeus. The winner of this battle's decisive attack split the left flank, commanded by Bessus, and the loser's central infantry. It preceded the winning commander's victory at the Hydaspes River. For 10 points, name this 331 BCE battle in which Darius III saw ultimate defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great.
Answer: Battle of Gaugamela [or Arbela]
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One character in this work is discovered in a shopping mall several days after going missing with his sister Gladys, and the disappearance of the blind Old Man Treadwell worries the protagonist's wife. At one point in this work, Alfonse Stompanato leads a discussion of the joy of urinals. Its protagonist argues with his son Heinrich, who can't believe it's raining because the radio told him it wouldn't rain `til later. The central characters of this novel note "ominously beautiful" sunsets, and its protagonist requests embarrassing German lessons from Howard Dunlap. Its protagonist is friends with Murray Jay Siskind, an Elvis expert, and shoots drug-peddler Willie Mink, who trades sex with Babette for the death-fear-alleviating drug Dylar after an "Airborne Toxic Event." College on a Hill's resident Hitler Studies expert Jack Gladney features in, for 10 points, what novel by Don DeLillo?
Answer: White Noise
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The space between the central figures in this painting reveals a man in blue walking behind a drooping flag. In the left foreground of this painting, a man in green holds a rifle on his shoulder and looks at the viewer, and another man clad in white looks intently at his finger. The left foreground of this painting is dominated by a horse's ass, behind which rests a white and teal-checkered flag. Two battle-axes poke up from the crowd on the left side of this painting, and one of the central figures in this painting is wearing an ornate pink sash. One man in this painting is slightly bowed, handing the key to the title city to a man holding a telescope. Showing Justin Nassau and Ambrosio Spinola discussing terms, for 10 points, name this painting alternately known as "The Lances," by Diego Velazquez.
Answer: The Surrender at Breda [or The Surrender of Breda; or La Rendicion de Breda; accept early Las Lanzas; or The Lances]
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It was during this dynasty's reign that the "illuminationist" Ishraqi school of philosophy reached its peak under figures such as Mulla Sadra. Its last member who wielded actual power was myopically devoted to recapturing Bahrain. After that man, Shah Husayn, this dynasty continued for until the establishment of the Afsharid dynasty. Its peak was under a ruler who relied on the military advice of Sir Robert Sherley and who imported the residents of Jolfa to build his capital. The Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin ended a series of wars with its neighbor, which had defeated it at Chaldiran. Ruled by luminaries such as Tahmasp I, Abbas the Great, and Ismail I, for 10 points, identify this Shi'ite dynasty of Persia.
Answer: Safavid dynasty
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In abstract algebra, this man lends his name to commutative rings such that every prime ideal is the intersection of maximal ideals. A curve that visits each square in a 2 to the n by 2 to the n square is known as this man's namesake space filling curve. The result that every multivariable polynomial ring over a field is a Noetherian ring is known as his "basis theorem", while the most fundamental correspondence of algebraic geometry derives from his "theorem of zeroes", or Nullstellensatz. Any complete inner product space is known as one of his "spaces." Much more famous was his grouping of the continuum hypothesis, Riemann hypothesis, and others at the International Congress of Mathematics in 1900, for 10 points, identify this German mathematician who elucidated 23 open problems for 20th century mathematics
Answer: David Hilbert [I guess you can accept Nathan Jacobson until "Noetherian", as a few antiquated algebraists refer to Hilbert rings and Jacobson rings]
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Among this nation's offshore possessions are the Serrana Bank and San Andres island. The San Bernardo archipelago is found off the coast of this country, whose northernmost most point on its mainland is Point Gallinas, located on the Guajira Peninsula. Much of its southern border is formed by the Putamayo River, while the Guaviare and Meta are other major rivers in this country and its highest point is Pico Cristobal. Major cities such as Manizales and Bucaramanga lie in the densely-populated mountain valleys that are drained by the northward-flowing Magdalena River, which enters the Caribbean at Barranquila. For 10 points, identify this home of Medellin and Cali, a South American nation with capital at Bogota.
Answer: Republic of [or Republica de] Colombia
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One corpulent character in this work lost two teeth in an unremembered accident on his wedding night. The title character of this short story shoots out the eyes of a portrait and immediately yells "Let us explode a mine!" Blondine and Eva the Tomato are two girls brought to the castle of Urville in this work, which also mentions a priest named Father Chantavoine who refuses to ring his church's bells. The title character got his nickname for saying "Oh fie!" at the end of sentences; he later kisses a prostitute so hard that her lip bleeds, and she waits until he gets drunk before slitting his throat and jumping out of a window. Rachel the Jewess kills Wilhelm von Eyrick, a Prussian officer with a feminine nickname, in, for 10 points, what short story by Guy de Maupassant?
Answer: "Mademoiselle Fifi"
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The scherzo second movement of his second string quartet, a work in D, is unusually in sonata form; other chamber works by this man include a string quintet in F minor and a string sextet in D minor. His scherzo in A-flat is often appended to his seven-movement Petite Suite, which was composed some 35 years after his Helene-Polka. He left both the satirical opera The Heroic Warriors and his third symphony unfinished, and he was to compose the fourth act of an opera-ballet later completed by Rimsky-Korsakov, the aborted Mlada, though he is better known for an opera which includes "Konchakovna's Cavatina" and the Polovtsian Dances. He also composed a "symphonic sketch" dedicated to Franz Liszt which evokes images of camels and merchants traveling across the title location. For 10 points, identify this member of the Mighty Five, an aldol condensation enthusiast who composed the opera Prince Igor and the tone poem In the Steppes of Central Asia.
Answer: Aleksandr Porfiryevich Borodin
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The early portion of this work describes a "superorganism" crying "pulsi! pulsi!" and tells how the narrator and his wife received mumbled salutations of the "ultimate nonword," "yes." This work claims that those not involved in the central event pay only sidelong attention while those who are involved sit through it as though embarrassed. A set of rules at the end of this essay describes betting patterns, favorites, and loyalties in the titular activity. The narrator describes how a slit gong is played during the title action, and how handlers known as pengangkeb affix spurs. It famously claims that the title people "never do anything in a simple way that they can contrive to do in a complicated one." Describing an Indonesian custom using "thick description," for 10 points, name this anthropological essay that closes Clifford Geertz's The Interpretation of Cultures, about some aggressive roosters.
Answer: "Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight" [accept either; prompt on The Interpretation of Cultures early, because we are loving people]
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This work's addressee has an empire that stretches to Barbadoes on the Western Main; he "seems design'd for thoughtless majesty," and his coronation is attended by Herringman, the "Captain of the Guard." This poem instructs its addressee to seek "some peaceful province in acrostic land" where he can "torture one poor word ten thousand ways," and earlier bashes its addressee for his use of anagram instead of iamb. The speaker jabs "let no alien Sedley interpose/ To lard with wit thy hungry Epsom prose," an accusation that Charles Sedley helped write Epsom Wells. The addressee of this poem is "mature in dullness" and therefore Empress Fame calls him be crowned with a wreath of poppies. Opening "All human things are subject to decay," for 10 points, name this "Satire upon a true-blue Protestant" which lampoons Thomas Shadwell, a satiric poem by John Dryden.
Answer: "Mac Flecknoe"
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This team's fans were no doubt devastated when their little-used yet awesomely named guard Von Wafer jumped ship to the Rockets during the 2008 offseason. While playing for this team in a first-round playoff series, journeyman Francisco Elson claimed that Kevin Garnett hit him in the balls, leading to clever signs with a play on the acronym "ESPN." Their coach's son is a basketball player who dunked over O.J. Mayo in a summer league game, which led Lakers fans to chant "Coby!" This team's productive reserves include the sharp-shooting J.R. Smith and Lithuanian sensation Linus Kleiza. After being swept in the first round of the 2008 playoffs by the Lakers, they accepted a Clippers' second-rounder for former defensive player-of-the-year Marcus Camby. Coached by George Karl, for 10 points, name this NBA franchise currently led by Carmelo Anthony and Allen Iverson.
Answer: Denver Nuggets [accept either] [editor's note: the signs said "Elson Says Pound my Nuggets"]
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Members of the genus aeromonas have polar and lateral types of these, and it has a paracrystalline filament running along its length in T. brucei. In some organisms, a MS ring and a periplasmic P ring are found at its base, and a June 2008 study in Science discusses a protein that acts a clutch to halt the rotation of these. Their components are connected by nexin linkages, and dyneins generate the force which causes a bending motion in eukaryotes, wherein they have a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules that form an axoneme. For 10 points, identify these structures consisting of hooks and filaments in basal bodies, present in euglena and sperm cells, which allow for motility of the cells.
Answer: flagella or flagellum
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This figure's consort once used mesu, tiaru, kanaktu, and simberru trees to construct a throne for Ea, and the minor god Kakku once informed this deity of a present from Anu. The kurgarru and the kalaturru were created to aid Ninshubar in negotiating with this deity, and according to one myth, she was a goddess of the sky until she was kidnapped by the dragon Kur. Her chief minister was her son Namtar, while some accounts name as her son with her first husband the god Ninasu; that first husband was Gugalanna, the Bull of Heaven. She used a bath to seduce her second husband, the scythe-wielding god of destruction Nergal, but is far more famous for making her sister strip while passing through seven gates, after which she killed that sister and hung her from a hook until Tammuz rescued her. For 10 points, identify this evil sister of Ishtar, the Mesopotamian goddess of the death and the underworld.
Answer: Ereshkigal
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It was brought Australia by W.W. Lyght, who founded assemblies at Wagga and Syndey that came to include many members of Sydney's radical Freedom Assembly. The members of this organization took a "sacred oath" that claimed that their titular enterprise was a "philosopher's stone" that turned everything it touched into wealth, an oath called "In the beginning..." This organization, once led by James Sovereign, spearheaded successful campaigns against the Union Pacific and Wabash Railroads, and it was originally founded in secrecy under Uriah Stephens, the former head of the Garment Cutters' Association. Reaching its height under "Grand Master Workman" Terence Powderly, and losing out to the AFL after the Haymarket Square Riots, for 10 points, identify this first major nationwide labor organization in the United States.
Answer: the Noble (and Holy) Order of the Knights of Labor
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This work was mocked as justifying unhappiness by claiming that no one can be good in A History of Western Philosophy, especially a section in which the narrator questions "Must I die groaning?" This work advocates throwing away bitter cucumbers and not questioning why briers exist. It discards Plato's communal virtue by noting that the law is common to all, so the "Universe is a kind of commonwealth." Its author quotes "thou art a little soul bearing about a corpse" in noting that he gains his appreciation of the brevity of life from Epictetus. It opens by noting that its author learned "good morals and the government of [his] temper" from his grandfather, Verus I. For 10 points, name this Stoic handbook written by Marcus Aurelius.
Answer: the Meditations [or Meditationes; or To Himself]
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An improvement on this method, which uses the power series expansion of the Hamiltonian and one of its namesake's operators, is named for Moller and Plesset. The Jastrow factor represents a correction for this in order to account for electron correlation, which is neglected in this method due to its adoption of the mean field approximation. Koopman's theorem states that the ionization energies correspond to the eigenvalues generated by this method. More often associated with this method is the antisymmetrization of its associated wavefunctions by Slater determinants. For 10 points, name this numerical method for estimating the ground-state energy for a quantum N-body problem, a doubly-eponymous self-consistent field method.
Answer: Hartree-Fock method [accept in either order]
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In a Carson McCullers short story, Mr. Brook realizes that this country is a democracy, and thus Madame Zilensky is a compulsive liar, because she told him she had seen its king. One novel written by an author from this country sees Kalle smack his brother Ville with a timber, paralyzing him; later, their half-sister Hilda drowns herself at home, and the protagonist Jussi is shot for shooting a landowner in Paitula. This country is home to the author of that novel, Meek Heritage, Frans Sillanpaa. Another author from this country collaborated with A.J. Sjogren and D.E.D. Europaeus to write an epic that contains Marjatta and Kullervo cycles. For 10 points, name this country, the home of Elias Lonnrot, who wrote its national epic, the Kalevala.
Answer: Finland [or Suomi]
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One polity conquered by this other polity shook them off and instituted the Eparti Dynasty. Among its earliest leaders was Meskalamdug, whose son Mesannepada founded its First Dynasty that also include the Queen Puabi. The later leaders of this polity included Amar-Sin and a man who incorporated this polity's name into his own; that leader, Nammu, died in battle against the Gutians and ordered the erection of its great temple to the moon goddess Nanna. That Third Dynasty was supplanted as a regional power by Larsa after its sacking by the Elamites in 2004 BC. The site of its ruins, known to the Arabs as Tall al-Muqayyar, was later the subject of an excavation by Sir Leonard Woolley that revealed its massive ziggurat. For 10 points, identify this Sumerian city-state that is mentioned in the Book of Genesis as the original home of Abraham.
Answer: Ur [accept Ur Kasdim, I guess]
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TB. This constellation's namesake Molecular Cloud Complex contains the Flame Nebula and Barnard's loop. This constellation's four Theta stars define an asterism known as the Trapezium. Only R Doradus has a higher angular diameter than this constellation's alpha star, which forms the Winter Triangle with Sirius and Procyon. Ensis is a former name for an object in this constellation, Messier object 42, which is this constellation's namesake nebula. Its gamma star is Bellatrix, and an asterism entirely in this constellation consists of Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka. For 10 points, name this constellation, whose beta and alpha stars are Rigel and Betelgeuse, and that has a belt.
Answer: Orion
 
2008 Minnesota Open Bonuses by Iowa
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One item associated with this goddess eventually found its way into the hands of Polyneices, who gave it to Eriphyle; due to that item's curse, Eriphyle's husband Amphiaraus was swallowed by the earth. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this owner of a cursed necklace and sister of Phobos and Deimos, a daughter of Aphrodite and Ares who was also the mother of such figures as Semele, Ino, and Autonoe.
Answer: Harmonia
[10] Harmonia was the wife of this man, who was dispatched by King Agenor to find his sister Europa but ended up founding Thebes instead.
Answer: Cadmus
[10] All of Harmonia and Cadmus' children were beset by tragedy. Among them was this mother of Pentheus, who ripped her son to pieces in a Bacchic frenzy.
Answer: Agave
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Like most members of his family, this man served as the organist for the church of Saint Gervais. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Baroque Frenchman who authored a seminal tract on keyboarding technique, The Art of Harpsichord Playing.
Answer: Francois Couperin [prompt on Couperin; accept Le Grande Couperin or Great Couperin]
[10] Couperin's grand trio sonata Parnassus was subtitled "the apotheosis of" this Italian composer, whose six opuses consist of five pairings of twelve sonatas and one set of twelve concerto grossi.
Answer: Arcangelo Corelli
[10] Ravel's Le Tombeau de Couperin memorializes Jean Cruppi, who is also the dedicatee of this Ravel opera, in which Torquemada's wife Concepcion hilariously lusts after muscular clock-haulers.
Answer: L'heure espagnole [or The Spanish Hour]
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The protagonist of this novel is fascinated with three moles under Isao's left arm. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this novel in which Shigekuni Honda resigns his judgeship to defend Isao, who is arrested after plotting to blow up the Bank of Tokyo and assassinate a bunch of capitalists.
Answer: Runaway Horses [or Homba]
[10] Runaway Horses is the second volume of this Yukio Mishima tetralogy, which also contains Spring Snow, The Temple of Dawn, and The Decay of the Angel.
Answer: The Sea of Fertility [or Hojo no umi]
[10] This Mishima work sees the elderly politician Yuken Noguchi marry Kazu, who underhandedly works to get him elected governor of Tokyo; when he finds out about her schemes, he beats her and she likes it.
Answer: After the Banquet [or Utago no ato]
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The aza modification of it uses imines to produce tetrahydropyridines. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this type of pericyclic reaction sees a dienophile react to form a cyclohexene derivative.
Answer: Diels-Alder reaction
[10] A general class of reactions includes this type of pericyclic reaction, which sees the switching of a namesake bond and the associated pi-bond. The Wittig rearrangement and Cope rearrangements are examples of these.
Answer: sigmatropic rearrangements
[10] In this type of sigmatropic reaction developed by a German dude used on an industrial scale, a substituted phenylhydrazone sees the migration of a nitrogen-carbon double bond in acidic conditions to produce a compound with a benzene ring fused with a pyrrole ring.
Answer: Fisher indole synthesis
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It was formed in 1955 via the merger of Japan's two leading right-wing parties. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Japanese political party that has been in power for most of the last fifty years.
Answer: Liberal Democratic Party [or Jiyu-Minshuto; or LDP or Jiminto]
[10] This Japanese Prime Minister succeeded Abe Shinzo as the head of the LDP in 2007, only to unexpectedly tender his resignation on September first of this year.
Answer: Yasuo Fukuda [prompt on Fukuda; his dad Takeo Fukuda also served as PM]
[10] The foremost predecessor of the LDP was the Liberal Party, which was led by this towering figure of post-WWII Japanese politics. He served as Prime Minister five times between 1946 and 1954, and formulated a namesake Doctrine for Japan's postwar recovery.
Answer: Shigeru Yoshida
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The Assassins were a subsect of this group. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these Shi'a distinguished by their acceptance of the son of Jafar ibn Muhammad as imam. They included the Qaramita and Fatimids.
Answer: Seveners [or Ismalis]
[10] They Ismailis themselves gave rise to this secretive sect, whose followers now reside primarily in Lebanon and Syria. Their foremost scripture is the Kitab al-hikma of Hamza ibn Ali, while they are condoned to deny their faith by the doctrine of taqiyya.
Answer: Druze [prompt on al-Muwahhidun]
[10] Another minority Shi'a sect is this group that takes its name from the moniker of the fourth rightly-guided caliph. They are considered ghulat for their abnormal levels reverence for that fourth caliph and Salman the Persian, and may be best known for their reverence of Christian holidays such as Christmas.
Answer: Alawites [or Nusayri; do not accept "Alevi" as that is a completely different thing]
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Name the following works from the "Silver Age" of Roman literature, for 10 points each.,
[10] This work of Gaius Petronius Arbiter traces the escapades of Encolpius and his young homosexual lover Gitan. They go to Trimalchio's feast, where a fake fire drill drives away the Sophist Agamemnon.
Answer: the Satyricon [or Satyrica]
[10] The title character of this Silver Age work, presumably by Seneca the Younger, is forced to play dice forever in a box with no bottom after the gods decide not to deify him.
Answer: the Pumkinification of [the Divine] Claudius [accept Apocolocyntosis divi Claudii; or the Gourdification of [the Divine] Claudius; or Play on the death of the Divine Claudius; or Ludus de morte Divi Claudii]
[10] Publius Papinius Statius's best verses are found in this collection of homages and odes to his friends and his wife Claudia. The best-known may be his birthday ode to Lucan, which depicts that poet's soul flying on wings, praising Pompey and cursing Nero.
Answer: the Silvae
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He was eventually assassinated by the servant Stephanus, as part of a plot that may have involved his wife. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this despotic brother of Titus who became emperor in 81 CE.
Answer: Titus Flavius Domitianus
[10] Domitian's reign was marked by the first of these punitive expeditions that attempted to take Sarmizegetusa, and which resulted when the namesake group annoyingly kept raiding Moesia.
Answer: the [first] Dacian Wars
[10] Cornelius Fuscus lost two battles to Decebalus in 87 and 88 CE at this site, which was also the home to an engagement in the second Dacian War. The Legio V Alaudae was particularly hard-hit in the ambush here in 87.
Answer: Tapae [accept First Tapae]
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The divergence of the vector potential is set to zero in this gauge, which allows Poisson's equation to hold in the electromagnetic case. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Frenchman better known for work dry friction between contact of two surfaces which verified Amonton's law, and for describing the inverse square relationship of the force between two charged particles.
Answer: Charles Agustin de Coulomb
[10] In a region of zero magnetic field, a non-zero vector potential can lead to a geometric phase change in a beam of charged particles in this doubly-eponymous effect.
Answer: Ehrenberg-Siday-Aharonov-Bohm Effect [Accept in either order]
[10] The "parallel transport" of a vector which returns to its original location but rotates with respect to the angle it was originally pointing at is a manifestation of this concept, which is observed in the Aharonov Bohm effect.
Answer: Berry phase
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Its speaker's sight is distorted after he views the world through a sheet of ice sloughed off the top of the drinking barrel. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this poem whose speaker's ladder points towards heaven, and who thinks that the groundhog can tell him whether the sleep he awaits is like hibernation, or whether it is "just some human sleep."
Answer: "After Apple Picking"
[10] "After Apple Picking" appears in this Robert Frost collection, which also contains "Mending Wall" and "The Death of the Hired Man" and appeared after Frost's first collection, A Boy's Will.
Answer: North of Boston
[10] This poem from North of Boston sees Amy stop on the staircase to look out the window at some tombstones. She flees her husband, who dug a small hole while inconsiderately complaining that foggy days rot birch fences.
Answer: "Home Burial"
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Identify these Homos who aren't Clay Aiken, for 10 points each.,
[10] The most publicized and controversial recent addition to the genus Homo is this species of pygmy "hobbits," whose remains were discovered in the Liang Bua Cave in 2003.
Answer: Homo floresiensis
[10] Some now believed that Homo erectus was also an evolutionary dead-end, with this coincident African species instead giving rise to Homo sapiens. Its most famous specimen may be the "Turkana boy" of northern Kenya.
Answer: Homo ergaster
[10] Later hominid species such as Homo ergaster and Homo erectus are all believed to be descended from either Homo rudolfensis or this hominid who was responsible for the Oldowan tool industry.
Answer: Homo habilis
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This painting shows a ladder climbing into the night sky on the left while the title character sits on the right foreground. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this work that shows the title animal on a ridgeline, lifting its head to an astronomical body.
Answer: Dog Barking at the Moon [or Perro ladrando a la luna]
[10] This Spanish surrealist who depicted a giant ear growing out of a tree in The Tilled Field painted Dog Barking at the Moon.
Answer: Joan Miro i Ferra
[10] Miro collaborated on set design for Diaghilev with Max Ernst, where the two developed this technique of scraping dry paint off of the canvas that Ernst would go on to make famous.
Answer: Grattage
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John Hunt's map of this colony is now lost, and Robert Davies's diary is an oft-studied primary document about this colony. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this early colony that was established in what is now southern Maine several months after Jamestown in 1607. It was abandoned the following year.
Answer: Popham colony [accept Sagadahoc colony]
[10] Supported by Axel Oxenstierna, this colony was founded by Peter Minuit at Fort Christina in 1638. Peter Stuyvesant invaded and annexed the colony for the New Netherlands in 1655.
Answer: New Sweden
[10] Aleksandr Baranov, director of the Russian American Company, founded the first permanent Russian settlement in North America here in 1799. It would serve as the capital of Alaska until 1906 and is now the state's fourth-largest city.
Answer: Sitka [accept Novo Archangelsk or New Archangelsk]
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He is often pictured as a man wearing shining clothes and carrying a club and stones, and he is noted for taking pity on thirsty black dogs. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this Incan deity who carried the Milky Way around in a jug, from which he would dispense rain.
Answer: Ilyap'a [accept Illapa]
[10] This Incan creator deity destroyed the people around Lake Titicaca with the flood Unu Pachakuti, saving only his son or grandson Manco Capac and his wife Mama Ocllo. His son, the sun god Inti, later replaced him in prominence.
Answer: Kon-Tiki Viracocha [or Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra Pacayacaciq, apparently]
[10] This god, sometimes said to be the brother of Viracocha, is more commonly held to be the son of Inti and brother of Kon. He also created the very first man and woman, but forgot to provide them with food.
Answer: Pachacamac [accept Pacha Kamaq or Pacharurac]
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One of these can be produced by a coil wound about a tube such that the middle of the tube has a lower turn density than the ends. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this configuration of a magnetic field gradient parallel to the magnetic field which affects the parallel velocity component of a charged particle, and which can cause charged particles to stop and reverse their direction.
Answer: magnetic mirror [or plasma mirror]
[10] An example of the magnetic mirror effect produces these toroidal masses of charged particles "trapped" in the Earth's magnetic field. They are named for some Iowa State physicist.
Answer: Van Allen Radiation Belts
[10] In plasma physics, the magnetic moment is the first one of these quantities, which are constant for slow changes to the system.
Answer: Adiabatic Invariant
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This protagonist is in the process of writing "The Shadow of the Third." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this novel about Anna Freeman Wulf, who has a love affair with the American Saul Green.
Answer: The Golden Notebook
[10] The Golden Notebook is a work by this Nobel-winning author of The Grass is Singing, Shikasta, and Homage for Isaac Babel.
Answer: Doris May Lessing [accept Doris May Tayler]
[10] Doris Lessing also wrote this series of five novels about Martha Quest, who moves to the fictional African country of Zambesia, marries Douglas Knowell, joins the communist party, marries Anton Hesse, and sees England get destroyed by a nerve-gas-laden pilot who crashes his atomic bomber.
Answer: Children of Violence
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It was prompted by President Wilson's dismissal of a federally-appointed postmaster in Portland, Oregon. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1926 Supreme Court Case that upheld the dismissal, essentially negating 1867's Tenure of Office Act.
Answer: Myers v. United States
[10] Among the 3 dissenters in Myers v. U.S. was this Associative Justice, better known for his namesake "Brief" that was laden with empirical data in 1908's Muller v. Oregon.
Answer: Louis Brandeis
[10] The Tenure of Office Act is most famous for its violation by Andrew Jackson, when he had attempted to remove this Secretary of War.
Answer: Edwin Stanton
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This battle saw Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg routed by some newfangled flintlock muskets. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this victory for Frederick the Great, the opening salvo in the War of Austrian Succession.
Answer: Battle of Mollwitz
[10] The War of Austrian Succession was fought over the right of this monarch to ascend to the Austrian throne, which went against Salic Law and was supported by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713.
Answer: Maria Teresa
[10] Perhaps the signature battle of the Italian Campaign during the Austrian Succession, this battle saw Infante Philip of Spain and the Prince of Conti send wave after wave of soldiers through the namesake pass, finally breaking it at the cost of 14,000 casualties.
Answer: Battle of Villafranca
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This actress's career clearly peaked when she played the gothy Molly, who uses the title character's "blade" to free two hostages in Big Momma's House 2. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this big-lipped actress who played a principal's daughter in Charlie Bartlett and a girl who goes in for a really awkward sex education meeting with Steve Carrell in The 40 Year Old Virgin.
Answer: Kat Dennings [or Katherine Litwack]
[10] Michael Cera will costar with Kat Dennings as the two title characters of this upcoming movie, which sees Dennings ask Cera to be her temporary boyfriend. A teen band called "The Jerk Offs" is apparently involved.
Answer: Nick and Norah's Infinite Playlist
[10] Nick and Norah's Infinite Playlist also stars this scraggly-haired SNL tagalong and Hot Rod protagonist who starred with Chris Parnell in the "Lazy Sunday" rap.
Answer: David Andrew "Andy" Samberg
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The sphincter of Oddi controls the flow of bile into this structure. For 10 points each,,
[10] Name this structure, the only region where Brunner's glands are found, and which also receives pancreatic juices from the duct of Wirsungi.
Answer: duodenum
[10] Ulcers can be caused in the duodenum due to this condition, where tumors in the pancreas cause excess secretion of gastrin, which causes the stomach to produce excess gastric acid.
Answer: Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
[10] One of the hormones suppressing the release of gastrin is this hormone produced in delta cells, and whose two different forms contain 14 and 28 amino acids.
Answer: somatostatin

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