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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 Minnesota Open Tossups by Editors Final 2
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The economy of this state's rural northwest region boomed in 1950 when uranium was discovered at Grants. As early as 1922, this state had a female secretary of state, Soledad Chacon. A noted shootout in this state occurred after its denizen Oliver M. Lee was implicated in the disappearance of Albert Jennings Fountain. The Civil War campaign in this state culminated when an undermanned Confederate force under Henry Hopkins Sibley defeated E.R.S Canby at Valverde. One of its native peoples was forced to undergo the "Long Walk to Bosque Redondo" after the Treaty of Fort Sumner was signed in this state. This state was the home of the lavish mansion of the Secretary of the Interior during the Teapot Dome scandal, who was previously a senator from this state. For 10 points, name this home state of Albert Fall, whose capital is the oldest in the U.S., and is called Santa Fe.
Answer: New Mexico
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This work compares devout New Englanders to Laocoon and states that they view the world as a Stock Exchange. It agrees with Thomas Munzer's assertion that animals are regarded as property by the titular group, and many of this work's themes were repeated in the author's argument against Hegelianism, The Holy Family. It argues that security is the "assurance of egoism," a state of man that appeared after the collapse of feudalism and contends that human freedom is complete only when man becomes a "species-being." It advocates for the total union of man's political and social forces and declares that no state can be truly atheistic. For 10 points, identify this work that argues against the religious emancipation of the titular people advocated by Bruno Bauer, an essay by Karl Marx.
Answer: "On the Jewish Question" or "Zur Judenfrage"
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One character in this work claims that "Your life plods on unhappily" in the aria "If you don't have money close by." In Scene 6 of Act I of this work, one character overhears a conversation between the primary bass and primary bass-baritone which leads her to sing an aria in which she asks where the "abominable one" is going and vow to "let the last star from fatigue not fade." That character takes part in this work's quartet "Mir ist so wunderbar" with Marzelline and Jaquino, who she later convinces to get married, and Rocco, who she later helps dig a grave on the orders of Don Pizarro. The second act opens with one character singing an aria in which he mentions the "somber silence" of his jail cell, "Gott! welch' Dunkel hier!," soon after which that character, Florestan, recognizes his wife, who is disguised as the titular prison guard. For 10 points, identify this work originally performed under the name of its main character, Leonore, the only opera by Ludwig van Beethoven.
Answer: Fidelio [accept Leonore before it's mentioned; prompt on Beethoven's Opus no. 72]
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One passage of this work is dedicated to the things that the title character knows, which include motorcycles, sex in books, too many books, and all court games. The protagonists of this work are served eland for dinner, and one character later feels as if he has "opened a wrong door in a hotel and seen something shameful." That same character decides that he will meet the other protagonists only on a very formal basis, and threatens a young boy to "fifteen of the best" if he doesn't "look alive." Kongoni assists the protagonists of this short story, and one character promises another that he won't mention a certain occurrence at the Mathaiga Club. The title character loses his nerve when up against a wounded lion, and his wife sleeps with Robert Wilson, who later asks why she didn't poison her husband. For 10 points, name this story in which Margot shoots her husband on a buffalo hunt, by Ernest Hemingway.
Answer: "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber"
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SRS-A is an example of a compound released by these cells and tryptases are a type of proteases prediominantly expressed in one type of them, while sodium cromoglycate is a compound used to stabilize the activity of these cells. They are derived from Cd-34+ pluripotent progenitor cells. They can be activated by the crosslinking of IgE antibodies that are monomerically bound to them. Like the red blood cells, they are created in the bone marrow and they were first observed due by Paul Ehrlich due to their ability to be stained in basic dyes, while interleukin 3 is a growth factor for these cells. Contrasted with basophils because they do not travel in the blood stream, for 10 points, identify this type of cells, which are best known for releasing histamine.
Answer: mast cells
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One figure of this name was a real winner: he had Benedict VI killed, fled to Constantinople, then returned to kill his successor John XIV, and for his efforts was dragged naked through the streets until his corpse was deposited under a statue of Marcus Aurelius. The second pope of this name was an Ostrogoth who had a rival named Dioscorus, and was the first Germanic pope, while the first ruler of this name beat out Eulalius for the papacy upon the death of Zosimus. The fifth one sent the "letters of exhortation" to the Church of England, while the fourth one converted the Pantheon into a church and ruled when Mohammed first started preaching. The ninth one held the Synod of London to bash John Wycliffe, and opposed antipope Clement VII. For 10 points, name this papal name shared by all the previous men, and the eighth one, Benadetto Caetani.
Answer: Boniface
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A volcano on Heimaey (HAY-may-ah) erupted during one of these events and caused an escalation of the incursions into disputed territory by one side. The first of these events saw confusion over why the Cape Palliser was flying the USSR's hammer and sickle in addition to her native colors. The second of them saw Joseph Luns mediate a two-year ceasefire that ended when one side attempted to attack two smaller ships that were weathering a force nine gale. These events devastated the economies of Hull, Grimsby, and Fleetwood, and the compromise reached after this conflict was internationalized by the UNCLOS treaty in 1982. The last one ended when the HMS Falmouth rammed the Tyr after catching that ship attempting to cut the Carlisle's nets. For 10 points, name this series of conflicts between Great Britain and Iceland that led to the establishment of the Exclusive Economic Zone, named after a delicious North Atlantic fish.
Answer: the Icelandic Cod Wars
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Michael Polanyi writes that this work's subject shares "circularity" and "suppressed nucleation" with modern science in Personal Knowledge. It postulated that undigested food was the true explanation of the physical manifestation of one of the title concepts, one that was never associated with nobility and thought to be the cause of all deaths. It argued against the work of Lucien Levy-Bruhl about primitive minds stating that the culture examined was entirely logical. The effects of termites are attributed to one of the title concepts, while another of the title concepts of this work is invoked by the title culture by poisoning a chicken and asking a question, the benge. Followed by a work about a similar culture, the Nuer, for 10 points, identify this extensive examination of a Sudanese culture, the first major work of E.E. Evans-Pritchard.
Answer: Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic Among the Azande
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This man's Aubade - Crown of Glory and The Importance of Elsewhere - The Kingdom of Heaven are paintings which include butterflies arranged in a fractal-like fashion. His other works include one depicting a lab technician staring into a microscope, and he also painted a series of paintings depicting the Caesarean delivery of his son Cyrus in the collection "Beyond Belief." He sculpted a bronze state of a woman leaning on her right foot whose right half shows a foetus in her womb, titled Virgin Mother. The sculptor of Away From the Flock, he is better known for an object made entirely out of platinum and covered in diamonds which is titled For the Love of God. For 10 points, identify this British artist whose The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living consists of a tiger shark preserved in formaldehyde.
Answer: Damien Hirst
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Along with Robert Marshak, this man suggested that the weakly interacting muon was distinct from the Yukawa meson, and thus proposed the existence of what is now called the pi meson. In a genius move, George Gamow suggested that this man be made co-author of a paper along with Roger Alpher; that paper dealt with the formation of elements by neutron capture, though this man also worked with Beck and Riezler to write a paper which poked fun at Eddington's interpretation of the fine structure constant. Carl Anderson showed that a high energy particle which disobeyed a theory partly named for him was the positron; that theory describes the loss of power for a charged particle with relativistic energies. That theory is co-named for Walter Heitler and also names a formula used to calculate the radiation emitted via bremsstrahlung. He was also the first to provide a mathematical description of the Lamb shift. However, he is better known for his work on a process independtly proposed by Carl Weizsacker that, along with the proton-proton chain, is a model of energy production in stars. For 10 points, identify this scientist who won a Physics Nobel for his work on the CNO cycle.
Answer: Hans Bethe
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Susan Elliot wrote that one example presented in this work was an echo of the Anatolian "Mountain Mothers" of this work's subjects. This work's most prominent theme is addressed by a Mithraic convert to Christianity in Rudyard Kipling's "The Church that was at Antioch" and commentary on this work was included in the tenth book of Origen's Stromateis. Chapter Four contains an allegory of the law that states that two separated covenants were present in Sarah and Hagar. It contrasts the works of the flesh with the fruits of the spirit and the author deems the subjects foolish for not believing in Jesus Christ. Primarily focused on a debate with Cephas over the importance of circumcision, for 10 points, identify this epistle of Paul that argues for the equality of Jews and Gentiles within Christianity.
Answer: Paul's Letter to the Galatians
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The title character of this work recounts a meeting with its author in a conversation about Greek pastoral poets and Elizabethan sonneteers. The author frequently discusses the expressions in the eyes of the statues of the Roman emperors that line the streets. Towards the end of this work, one character gives a pair of earrings to Katie Batch. After raising a toast to Nellie O'Mora, that character reveals his plan to John Marraby, Macquern, and other guests of the Junta, which he earlier discussed with the title character on the Judas Barge. The title character is a conjurer, and performs a magical show the night before several undergraduates led by the Duke of Dorset die for her by drowning in the Isis. For 10 points, identify this satire of Oxford life, the only novel of Max Beerbohm.
Answer: Zuleika Dobson
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Middleton and Hampton developed a diagram for identifying them that was modified by Siemers and Tillman, and which claims that they are marked by "distribution grading" as opposed to "dish structure." Deposits from these phenomenon display patterns known as "fining up intervals." The letters A through E are used to denote beds that they deposit, which include cross-laminated and parallel-laminated sands, in the Bouma Sequence. Minerals that are created by them are known as their namesake "-ites," and are generally characterized by sole markings, graded bedding, and current ripple marks. One of these snapped a bunch of underwater trans-continental telephone cables in the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake. For 10 points, name these propagations of sediment-laden water down a slope, which usually happen underwater, but are also exemplified by avalanches.
Answer: turbidity currents [accept density currents; prompt on gravity currents]
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In the introduction to the second edition of this work, the author described how Hubert Humphrey won a 1948 Senate race over a man who championed the ideas of Jeremy Bentham. It criticizes the inability of monetary policy to have any influence on wage-price interactions in a chapter called "The Monetary Illusion," while chapter 11 of this work criticizes consumer wants which arise from "the process of satisfying wants" and calls it the "dependence effect." Another chapter criticizes the use of GDP and GNP as a measure of quality of life and is titled "The Paramount Position of Production." Its author originally titled it "Why the Poor are Poor" and discarded another title which described the central entity as "opulent" and its second chapter contains an attack on a concept which espouses "predictability" over "originality" and preaches "what the audience most wants to hear," conventional wisdom. For 10 points, identify this magnum opus of John Kenneth Galbraith.
Answer: The Affluent Society
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This figure is visited by a woman who counts her heartbeats and runs out of numbers to count with, as well as an insomniac who is disturbed by the noise of the stars. He has a strong sailor's voice, and a neighbor suggests that he should be fed mothballs, though his popularity is dwarfed by a woman who turns into a tarantula after sneaking out to a dance. It is suggested that he should be named "mayor of the world" and promoted to five-star general, but his inability to speak Latin concerns Father Gonzaga, as many people also consider him an angel. He is forced to stay in a chicken coop, but is carried away by a gust of wind at the end of the namesake work. For 10 points, identify this character, an aged avian-like creature who visits Pelayo's house, and names a short story by Gabriel Garcia Marquez.
Answer: "A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings" [or "Un Senor muy viejo con alas enormes"]
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One of this god's sons owned a trio of magical cranes and was originally married to Fuamnach; that figure, Midir, was aided by another of this god's sons in marrying Etain. Another of this god's sons was killed by Lugh and then avenged by his three sons; that son of this god was Cermait. This figure once won a battle by producing the Musics of Tears, Mirth, and Sleep from an item known as "Oak of Two Greens" and "Four-Angled Music," his Harp of the Seasons. One of this god's lovers created the river Boyne by circling the Well of Nechtan counterclockwise; after having an affair with that goddess, Boann, this god stopped the sun for nine months so that his son could be born in a single day. This god also owned a weapon that allowed him to kill nine men with one side and revive them with the other. For 10 points, identify this father of Brigit and Aengus and owner of a magic club and cauldron, a leader of the Tuatha De Danaan known as "the good god."
Answer: the Dagda Samildanac [or Dagda mor mac Eladan or Dagda mor mac Eithenn or Eochaidh Ollathair or In Ruad Rofhessa or Fer Benn Bruach Brogaill Broumide Cerbad Caic Rolaig Builc Labair Cerrce Di Brig Oldathair Boith Athgen mBethai Brightere Tri Carboid Roth Rimaire Riog Scotbe Obthe Olaithbe; prompt on the good god]
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The artist of this work made a lithograph of it that adds a lamp, shortens a front-facing man's beard, and spaces out the scene. A faint portrait of a man in a hat can be seen in the top-center of this work, and a bottle of a red liquid rests on a table. The artist painted himself in the upper left, with one hand on the wall and the other in his pocket. The walls in this work are a dull green hue that also colors the face of a forward-looking woman in a puffy black dress. The central, ponytailed figure is sitting so as to look to the viewer's right, with her head slumped and looking at her folded hands. The title event occurs in the upper right, where a woman in black and a doctor observe a girl slumped in a wicker chair next to her bed. For 10 points, name this painting that shows the passing of the artist's sister Sophie in the title area, a Frieze of Life painting by Edvard Munch.
Answer: Death in the Sick Room [or Ein Tod]
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The third-to-last stanza of this work contrasts the "conservative dark" with the "ethical life" and describes commuters who vow each morning to be true to their wives and concentrate on their work. Another stanza describes night-fearing children "Who have never been happy or good" lost in the woods. The speaker claims that "accurate scholarship" can unearth "what happened at Linz," and this poem asserts that the "normal heart" craves what "mad Nijinsky wrote / about Diaghilev." The end of this poem describes the speaker as composed of "Eros and dust," and sees the speaker desire to "Show an affirming flame." For 10 points, name this poem set "in one of the dives / On Fifty-second street" that was later retracted for its over-obvious line "We must love one another or die" by its author, W.H. Auden.
Answer: "September 1, 1939"
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The flag of one party in this conflict consists of a white infinity symbol on a blue background, and was adopted by one of that party's early leaders, Cuthbert Grant, before the earlier Battle of Seven Oaks. Its leader later fought in another conflict which included the Battle of Cut Knife and the Frog Lake Massacre, and one party in this conflict elected John Bruce as their leader. It began when its leader prevented surveyors under William McDougall from entering Rupert's Land. This conflict was ended soon after an incompetent firing squad mostly killed a surveyor named Thomas Scott, after which an expedition led by Garnet Wolseley took Fort Garry and the Manitoba Act was passed by the government of John A. MacDonald. For 10 points, identify this uprising in Manitoba of the Metis [may-TEE] people, led by Louis Riel.
Answer: Red River Rebellion or Revolt or Resistance [accept Louis Riel's Rebellion before his name is mentioned]
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One of these sees the formation of an amino phenol, and another one of these sees a silyl group bond to an oxygen atom from a carbon atom in the presence of a strong base. One of these sees the formation of a ketosamine from an open chain glycosamine, and is an initial step in the Maillard reaction. In addition to those ones named for Amadori, Bamberger, and Brook, another examples sees lactams can be produced from oximes in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid and is named for Beckmann, while another example involves the formation of an isocyanate from which a carbon dioxide leaves, to yield a primary amine from an amide. For 10 points, identify this class of reactions, whose best known example sees the movement of bonds to yield an isomer of a 1,5-hexadiene derivative and is named after Cope.
Answer: rearrangements
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TB. One state with this name has a sister-state relationship with Ohio, and is home to the city of Cascavel. That state also has its capital at Curibita, which has long been an eco-friendly city, while another city with this name is home to a park named after General Uriquiza. The Ibicuy islands are found at the delta of a river by this name, and the capital of the Corrientes province lies along the banks of that river. The Itaquirai river also empties into that river, and the yet unfinished Yacyreta dam lies along that river. This name is also shared by the capital of the Entre Rios province, and the aforementioned river by this name joins with the Uruguay River to form the Rio de la Plata. For 10 points, identify this name held by second longest river in South America.
Answer: Parana river
2008 Minnesota Open Bonuses by Editors Final 2
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An effect related to this phenomenon is named after Kaiser, and results in the "pancakes" of the title figure. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this apparently elongation of galactic clusters, partially caused by galactic peculiar velocities.
Answer: the Fingers of God
[10] The main effect responsible for the Fingers of God is this one, which is the change in frequency and wavelength of a wave for a moving observer.
Answer: Doppler effect [accept Doppler shift; prompt on redshift]
[10] On the "pie charts" that usually show the Fingers of God, these regions are on the outermost edges of the slice. They are a specific type of emission nebulae named for their high amount of a certain ionized element.
Answer: H II (h two) regions
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The protagonist breaks the heart of a Scottish girl named Jojo, and is earlier forced to watch a porno starring Julie and Joe in an underground dungeon. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this novel in which Maurice Conchis dupes Nicholas Urfe into believing Alison committed suicide, set on the island of Phraxsos.
Answer: The Magus
[10] This author wrote The Magus, in addition to a work whose title character writes a play called "The Victors," Daniel Martin.
Answer: John Robert Fowles
[10] The title character of this Fowles novel is Sarah Woodruff, and it also features an amateur paleontologist named Charles Smithson.
Answer: The French Lieutenant's Woman
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Identify these compositions of Ottorino Respighi, for 10 points each.,
[10] The four movements of this work are set at different times of day, and depict such title objects as the Trevi one, the Triton one, and the one of Valle Giulia. It's the first part of a trilogy which concludes with a work about the titular city's "festivals."
Answer: Fontane di Roma [accept Fountains of Rome]
[10] This set of three suites is based on old lute pieces by such other composers as Vincenzo Galilei; it includes such works as "Gagliarda" and "Il Conte Orlando."
Answer: Ancient Airs and Dances
[10] Claudio Guastallo wrote the libretto for the Respighi opera based on this former prostitue, who traveled to Jerusalem to repent her sins before dying and being buried by Abbot Zosimus and a lion.
Answer: St. Mary of Egypt [accept Maria Egiziaca]
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Rumor has it that their name came from the initials of guava, passionfruit, and orange. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these cardboard discs that were inexplicably popular with 1990s schoolchildren.
Answer: POGs [prompt on milkcaps]
[10] One cannot play POGs without one of these metallic POGs, which are hurled at the stack of POGs; of course, if you play for keepsies, all POGs overturned by this motherPOG change hands.
Answer: the slammer [accept kini]
[10] The original (and official!) POGs are made by this company, which also owns Gazillion Bubbles and Doctor Dreadful, and which produces a bizarre toy that involves a photorealistic 3D bass suspended from a string to a recorder-like reeling device, the "Battlin' Bass."
Answer: Funrise Toys
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This election saw Asquith's independent Liberals crushed. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this massive victory for the National Liberal Coalition, sparked by a six-point program including a trial for Kaiser Wilhelm II and a "happier country for all," and saw the first time that British women could vote.ANSWER: the General Election of 1918 [accept Coupon Election]
[10] This Welshman and British delegate to the "Big Four" meeting with Clemenceau, Wilson, and Orlando, became PM after the Coupon Election.
Answer: David Lloyd-George
[10] Of course, we all know that the Conservatives under the hilariously named Andrew Bonar Law joined with Lloyd-George to win the 1918 election, but name this National Union of Mineworkers figure who stood for West Fife and was the leader of the Labour Party in 1918.
Answer: William Adamson
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Identify some deities that Wikipedia correctly claims are related to the earth for 10 points each.,
[10] This goddess was one of the primal deities that came from Chaos. She had such children as the Hecatonchires and the Gigantes with her sons Uranus and Pontus.
Answer: Gaia [or Gaea, also accept Terra or Tellus because why the hell not]
[10] This daughter of Annar and Nott was considered the personification of the earth in Norse mythology. As one of Odin's concubines, she gave birth to Thor.
Answer: Jord [accept Jorth, Hlodyn, or Fjorgyn]
[10] This seven-fathom-tall figure was the leader of the earthly kami. He guarded the Bridge of Heaven and refused to allow Ninigi to pass until Uzume showed up topless, convinced him to swear fealty to Amaterasu, and married him.
Answer: Sarutahiko Okami
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The title character finds Euphemia Lorimer and Sarsefield after escaping from several Indians and a panther. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this novel, whose title character's investigations of Waldegrave's murder eventually results in the suicide of Clithero Edny.
Answer: Edgar Huntly; or, Memoirs of a Sleep Walker
[10] Edgar Huntly is a work by this American novelist who wrote about Theodore murdering his wife Catherine after misinterpreting Carwin the Biloquist's command in his Wieland.
Answer: Charles Brockden Brown
[10] This other Brown creation is rejuvenated by Dr. Stevens after contracting yellow fever, and meets Clemenza Lodi who is abused by Thomas Welbeck. Towards the end of the work, he falls in love with Ascha Fielding and helps Eliza Hadwin from her greedy uncle.
Answer: Arthur Mervyn [either or both acceptable]
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The male character cannot find a location to place the title object, and also refuses to place the mattress in the sun for his wife, who, by the end of the story reveals that her crabby nature in the morning was caused due to the lack of coffee. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this short story in which the male character forgets to buy coffee from a store, but does not have an explanation for why he bought the title object when they already had enough for a clothes line, which sets off a row between the couple.
Answer: "Rope"
[10] "Rope" was published in a collection along with this short story, wherein Laura dreams about Eugenio leading her to the titular blossoming object. Laura wants to avoid the Mexican revolutionary Braggioni, but is confused about her identity in the revolution.
Answer: "Flowering Judas"
[10] "Flowering Judas" is a work by this author who also wrote "The Jilting of Granny Weatherall" in addition to Pale Horse, Pale Rider and her only novel, The Ship of Fools.
Answer: Katherine Anne Porter
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Name some stuff about Canadian islands, for 10 points each.,
[10] The third-largest Canadian island is this one that sits just north of Baffin Bay and is awful close to Greenland.
Answer: Ellesmere Island
[10] The Spider Islands, as well as Reindeer and Horse Islands, are found in this body of water fed by the Poplar River.
Answer: Lake Winnipeg
[10] Okay, we won't make you name Georgina Island, which lies in this body of water, a lake just up Highway 400 from Toronto. It's the twelfth-largest lake in all Canada!
Answer: Lake Simcoe
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Duncan McArthur was one representative of the U.S. government at the signing of this treaty. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1817 treaty that saw the Ohio Valley American Indians cede their land to the U.S.
Answer: Treaty of Fort Meigs [or Miami Rapids; or Foot of the Rapids]
[10] This future Michigan senator and proponent of popular sovereignty was the other U.S. representative to the signing of the Fort Meigs treaty.
Answer: Lewis Cass
[10] This other Indian Treaty saw Choctaw Chief Greenwood Leflore cede a large section of the future state of Mississippi. It was the last treaty signed under the Indian Removal Act.
Answer: Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek [or Chukfi Ahihla Bogue if there are any Choctaw around]
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It was painted on three walls, one of which features a choir of angels and a couple in embrace. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this work displayed at the fourteenth exhibition of the Austrian secession, which was accompanied by the title artist's ninth symphony conducted by Mahler.
Answer: Beethoven Frieze
[10] The Beethoven Frieze was painted by this artist, who is also known for using a lot of gold in works like The Kiss.
Answer: Gustav Klimt
[10] This Klimt work, depicting a prominent Viennese woman, was recently sold by Maria Altmann to Ronald Lauder for a whopping $135 million. Another work of the same nature features the title figure wearing a white-grey dress and a large black hat.
Answer: Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I
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The author of this bonus came across a correspondence in the Nature magazine written by a Mr. J. J. Rooney. Answer the following about that correspondence, for 10 points each:,
[10] The correspondence concerned this empirical rule, which implies that the entropy of vaporization is relatively constant for many compounds. It notably fails for water as it does not account for hydrogen bonding.
Answer: Trouton's rule
[10] Said correspondence also mentioned this dude whose theory on the transition state can be incorporated into the Arrhenius equation to yield a more generalized equation.
Answer: Henry Eyring
[10] The correspondence also mentioned these entities, which are equal to the sum over all microstates of e to the negative Energy divided by the product of Boltzmann's constant and temperature.
Answer: partition functions
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Name these Golden Age Spaniards, for 10 points each.,
[10] This author wrote a work that begins with the title character shipwrecked and rescued by Tisbea, after which he declares his love for her. That work is The Trickster of Seville, the first work to star Don Juan.
Answer: Tirso de Molina [prompt on Molina]
[10] This counter-reformation Catholic figure wrote mystical poetry like Spiritual Canticle and Dark Knight of the Soul. He also wrote Ascent of Mount Carmel and Living Flame of Life.
Answer: San Juan de la Cruz [or Saint John of the Cross; accept Juan de Yepes Alvarez]
[10] Two figures with this name lived almost concurrently; one was a historian who chronicled the Incan empire, while another was an influential poet who brought Latin forms to the Golden Age, writing works like Sonetos, Canciones, and the Letter to Boscon.
Answer: Garcilaso de la Vega [prompt on Vega]
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He developed a model concerning economic growth which assumes that in the long run, the capital stock remains unchanged because investment will be equal to depreciation of capital. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this MIT economist who names a quantity which measures the total factor productivity of an economy.
Answer: Robert Merton Solow
[10] A commonly used production function used to calculate the Solow residual is this doubly eponymous function, which is written in the form y equals k to the alpha times l to the beta where alpha plus beta equals one.
Answer: Cobb-Douglas production function
[10] A type of fixed proportions production function is named for this economist. The paradox that although the United States contains a high capital stock, it imports more capital intensive goods than it exports is also named for him.
Answer: Wassily Leontief
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It was finally dissolved after Gustav Vasa, who Wikipedia tells me had a "sly wit," became the regent of one of its constituent parts. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this coalition founded by Margaret I Valdemarsdatter, under which Sweden, Norway, and Denmark were merged into a single polity.
Answer: the Kalmar Union
[10] This king of Denmark was sad to see the Kalmar Union go. So sad, in fact, that he invaded Sweden, restored the Union, got himself anointed by Gustavus Trolle, and had Jorgen Hollmuth murder the fuck out of a bunch of noblemen in the main square of Stockholm.
Answer: Christian II of Denmark
[10] Christian claimed that the nobles he had axed had been heretics, but he was actually slaughtering them because they had supported this regent of Sweden who had been mortally wounded by Christian's forces at the battle of Bogesund.
Answer: Sten Sture the Younger [accept Sten Sture den Yngre]
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He was cursed by the blind parents of Shravana after mistaking Shravana for a deer and killing him. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this mythical king whose wives were Kausalya, Kaikayi, and Sumitra, and who died after fulfilling Kaikayi's wish of having her son rule Ayodhya.
Answer: Dasharatha
[10] Dasharatha was the father of this dude. His sandals were left on the throne because his brother Bharat could not bear to see a fine young man like him spend 14 years in exile with Lakshman and his wife Sita.
Answer: Rama [or Ramchandra]
[10] Balarama was the brother of this son of Devaki who was brought up by Yashoda and Vasudeva. He notably killed Kamsa, and was also known for his heroics with Mount Govardhana.
Answer: Krishna
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Chlorophyll a molecules, which absorb light at 700 nanometers wavelength, are found at the core of this structure. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this protein, the first of its kind to be discovered, which is involved in the production of ATP but not NADPH during cyclic electron flow.
Answer: photosystem I
[10] The photosystem I and photosystem II are found on the membranes of these structures, which are surrounded by the stroma and are found in stacks called grana.
Answer: thylakoids
[10] Photosystem uses its harvested energy to produce this high energy compound, which transfers an electron to a NADP+ reductase to drive the production of NADPH. Oh yeah, it has iron in it.
Answer: Ferrodoxin [or Fd]
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It is subtitled "Psychological Analyses," and in its conclusion, its author claims that "something" is the most general concept. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this 1887 work, in which its author states that the common definition of the title thing leaves the questions "What is multiplicity?" and "What is unity?" unanswered.
Answer: On the Concept of Number: Psychological Analyses [accept Über den Begriff der Zahl: Psychologische Analysen]
[10] On the Concept of Number was written by this author of Cartesian Meditations and Logical Investigations, the founder of phenomenology.
Answer: Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl
[10] This other early phenomenologist was more well-known for being a proponent of logical positivism and leader of the Vienna Circle. His works include Meaning and Necessity and The Logical Structure of the World.
Answer: Rudolf Carnap
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He helped draft the Plan of Ayutla to oust Santa Anna. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Zapotec Indian who served five terms as the President of Mexico.
Answer: Benito Pablo Juarez Garcia
[10] Juarez served as the president of the Supreme Court and Vice President under this moderate President, whose term saw the Constitution of 1857, the conservative response as the Plan of Tacubaya, and the War of the Reform.
Answer: Ignacio Comonfort
[10] The conservadores were led by this War of the Reform general who served as president three times between 1858 and 1862, the first time preceded by Comonfort.
Answer: Felix Maria Zuloaga Trillo

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