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View Packets Tournament Editor
2007 Maryland Terrapins Tossups by VCU
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In two cases arising out of this state, the Supreme Court found that mitigating factors must be considered when imposing a death sentence, in the cases of plaintiffs Bell and Lockett. The Court ruled that white defendants may object to the exclusion of black jurors in Powers versus this state, and that Louis Malle's film Les Amants is not obscene in Jacobellis versus this state. The Court also said "mere advocacy" of violence could not be criminalized in Brandenburg versus this state and that police officers do not need probable cause to frisk suspects in Terry versus this state. Another case involving this state overturned Wolf v. Colorado and incorporated Weeks v. U.S. to the state level. For 10 points, name this state which was involved in the case establishing the exclusionary rule, brought by a certain Ms. Mapp.
Answer: Ohio
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It features a large storm in its southern hemisphere that seesaws over 5 degrees of latitude during several years. John Flamsteed was the first to observe it, but mistook it for a member of the Taurus constellation, and it was rechristened by Johann Bode after originally being named for King George III. Featuring an axial tilt of ninety-eight degrees, this planet with retrograde orbit features a blue ring caused by the small moon Mab, and larger satellites of it include Miranda, Umbriel, and Oberon. For 10 points, name this cyan-colored gas giant discovered by William Herschel, the seventh planet from the Sun.
Answer: Uranus [accept Urectum]
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The Selly Oak colleges and Aston University are found in this city. Its religious centers include the Catholic St. Chad's Cathedral and the Anglican St. Philip's, while its architectural highlight may be the Post and Mail building. The first city in England to initiate town planning, one-way traffic, and a municipal airport, it also was home to the Boulton and Fothergill firm, which produced leading examples of this city's namesake enamelware. It extends into Staffordshire and Worcestershire, but the center of the city is found in County Warwickshire. For 10 points, name this largest city of the West Midlands, which is found in the geographic center of England, is the second most populous city in the United Kingdom, and is the namesake of a city in Alabama.
Answer: Birmingham
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This school defeated Nebraska in 2005 to win the women's volleyball title. Coach Tippy Dye and center Bob Houbregs led its basketball team to its only Final Four appearance in 1953, and they have sent such players as Detlef Schrempf and Nate Robinson to the NBA. Once known as the Sun Dodgers, this school has found more success in football, where from 1908 to 1914, under Gil Dobie, they racked up 58 wins and 3 ties with no losses. The 2001 Rose Bowl winner, they split the national title with Miami in 1991. Jim Mora, Jr. stupidly mused that coaching here is his "dream job," though the position of head coach is currently occupied by Ty Willingham. For 10 points, name this school which plays as the Huskies.
Answer: University of Washington Huskies
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He started a fad for Greek sources with his play Joseph, and John Milton spoke highly of his play Adam in Exile. His religious works include The Truth of the Christian Religion and Notes on the Books of the Gospels, and he also defended the seizure of the Santa Catarina in another book. His political activities got him imprisoned in Loevestein by Maurice of Nassau, but he escaped by hiding in a trunk of books and was able to write a work based on the ideas of Alberico Gentili. In that book, he explained the modern ideas of eminent domain, freedom of the seas, and extraterritoriality. For 10 points, name this writer who listed allowable reasons for war in On the Law of War and Peace, earning him the epithet "father of international law."
Answer: Hugo Grotius [or Huigh de Groot]
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He shrieks at the touch of a razor to his leg, which provokes the ire of Mrs. Turner, though another woman responds by bringing him a sal volatile and a glass of neat brandy. At a café down the street from the Convent of the Sacred Heart, he drops a woman in a Spanish cape from his lap while hanging out with prostitutes. He later realizes that "life is death" while chatting with Dusty and Doris. He is often considered identical with the Jewish stereotype Bleistein, who appears opposite a certain Burbank in one poem, and is described as "pink from nape to base" and "broadbottomed" as well as "apenecked" and "zebra-striped" around his jaw. For 10 points, name this character found "Erect," and "among the Nightingales" in two poems and as "Agonistes" in a play, all by T.S. Eliot.
Answer: Sweeney
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The door was opened for this event by a civil war between the Albertine branch of the Wettin Dynasty and the Confederation of Bar, and resistance to it was ended at the Battle of Lanckorona by General Suvorov. Despite the efforts of Rejtan, it was approved by the Sejm in 1773. The west banks of the Dvina-Drut-Dnieper line were spared, but Galicia, Warmia and the area around Chempo and Olsztyn, and the northeastern sixth of the country were lost. Denounced by Edmund Burke as a "violent dismemberment," it was followed by similar events in 1793 and 1795. For 10 points, a rump state remained after what division of an Eastern European monarchy by neighboring Austria, Prussia, and Russia?
Answer: the First Partition of Poland [prompt on Partition of Poland]
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This painter of a mural series about religion for the Boston Public Library showed a bearded man in a straw hat leaning a canvas against a fishing rod, and another man in a long blue coat ignoring a yellow-hatted woman, in paintings of Paul Helleu and Claude Monet at work. This creator of the anti-war painting Gassed showed a woman in a white dress reading over the shoulder of another in black in The Misses Vickers, and two children with paper lanterns in a flower garden in Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose. For 10 points, name this artist who depicted a pale Virginie Gautreau in a black dress under the name Madame X.
Answer: John Singer Sargent
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Despite being very annoying in other ways, this band has ignited Matt Weiner's passion for songs whose titles form complete sentences, with "I Never Told You What I Do For a Living" and "Vampires Will Never Hurt You." Named after the subtitle of Irvine Welsh's novella collection Ecstasy, their second album, Three Cheers for Sweet Revenge, produced the singles "The Ghost of You" and "Helena." Their followup to Life on the Murder Scene was a 2006 album, whose namesake hit single includes lyrics about a "weary widow" who "marches on" after an opening vocal-and-piano section about seeing a marching band. For 10 points, name this Gerard Way-led band behind the concept album Welcome to The Black Parade.
Answer: My Chemical Romance
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Joseph McNeil and David Richmond were among the first people to prominently perform one of these, and another occurred at McKormick Theological Seminary in 1969 under the auspices of the Young Lords. Ella Baker organized a conference at Shaw University for those who had participated in this activity, which originally targeted S.H. Kress and Woolworth stores. The organizers of these became the founders of the SNCC. For 10 points, name this tactic of the civil rights movement which North Carolina A-and-T students used in Greensboro in 1960 at a Woolworth's lunch counter.
Answer: sit ins
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One of these items can invoke Chenrezig, and they sometimes depict a lightning bolt known as a vajra. Their use reflects the way in which one worships around a chortens, or relic, and it is partly designed to symbolize the start of Shakyamuni's preaching. They usually are imprinted with "hail the jewel in the lotus," and attached to one or two weights with cords. They are believed to automatically recite mantras, and large ones can be turned by windmills or waterwheels. For 10 points, a metal cylinder mounted around a handle and containing a sacred text forms what device used in Tibetan Buddhism?
Answer: prayer wheel [or mani chos kor; or korlo]
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In the opening scene of this opera, "Sull'orlo dei Tetti" is interrupted by a chiming clock. The racconto "Condotta Ell'era in Ceppi" discusses the background to the story, involving a witch who was burned for giving the evil eye to the infant Garzia. Based on a play by Antonio Gutiérrez, its libretto was finished by Leone Bardare after the death of Salvatore Cammarano, expanding the part of Ines Leonora in order to counterbalance the secondary male lead, the Count di Luna. Its highlight comes just before "Stride la Vampa," when a group of Gypsies sings about work in "Chi del gitano i giorni abbella?", better known as the Anvil Chorus. For 10 points, name this Verdi opera whose title refers to Manrico, a courtly singer.
Answer: Il Trovatore [or The Troubadour]
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Its major advantage over previous attempts at the same standard is the use of a filter bank created by a discrete cosine transform, which increases the resolution by 18 times. It takes advantage of the Fletcher-Munson threshold and the forward and backward masking effects when making 576 independent passes of each frequency band. Huffman coding is used to reduce the size of the final data set, which is first minimized via the byte reservoir, joint stereo techniques, and other psychoacoustic technologies. For 10 points, the Fraunhofer institute claims a patent on what technology standard, which filters out imperceptible variations in sound files in order to create smaller but acoustically identical files that might be acquired from Kazaa, Soulseek, or a CD ripping program?
Answer: MP3 [or Moving Picture Experts Group-1, Layer 3]
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During Reconstruction, he deposed corrupt Georgia governor Charles Jenkins and garnered a reputation for just administration as commander of the 3rd Military District. During the reshuffling of the Union army in the wake of the Fredericksburg fiasco, this man became commander of the V Corps. The namesake of an army fort mere spitting distance from this tournament, in Laurel, Maryland, this man replaced Joseph Hooker at the head of the Army of the Potomac. In his greatest success, he arranged his army in the form of a fishhook extending to Culp's Hill after joining up with Abner Doubleday's troops at Cemetery Ridge, and his forces successfully staved off Pickett's Charge. For 10 points, name this commander who thus defeated Lee at Gettysburg.
Answer: George Gordon Meade
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Dixon's Paradox can be refuted by this equation, developed around 1840. It can be derived from an equation that calculates heat loss due to friction, which is known as the Darcy-Weisbach equation. Wilberforce extended it to turbulent flow and Washburn applied it for fluid motion in a circular tube. Analogous to Ohm's law for electrical circuits, this hydraulics equation is sometimes named for Gotthilf Hagen. It was originally developed by a French physiologist to model flow in blood vessels. For 10 points, name this equation which states flow rate is directly proportional to change in pressure, tube length and viscosity, and inversely proportional to the radius of the tube to the fourth power.
Answer: Hagen-Poiseuille Equation/Law
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In this poem's latter sections, two civil wars arrive when Dankwart kills Gelfrat and Bloedel, shortly after Ortlieb is given as a hostage to keep the peace, and Flavius Aetius destroys Burgundy at the Battle of Worms. Queen Uta interprets a dream about two eagles killing a falcon near the start of this poem, whose first half shows the brother of Giselher and Gernot defeating the forces of King Ludger in order to win a bride and protect a treasure described as so big that a hundred wagons could not haul it away. The hero's widow remarries to Etzel after Hagen kills that warrior, who had married Kriemhild at the same time that Gunther married Brunhild. For 10 points, name this Germanic epic about the exploits of Siegfried, which lends much of its plot to Wagner's Ring Cycle.
Answer: the Nibelungenlied [or the Song of the Nibelungs]
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He punished a revolt in Babylon by melting a gold statue of Marduk. Upon hearing of this man's death, Inaros attempted to re-establish the independence of Egypt. He ordered the building of a 1.5-mile long canal through the Aktí promontory so that his fleet could avoid the rough seas around the Khalkidhikí Peninsula, and he later arranged 676 ships in two parallel rows to create a pontoon bridge that allowed his army to cross the Hellespont. He worshipped at the wondrous Temple of Artemis on the way back from a loss later finalized by the Peace of Callias. His army lost that war due to defeats at Mycale, Plataea, Salamis, and Thermopylae. For 10 points, name this successor to Darius I who launched the unsuccessful Persian invasion of Greece.
Answer: Xerxes I
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They appear in Group III of the PUREX raffinate and can form complexes with cryptands. One of these with EDTMP can form a complex to treat pain when cancer has spread to the bone. With three triflate ions, they make a Lewis acid sometimes used in Friedel-Crafts reactions. In steel making, a mixture of these called a mischmetal is used to remove carbon impurities, and they have a silvery appearance and a melting point above 800 degrees. The decrease in atomic size caused by poor shielding of the increasing nuclear charge by f electrons is known as their namesake contraction, which can be seen in members such as promethium and erbium. For 10 points, name these inner transitional elements with atomic numbers 57-71.
Answer: lanthanides elements [or lanthanoids elements]
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In one of his short stories, the fictitious director Jean Luc Vidal visits the star of the film Les Fauves Nous Attendant. In another, the sheriff's deputy Jesse has to roleplay as an interracial rapist in order to perform sexually for his wife Grace. In addition to "This Morning, This Evening, So Soon" and "Going to Meet the Man," he wrote a play about Lyle Britten's trial for the murder of Richard Henry and a novel which ends in a section entitled "The Threshing Floor" and follows the call to ministry of John Grimes. He also wrote the essays on race relations Notes of a Native Son and The Fire Next Time. For 10 points, name this author of Blues for Mister Charlie, Giovanni's Room, and Go Tell it On the Mountain.
Answer: James Baldwin
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It recycles the military march originally used in its composer's drama "Homecoming from Abroad." First conceived at Oban, it includes a section describing a formation at Staffa and was composed during a period of popular favor for the Ossian poems. Introducing the composer's ideas on the symphonic poem which were further developed in his 1835 Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage, it was originally titled "The Lonely Island" and depicts the waves on a beach, columns of basalt, and the large size of the cavern which inspired it. For 10 points, name this overture, composed during Felix Mendelssohn's visit to the islands on the northwest of Scotland.
Answer: the Hebrides overture [or Die Hebriden; or Fingal's Cave; or Fingals Höhle; accept The Lonely Island before it is read]
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His work on the philosophy of mathematics was the only completed portion of a planned analysis of what he identified as the seven lower sciences, called the Subjective Synthesis. It is believed that the death from tuberculosis of his lover Clotilde de Vaux influenced his thoughts on the role of women in his ideal society, in which the Catholic Church was to be transformed into the "religion of humanity." He outlined theological and metaphysical precursors to modernity in his law of the three stages of intellectual development, and he created the distinction between social dynamics and social statics as branches of the new field whose name he coined, sociology. For 10 points, name this author of Course of Positive Philosophy and founder of positivism.
Answer: Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte
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Antonio Maceo and Calixto García began "La Guerra Chiquita" in what is now this country, immediately after the Convention of Zanjón ended another independence movement. That movement was sparked by the Grito de Yara, led by Carlos de Céspedes, and known as the Ten Years War. An earlier attempt at separating this country from Spain was led by filibuster Narciso López. Shortly after the deprivations of Valeriano Weyler in the 1890s, this country found itself under another occupation led by John Brooke and Leonard Wood, who achieved what Máximo Gómez and José Martí could not. For 10 points, name this island country later ruled by Fulgencio Batista and Fidel Castro.
Answer: Cuba
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One scene in this novel is a dance at the Pump Room, and another is a semantic quarrel over the precise meaning of "nice." The protagonist is thrown out of a general's home, more for her lack of money than for attempting to prove that the general murdered his wife, but eventually is engaged to a man who wooed her by mocking the upper class of Bath. After declining an invitation to visit Blaize Castle with Isabella Thorpe, that main character reunites with Henry Tilney in this novel, in which such books as The Romance of the Forest, The Italian, and The Mysteries of Udolpho, by Ann Radcliffe, are parodied. For 10 points, name this book about Catherine Morland, written by Jane Austen.
Answer: Northanger Abbey
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Bennett and Faulkes have published research on this condition in members of the family Bathyergidae. The only crustaceans with this condition are some snapping shrimp of genus Synalpheus. It is partly explained in Hymenoptera with haplodiploidy, meaning that females are more closely related to their sisters than their own offspring, although it is more common in organisms that build nests. Inbreeding causes it in mole rats, and generally, it is characterized by specialized castes of nonreproductive individuals, cooperative broodcare, and a overlap in generations between parents and offspring. For 10 points, name this altruistic social system commonly found in insects.
Answer: eusociality
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He was killed for the same reason that Toxeus met death at the hands of Oeneus of Calydon. This man was taken hostage by his biological grandfather during a dispute over stolen cattle, and took the opportunity to sow revolt within Alba Longa. He was buried with his adopted uncle Pleistinus and adopted father Faustulus, after a brief civil war sparked by his seeing only six vultures compared to his brother's twelve. That led to his death at the hands of either Celer or this figure's brother as punishment for leaping over a wall. For 10 points, name this son of Mars and Rhea Silvia, the unfortunate twin brother of Romulus.
Answer: Remus
 
2007 Maryland Terrapins Bonuses by VCU
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The Z line denotes the boundary of this structure, which is linked together to form myofibrils. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this repeating structural unit of striated muscle, partly made up of thin actin filaments.
Answer: sarcomere
[10] The thick filament system of sarcomeres are composed of members of this class of motor proteins, which move along actin microfilaments during muscle contraction.
Answer: myosin
[10] This muscle protein complex consists of three subunits, one of which, C, binds to calcium ions.
Answer: troponin
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Milly Theale and Susan Stringham take a trip to Europe, but Milly has to see surgeon Luke Strett and is told that she has a few months to live. For 10 points:,
[10] That occurs in what novel, where Kate Croy's aunt, Mrs. Lowder, attempts to arrange a marriage with Lord Mark, but Kate prefers the reporter Merton Densher?
Answer: The Wings of the Dove
[10] The Wings of the Dove was written by this author of The Reverberator and The Outcry, as well as Daisy Miller, The Bostonians, and The Turn of the Screw.
Answer: Henry James [prompt on James]
[10] In this Henry James novel, Dr. Sloper and Mrs. Penniman attempt to steer the doctor's daughter, Catherine, away from the gold-digging Morris Townsend.
Answer: Washington Square
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It occurs on the tenth day of Muharram and constitutes an opportunity to perform tazia. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Islamic holiday, much more important in Shia Islam than Sunni, which remembers Musa being saved from the Egyptians and Nuh leaving the Ark among other things.
Answer: Ashura
[10] For Shia, the most prominent event which occurred on Ashura was the martyrdom of this son of Ali and Fatima. Called the third imam, he rebelled against the Umayyad caliph Yazid and was killed on the Euphrates.
Answer: al-Husayn ibn Ali
[10] Husayn's tomb in this city, now part of Iraq, is the holiest site for Shia. It was also the center of the ill-fated 1991 Shia uprising against the Iraqi government.
Answer: Karbala
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Name these musicians who composed works set in Spain, for 10 points each.,
[10] This nationalist author of the twelve "Danzas Españolas" wrote such operas as María del Carmen and created works after the paintings of Goya, the Goyescas.
Answer: Enrique Granados
[10] Like Granados, this composer was a student of Felipe Pedrell. He wrote the ballet The Three-Cornered Hat and the suite Nights in the Gardens of Spain.
Answer: Manuel de Falla
[10] This Russian wrote the orchestral sketch Kamarinskaya and such operas as A Life for the Tsar. He also the pieces "Jota Aragonesa" and "Summer Night in Madrid," which comprise his "Spanish overtures."
Answer: Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka
[5] Name this lake whose major source is the Chari river.
Answer: 5. The fourth largest lake in Africa by surface area at its peak size in October, it is the namesake of a bordering country whose capital is N'Djamena. For 5 points per
[5] Lake Chad is found in this semiarid region which is moving south at sixty kilometers a year. Dividing the Sahara from the savannahs, it is characterized by short grass, tall perennial trees, and cattle farming as an economic staple.
Answer: Lake Chad [or Lake Tchad]
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Republic of Niger [or Republique du Niger],
[5] This river, which originates in Cameroon and eventually flows into the Niger, receives the waters of Lake Chad in overflow periods via its tributaries that flow through the lake, the Mayo-Kebbi and the Logone.
Answer: Benue River
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His noted autobiography discusses his conversion to Catholicism at the behest of the priest John O'Connor. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author of Divorce Versus Democracy and All Is Grist, who described Lucian Gregory and Gabriel Syme's rivalry for the title position in The Man Who Was Thursday.
Answer: Gilbert Keith Chesterton
[10] In this Chesterton novel set about ninety years ahead of its 1904 publication date, the king of England, Auberon Quinn, introduces independent medieval-garbed provosts to the district of London, but one of them is Adam Wayne, who conspires with Turnbull to raise an army against a planned highway.
Answer: The Napoleon of Notting Hill
[10] In such stories as "Blue Cross," "The Hammer of God," and "The Invisible Man," Chesterton described the intrigues of this priest and detective, who worked with the sidekick Flambeau.
Answer: Father Brown
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The Ava, Toungoo and Konbaung dynasties reigned in this country, whose ruling council is currently led by general Than Shwe. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this country currently in the nineteenth year of government by the military junta known as the SLORC.
Answer: Union of Burma [or Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw; or Union of Myanmar]
[10] This Burmese diplomat became the third Secretary-General of the U.N. upon the death of Dag Hammarskjöld and attempted to solve the Cold War with Buddhist principles, which worked about as well as you might expect.
Answer: U Thant
[10] This crazy person overthrew the U Nu government in 1962 and ruled as Burmese dictator until 1988 under a policy which he called "economic mysticism." He also bathed in dolphins' blood and ordered that all monetary denominations be divisible by his lucky number, nine.
Answer: U Ne Win [or Shu Maung]
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Name these possibly related literary things, for 10 points each.,
[10] The title character's trip to Europe following the sale of the Revelation Automobile Company takes place on the S.S. Ultima in this Sinclair Lewis novel, where Fran has an affair with Arnold Israel and Sam does the same with Edith Cortright.
Answer: Dodsworth
[10] This author of Ultima Thule, Kavanagh, and The Spanish Student may be better known for The Courtship of Miles Standish, Evangeline, and The Song of Hiawatha.
Answer: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
[10] This author of the epic Adventures of Juan Chicaspatas and the play The Season of La Llorona debuted as a novelist with the story of Tony Leo being aided by an owl that bears the spirit of a curandera, called Bless Me, Ultima.
Answer: Rudolfo A. Anaya
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This former deputy president of South Africa was acquitted of rape charges in 2005, on a defense that his victim wore provocative clothing. For 10 points:,
[10] Name this guy who also took a shower after the sex to ward off HIV, thus showing that South Africa is as amusingly backwards and corrupt as ever.
Answer: Jacob Zuma
[10] Zuma was fired by this current South African president, who claims to have never met anyone with AIDS and that HIV and AIDS are not linked.
Answer: Thabo Mbeki
[10] Led by Tony Leon, this chief opposition party in South Africa's National Assembly forms a coalition with the Inkatha Freedom Party to oppose the Mbeki government and the de-facto one-party rule of the African National Congress.
Answer: Democratic Alliance
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Name these kingdoms of pre-Norman Britain, for 10 points each.,
[10] London, Canterbury, and Hastings were found within this kingdom in the south of England, founded by Cerdi and Cynric. It began rapid expansion under Egbert and held off the Danes under Aethelred I and Alfred the Great, eventually ruling all England.
Answer: Wessex
[10] Extending from Wales and the Humber to the Thames and the border of East Anglia, this kingdom dominated its neighbors under kings Aethelbald and Offa in the early eighth century.
Answer: Mercia
[10] Found in the far northwest of the peninsula, this kingdom covered the Clyde basin and County Ayr, and was centered on Alclut, which is present-day Dumbarton. It was absorbed into its neighbor Northumbria over the course of several centuries, finally becoming an undistinguished part of Scotland after Owain the Bald's death.
Answer: Strathclyde
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She will be voicing Karai in the upcoming Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles movie, and you may remember her from her roles as Moon in Hero or Hu Li in Rush Hour 2. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this actress whose most prominent performance might be as Jiao Long, the governor's daughter in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon.
Answer: Ziyi Zhang [or Zhang Ziyi]
[10] Instead of telling us about Ziyi's groundbreaking performance in My Wife is a Gangster 2, identify the 2004 movie in which Zhang plays Mei, a blind dancer employed by Leo and Jin to infiltrate the titular army, which plays at Robin Hood during the Tang Dynasty.
Answer: House of Flying Daggers [or Attack from Ten Directions; or Shi Mian Mai Fu]
[10] In this Wong Kar Wai film, Zhang plays Bai Ling, who has a romp with the heartbroken columnist Chow Mo-Wan, played by Tony Leung. The title is both the hotel room where Zhang's character lives and the year in which China's agreement with Britain on the government of Hong Kong expires.
Answer: 2046
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The "blocking" kind of these systems interfere with the westerly movement of wind. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these high-pressure regions, first explained by Francis Galton, which exhibit downward movement of air and are surrounded by clockwise geostrophic flow.
Answer: anticyclones
[10] Anticyclones are often found in this region, located between thirty and thirty-five degrees north and the same space south of the equator, where dry, calm climates prevail and ships often had to dispose of a namesake animal in order to conserve water.
Answer: the horse latitudes
[10] These symmetrical undulations issue from the axis of flow in a jet stream and provide a boundary between warm tropical air and the cold air of the latitudinal extremes. When they are large, cyclones and anticyclones form.
Answer: Rossby waves
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Name these painters who worked in the Dutch city of Delft, for 10 points each.,
[10] His works include Street in Delft and View of Delft along with The Milkmaid, Woman Holding a Balance, The Art of Painting, and Girl with a Pearl Earring.
Answer: Jan/Johannes Vermeer
[10] This guy fled from Delft to Amsterdam after Vermeer schooled his ability to paint domestic scenes. His works included Dutch Courtyard, Backgammon Players, The Pantry, and At the Linen Closet.
Answer: Pieter de Hooch
[10] At the same time as Willem Kalf, this painter of seascapes pioneered the genre of still-lives depicting tables set for feasts, with a notable focus on opulent silverware. He was also known for numerous paintings of seafood, such as Still Life with Fish in Basket and Large Still Life with Lobster.
Answer: Abraham Hendricz van Beyeren
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His understanding of mental illness was compared to that of Karl Jaspers in a book by Luis Martín-Santos. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this German philosopher whose Introduction to Human Sciences explained the difference between the humanities and the hard sciences and put forth an influential means for studying "historical consciousness."
Answer: Wilhelm Dilthey
[10] Dilthey began a new period of interest in this philosopher after discovering some unpublished early works by him. His more prominent writings include Philosophy of Right, Logic and Mind, and Phenomenology of Spirit.
Answer: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
[10] One student of Dilthey was this Jewish philosopher, the author of The Tales of Rabbi Nachman and Right and Wrong, who explained his theory of "encounter" with God in I and Thou.
Answer: Martin Buber
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Named for the Republican Senator from Ohio who introduced it, it fell one vote short of approval in the Senate. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this proposed 1953 amendment to the constitution, which was to allow state legislatures to decide whether to follow international treaties, and was reformulated as the George resolution.
Answer: Bricker amendment
[10] John W. Bricker had tasted narrow defeat once before, as the vice-presidential candidate of this New York governor, who did not, in fact, defeat Truman in 1944.
Answer: Thomas Edmund Dewey
[10] Dewey's own career as special anti-gang prosecutor narrowly escaped derailment in 1935, when Lucky Luciano and Meyer Lansky ordered the killing of this lord of Bronx bootlegging, who was planning Dewey's murder at the time.
Answer: Dutch Schultz [or Arthur Flegenheimer]
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Her son Gwri, who became known as Pryderi, was stolen by a mysterious claw, and she was accused of eating him. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this daughter of Hefaidd Hen from Celtic myth, sometimes called the same as the continental Gallic horse goddess Epona.
Answer: Rhiannon
[10] Rhiannon's father was the lord of this Celtic underworld, whose later ruler invented pigs and had to change places with Rhiannon's husband for some length of time.
Answer: Annwn
[10] Rhiannon's first husband was this king, who defeated Hafgan on behalf of Anawn, the ruler of Annwn, by occupying Anawn's body for six to twelve months.
Answer: Pwyll pen Annwn
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After reading John Goodsir and Robert Remak, he published the lecture series Cellular Pathology as Based upon Physiological and Pathological Histology. For 10 points each: ,
[10] Name this German biologist, who popularized François Raspail's maxim "every cell is derived from a cell," and oversaw Berlin's public health program.
Answer: Rudolf Virchow
[10] Virchow later entered politics and founded this anti-autocratic party in the Prussian Diet. As its leader, Virchow was challenged to a duel by Otto von Bismarck.
Answer: German Progressive Party [or Deutsche Fortschrittspartei]
[10] Virchow disproved the idea that phlebitis caused disease, instead showing that inflamed veins were caused by this condition, a scientific name for a blood clot attached to a vessel wall. Virchow himself coined the name for this condition, as well as for the "embolism" which results when one detaches.
Answer: thrombus [or thrombosis]
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Name these Indian authors, for 10 points each.,
[10] His union of Hinduism and Islam influenced his student Nanak to found Sikhism, but this man called his beliefs "simple union" or "sahaja-yoga." His poetry is collected in the Bijak or Account Book, made into a noted English translation by Robert Bly.
Answer: Kabir
[10] Tradition holds that this man was a highway robber who meditated for a thousand years from the center of an anthill. Then, Narada ordered him to compose the Ramayana.
Answer: Valmiki
[10] He described his trip to Nicaragua in The Jaguar Smile and also wrote such novels as Shame and Grimus before getting a fatwa all up in his face for The Satanic Verses.
Answer: Salman Rushdie
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This idea has its origins in the work of Konstantin Mereschkowski, who worked with lichens. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this theory that self-replicating organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts were originally free-living prokaryotic organisms that entered into a relationship with eukaryotes.
Answer: serial endosymbiotic theory [or endosymbiosis or other equivalents]
[10] Endosymbiosis was popularized by this female author of Symbiotic Planet and Acquiring Genomes.
Answer: Lynn Margulis
[10] This author of The Selfish Gene and defender of mainstream biology from Stephen Jay Gould has praised Lynn Margulis for her unorthodox theories.
Answer: Richard Dawkins
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Name these leaders who came to power during the revolutions of 1848, for 10 points each.,
[10] He was elected French president under the banner of the Order Party in December and had himself promoted to emperor in 1852. He remained in office until his capture at the Battle of Sedan concluded the Franco-Prussian War and forced him to abdicate.
Answer: Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte [or Napoleon III; prompt on Napoleon; prompt on Bonaparte]
[10] This veteran of the "long Diet" and editor of Pesti Hirlap served as finance minister in the Batthyány cabinet and in September 1848 became de facto dictator of Hungary, declaring the deposition of the Habsburgs the following year before a Russian army removed him. He later wrote the "Cassandra letter" against the Ausgleich.
Answer: Lajos Kossuth
[10] This historian put forth a theory that Romans and Germans were in a constant battle against the interests of the Czech people. In 1848, he chaired the Prague Slavic Congress to urge for an autonomous Czech state within a federal Austria and explicated his view in the book Idea of the Austrian State.
Answer: František Palacky
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He was the author of the Wittenburg Concord, which attempted to resolve disputes about the nature of the Eucharist among the nascent Protestant leaders. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this guy who also wrote the Loci Communes, the Appendix on the Papacy, and the Augsburg Confession, and who served as the chief negotiator for Lutherans in an attempt to reach a compromise settlement with the Church.
Answer: Philipp Melanchthon [or Philipp Schwartzerd]
[10] This Protestant leader appeared at the Marburg Colloquy with Melanchthon and others in an attempt to reconcile Luther with the more radical reformers. After Charles V conquered Strasbourg and exiled him, he presented to Edward VI a program for reforming the English church on moderate lines.
Answer: Martin Bucer [or Martin Butzer]
[10] Along with Bucer, this author of the treatise On Meats offered his hand to Luther at the end of the unsuccessful Marburg Colloquy, which Luther refused. This priest at the Zurich Grossmünster led the Swiss reformation and was later killed in the Second Kappel War.
Answer: Huldrych/Ulrich Zwingli
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Scandal has been in the air around the politics of various foreign countries in the last few years. For 10 points each:,
[10] French Prime Minister de Villepin and President Chirac are accused of masterminding a smear campaign via a set of books attributed to this Luxembourg bank, which contained fabricated allegations of money-laundering against presidential contender Nicolas Sarkozy.
Answer: Clearstream
[10] Sheila Fraser and John Gomery issued namesake damning reports in this Canadian affair, arising from money funneled, for fictitious work, to Groupaction Marketing and other companies controlled by Liberal Party supporters, under Jean Chrétien's government.
Answer: the "sponsorship scandal"
[10] This Iranian-born president of Israel was charged with rape in January 2007 and took a leave of absence from his position.
Answer: Moshe Katsav
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He collaborated with Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko to form the Moscow Art Theatre, where his staging of The Seagull convinced Chekhov to return to playwriting. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this director and acting theorist, who constantly said "I do not believe you" until actors fully demonstrated his namesake "method" of emotional identification with a role.
Answer: Konstantin Sergeyevich Alekseyev Stanislavsky
[10] In 1947, Cheryl Crawford, Elia Kazan, and Robert Lewis founded this institution in New York, which taught Stanislavky's theories and developed "method acting."
Answer: The Actors Studio
[10] The artistic director and in-house theoretician at the Actors Studio was this guy, who later applied his developments in "method acting" to make his film debut as Hyman Roth in The Godfather Part II.
Answer: Lee Strasberg
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Found in the namesake South African mine in 1924, it is the head of a child with humanlike teeth and a brain one-third the size of a homo sapiens of corresponding age. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 2.4 million year old fossil which demonstrated the presence of mosaic evolution in humans.
Answer: the Taung skull
[10] The Taung skull was identified as a human ancestor by this Australian anthropologist, who less convincingly identified the Osteodontokeratic tools.
Answer: Raymond Arthur Dart
[10] Dart coined the name for this species, meaning "southern ape of Africa," to describe the Tang specimen. It was more ape-like in limbs but had a more developed brain in comparison to another species from the same genus, the afarensis.
Answer: Australopithecus africanus

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