2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Tossups by Packet 08 | ||||
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These molecules can activate the CRKL adaptor protein, which activates STAT5 and Rap1. Type II types of these molecules require the GAS promoter element to induce transcription, while another class uses ISREs. Pharmacologic versions often have an added polyethylene glycol chain to increase their retention time. These molecules RNAse L activity and the transcription of protein kinase R, which in turn phosphorylates eIF-2. The beta form is used to treat multiple sclerosis, and are usually produced in response to foreign double-stranded RNA. These proteins promote up-regulation of MHC I and II, which promotes increased cytotoxic T cell activity. For 10 points, name these cytokine glycoproteins responsible for combating viruses. | ||||

Answer:
or InterferonIFN |
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Along with an alcohol, this functional group is added via a mercuric compound in the Wolffenstein-Boters reaction. A Grignard reagent adds to this functional group in the Bartoli indole sythesis, while two of these functional groups cyclize in the Leimgruber-Batcho indole synthesis. This functional group is reduced by iron in the Bechamp reaction, and a version of the aldol reaction in which this functional groups is added to an aldehyde is named for Henry. Alkanes with them serve as Michael donors, and three of them are present on picric acid. They are decomposed to a carbonyl compound by adding NaOH, followed by sulfuric acid, in the Nef reaction, and a common method of adding them is a version of electrophilic aromatic substitution using either nitronium tetrafloroborate or bathing the sample in sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Notable as a meta-director, for 10 points, name this strongly deactivating functional group, three of which are added to toluene in a notable explosive, which consist of a nitrogen atom bonded to two oxygens. | ||||

Answer:
Nitro |
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The chameleon particle model was posited as an explanation for this substance, while the Quintom scenario for it occurs when the equation of state crosses omega equals negative 1. Density perturbations would occur if it varied with time, and one form of it is a scalar field with pressure equal to omega times density, a model which shows tracker behavior. Like inflation, this helps to explain the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect observed after recombination, and high value of omega for this could signal the end of the universe in a "Big Rip." The aforementioned model of it is known as quintessence, and assuming this substance is simply the cost of the vacuum leads to very high values of the cosmological constant, and the Lambda-CDM model and WMAP show that it accounts for 74% of the universe. For 10 points, name this mysterious substance driving the universe's expansion. | ||||

Answer:
(Accept Dark Energy until mention, accept "Quintessence" due to ambiguities)
Phantom energy |
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One model of these events was solved by using a Monte Carlo gamma ray deposition scheme and was posited by Hoflich and Kharkov. The Phillips relation allows them to be used as standard candles, and one model to explain them relies on a 3 second deflagration phase, followed by a period in which a layer of silicon appears. Their light curves contain a high peak corresponding to a nickel-decaying stage, followed by a stage dominated by cobalt decay. These events are powered by carbon detonation during a convective phase, and unlike their counterparts, they lack hydrogen lines in their spectra. Characterized by the conversion of the body in question into iron and usually occurring in binary systems, for 10 points, name these events in which a carbon-oxygen white dwarf explodes, examples of which include 1987A. | ||||

Answer:
supernova (Prompt on Type Ia or nova, do not accept "supernova")
Dance Dance Revolution Supernova |
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He proved that a one-time pad cannot theoretically be broken by a ciphertext-only attack and that a key needs to have as many binary digits as the number of bits of information in a message in order to be unbreakable. This computer scientist created Theseus, an electronic mouse that learned about its maze and, when placed in a changed environment, could go directly to its goal after finding a familiar location. In "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess" he argued that computers could only use a brute-force or a selection strategy, the latter using a minimax procedure based on an evaluation function that determined how good a position was. In boolean algebra, his expansion splits a function into the sum of two subfunctions multiplied by a variable and the complement of that variable; however, he is better known in that field for showing that a boolean algebra based on "meet" and "join" variables could model an electronic circuit. The discoverer, along with Nyquist, of the sampling theorem, for 10 points, name this author of "The Mathematical Theory of Communication", the founder of information theory. | ||||

Answer:
Claude Shannon |
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One enzyme complex present in these cells is phosphorylated and activated by perilipin A and is encoded by the LIPE gene. These cells differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells via the action of PPAR-gamma, and in mice these cells secrete resistin. One compound secreted by these cells are responsible for stopping the release of agouti-related peptide and neuropeptide Y from the arcuate nucleus. Often found in areolar connective tissue, they have a signet ring configuration due to their nuclei being pushed aside, and these cells secrete leptin to indicate satiety. Their contents can be broken down to form glycerol and another product that travels to the liver to undergo beta-oxidation. For 10 points, name these cells that comprise namesake "brown" and "white" tissue, which are responsible for storing fat. | ||||

Answer:
Adipocytes |
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One method of calculating this quantity decomposes it into combinatorial and residual terms. Another method assumes the environment around a molecule differs from the bulk environment in a way related to the difference between homo- and hetero-interaction energies. In addition to the UNIFAC and NRTL methods, another method contains a point 3 I term, while another was generalized to include Brownian motion by Onsager. In addition to the Davies equation, another method used to calculate it contains a second order viral coefficient beta sub MX and is named for Pitzer. The most popular method of calculating these quantities fails at a concentration above .1 molar, and was derived by considering the electroneutrality of a solution. For 10 points, name this proportional to the square root of the ionic strenght by the Debye-Huckel equation, which generalize concentration or partial pressure in non-ideal systems. | ||||

Answer:
coefficients
Activity |
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The energy of this effect can be measured by the Chung-Jenkins formula. Semiconductor nanocrystals suppress this effect's namesake cooling in a temperature-dependent manner, while a nuclear version of it occurs in the decay of muonic lead-207 and bismuth-209. Another version produces spectator lines due to the creation of bound states, known as the "resonant Raman" version, while a specific version of it is the fast Coster-Kronig transition. In semiconductors, this effect is responsible for a three-particle recombination, while its inverse variety is called "impact ionization". KLL and LMM peaks are measured in a type of spectroscopy named for this effect, which was originally discovered in a cloud chamber. Originally discovered by Lise Meitner and competing with photon emission and electron capture, for 10 points, name this effect in which an electron is ejected from an atom as another electron fills the inner shell, named for a Frenchman. | ||||

Answer:
effect
Auger |
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A Nintendo game with this name ends with the caption "Conglaturation! You have completed a great game. And prooved the justice of our culture." One sequel to a film with this name features Bobby Brown as a doorman at the Gracie Mansion, with the song "Higher and Higher" playing a crucial role in the plot. A television show based this film featured a character who underwent a makeover because the network thought her pointed glasses were too "scary," although this makeover was later explained away as being the result of demonic influence. Lines in this film include "Dogs and cats living together! Mass hysteria!"and "This man has no dick," a reference to EPA agent Walter Peck. Revolving around the goings-on at 55 Central Park West, the home to Dana Barrett, who is possessed by Zuul, a servant to Gozer, for 10 points, name this 1984 comedy which ends with the Stay-Puft Marshmallow Man destroyed by the titular group of paranormal investigators. | ||||

Answer:
(accept The Ghostbusters)
Real Ghostbusters |
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Makosza and Winiarski characterized a subclass of reactions with this mechanism that involves hydrogen, which they dubbed "vicarious". Metal amides and pyrimidines undergo a version of this mechanism called ANRORC, which also explains the Zincke reaction. Intermediates in one version of this complex can be isolated using a strongly colored enolate in the Zimmerman reaction, or simply using a ketone in the Janovski reaction. Another version goes through benzyne, while the aforementioned intermediate often contains nitro groups and is called the Meisenheimer complex. Often occurring in systems in which a halide is ortho or para to an electron-widthdrawing group, for 10 points, name this reaction mechanism which sees an attacking group replace a leaving group on benzene-like compounds. | ||||

Answer:
or Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (Prompt on partial)
SnAr |
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The phenomenon is "extreme" in a disease that is typically associated with faulty Na-sub-V-1-point-7 channels resulting from a defect in the SCN9A gene. A mutation of the TkrA gene is thought to cause a congenital defect, often associated with anhydrosis, in which the body does not perceive it, a condition called CIPA. Melzack and Wall proposed the "gate control theory" of this phenomenon. The "fast" version of this phenomenon propagates via A-delta fibers, contrasted with the slower version that uses C fibers, which are atypically unmyelinated. The McGill Questionnaire and Wong-Baker FACES are designed to measure the extent of this phenomenon. This phenomenon results from the actions of sensory nerves called nociceptors, and redheads are notably more sensitive to some varieties of it. Allodynia is the unusual sensation of this phenomenon, the decreased sensitivity to which is dubbed hypoalgesia. For 10 points, name this sensation blocked by anesthetics, the body's response to harmful stimuli. | ||||

Answer:
[accept pain before "nociceptor" is read; accept all reasonable equivalents]
nociception |
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The collisionless Boltzman equation is often referred to as this, and it can be used to extend the Runge-Gross theorem to time-dependent ensembles. A corollary of this result is that symplectic maps of Hamiltonian functions must preserve area. Applying this theorem to the expectation value of an observable in quantum mechanics gives a result that can also be derived by finding the expection value of the Heisenberg equation of motion, known as Ehrenfest's theorem. It can be expressed as the time derivative of a density equals the negative Poisson bracket of that density and the Hamiltonian. In the ergodic formulation, this theorem predicts smooth measure invariance under Hamiltonian flow, and it is equivalent to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. For 10 points, name this theorem in statistical mechanics which states the density of points is constant along a phase space trajectory with time. | ||||

Answer:
's Theorem [accept Liouville's Equation; Liouville's Phase Space Theorem]
Liouville |
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One method of proving this theorem involves setting the result of Routh's theorem equal to zero and rearranging, and the dual of this theorem involving collinearity is named for Menelaus. Its usually proven by pairwise similarity using ratios of areas, and applying the law of Sines to it gives the useful "trig" version of this result. This theorem is used to prove the existence of the centroid from the properties of medians, and can also be used to show the existence of the incenter and circumcenter. For 10 points, name this theorem that gives a concurrency condition for lines extending from a vertex of a triangle to the opposite side. | ||||

Answer:
's Theorem
Ceva |
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This protein is antagonized by Chibby, while in one complex it interacts with pontin-52 and is transactivated by Pygopus and Legless. This protein displaces the inhibitory TLE or Groucho proteins from one target, and in the cytoplasm this protein binds to the scaffolds MUC1. This protein is responsible for mediating the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in several tissues, and it is degraded by the actions of a complex containing Axin, and GSK-3, which are inhibited by the action of the Wnt signaling pathway. Equivalent to the armadillo protein in Drosophila, it binds to the TCF4 transcription factor in the nucleus, where it is translocated following its dislodging from the cytoplasmic face of a desmosome complex. This protein binds to the APC gene, leading to its role in colon cancer. For 10 points, name this protein, an important embryogenic factor and oncogene that binds to the similarly named alpha-catenin. | ||||

Answer:
Beta-catenin |
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This experiment used the Rose-Gorter method to polarize the sample, and Liederman, Weinrich, and Garwin confirmed its results using a cyclotron. This experiment was originally proposed by Lee and Yang, who noted that the angular distribution was proportional to one plus alpha cosine theta and noted that if alpha was nonzero the experiment was successful. That constant was later found to be equal to the particle velocity divided by c. Cotton thread was used to stop the liquid helium from leaking through the cryostat in this experiment. Adiabatic demagnetization was used to cool the apparatus, which contained an electromagnet with a sample of cobalt-60 between the poles, and the sample emitted radiation asymmetrically. For 10 points, name this experiment which used beta decay to show that the weak force violates parity, performed by a female Chinese physicist. | ||||

Answer:
's experiment (Accept anything with "Wu" in it, or anything with both "Wu" and "beta decay" or "parity violation" and "weak force")
parity violation |
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Schreiber's synthesis of this compound had a pipecolinal undergo an Evans-Tischenko fragment coupling, while Ley's version used a Stille coupling to stitch the final product together, and used SnCl4 to cyclize an allyl stannate. The biosynthesis of this molecule, which contains a central macrocycle surrounded by three ketone and two methoxy groups, attaches L-pipecolate to a polyketide, then cyclizes. Originally isolated from S. hygroscopicus, Kennedy and Kaberlein found that administering this compound to rats in mid-life drastically extended lifespan, and it is used instead of calcineurin inhibitors due to the latters' nephrotoxicity. This compound prevents the formation of complex containing G-beta-L, PRAS40, and Raptor, while a related complex containing the Rictor protein is unaffected by it. Marketed as an immune suppressant under the name Sirolimus, it binds to the protein FKBP12, which in turn inhibits a certain kinase. For 10 points, name this antibiotic which notably "Targets" a pathway containing the protein TOR. | ||||

Answer:
or Rapamycin or Rapamune before mention
Sirolimus |
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Winn's modification of this equation adds a parameter beta to take fluctuations into account. Unlike the Underwood equation, this equation doesn't assume the Lewis hypothesis of equal flows within sections, and a form of this equation used in gas chromatography has a product of vapor pressure ratios, and is derived from applying Raoult's and Dalton's law to a series of condensation cycles. One approximation sets alpha equal to the geometric mean of the volatilities of the heavy and light keys. Its denominator contains the logarithm of the average volatility, and the numerator has the product of an expression involving the mole fractions of the product. Used alongside the McCabe-Thiele method, for 10 points, name this equation which gives the theoretical minimum plate number of a fractional distillation process under total reflux. | ||||

Answer:
equation
Fenske |
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This compounds receptor is regulated by channel-inducing factor, and that receptor is antagonized by Canrenone or Spironolactone. Its released in response to the pineal hormone adrenoglomerulotropin. The alkalosis in Liddle's syndrome is due to a decrease in this hormone, while overproduction of this hormone due to a tumor is known as Conn's syndrome. Its produced by an 18-oxidation by its namesake synthase in the zona glomerulosa, and its released during hypokalemia by feedback from the aortic arch. Its part of a feedback system that releases renin and angiotensin II in response to low blood pressure, and is responsible for regulating the sodium-potassium balance. For 10 points, name this mineralocorticoid, which along with cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone is secreted from the adrenal cortex. | ||||

Answer:
Aldosterone |
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Several generalizations of this equation due to Knyazeva add a tensor form of total transition heat and applies to deformable media, while another generalization of this equation was used to show that particles in QCD can undergo simultaneous deconfinement and chiral restoration by Barducci. Another variation of this equation sets P equal to 10 to the power A minus B over T, named for Antoine. One method of deriving this equation relies on defining the specific entropy as a function of volume and temperature, then applying a Maxwell relation and shifting to extensive variables. A more common derivation notes that the chemical potentials are equal and then uses the Gibbs-Duhem relation. For 10 points, name this equation used to find the slope of the coexistence curve between two phases on a phase diagram, named for two guys. | ||||

Answer:
Equation
Clausius-Clapeyron |
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Sinha and Bhattacharjee developed a green version of this reaction which used a molybdenum-4-tetroxide complex and dripped in hydrogen peroxide, while Alfa Aesar developed an alternative that used xenon diflouride. In one modification of this reaction, using a 2:1 ratio of reagent to reactant allows the formation of esters instead of the usual product, while a modification by Cristol and Firth uses mercuric oxide. one version creates acetic acid and a lithium salt as a side product. A similar reaction using tributyltin hydride is named for Barton, while the aforementioned modification using iodine is named for Simonini. Another version it using lead-4-acetate was developed by Kochi. This reaction uses silver as a counterion, which allows the formation of an oxygen-bromine bond which cleaves homolytically. For 10 points, name this radical reaction which transforms a carboxylic acid to an alkyl halide, named for a German. | ||||

Answer:
reaction
Hunsdiecker |
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2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Bonuses by Packet 08 | ||||
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It uses a heuristic version of the Smith-Waterman algorithm, and begins by removing repeats and low-complexity regions in the query. FTPE:, | ||||

[10] Name this algorithm developed by Meyers and Altschul that aligns a query DNA or protein sequence to a database, used to find homologous genes between species. | ||||

Answer:
or BLASTBasic Local Alignment Search Tool |
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[10] BLAST is faster because it eschews using this programming technique that Smith-Waterman and Needleman-Wunsch uses, in which a problem is broken up into subproblems using recursion | ||||

Answer:
programming
Dynamic |
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[10] These substitution matrices invented by Dayhoff are used to score sequence alignments. They are 20 by 20, where each cell represents the probability of one amino acid being switched out for another. Unlike BLOSUM matrices, their data is derived from looking at related proteins. | ||||

Answer:
or PAM or Point Accepted MutationPosition Accepted Mutation |
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Sequent Calculus are among the many methods used for proving first-order predicate statements. FTPE:, | ||||

[10] One method of such proofs are machines named for this mathematician, who published a famous list of 23 unsolved problems and axiomatized geometry. | ||||

Answer:
David Hilbert |
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[10] Created by Gentzen, this proof system has introduction rules which work backwards and elimination rules which work forwards. Many versions add a Reductio Ad Absurdum rule. | ||||

Answer:
atural Neduction
D |
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[10] The Curry-Howard isomorphism says that natural deduction is directly analogous to this system, which contains the operations alpha conversion, beta conversion, and eta conversion. | ||||

Answer:
Lambda calculus |
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It is influenced by many factors, including the density of the fluid, the cross-sectional area of the object and the square of the relative velocity. For 10 points each, | ||||

[10] Name this force that resist the motion of an object through a fluid. | ||||

Answer:
Fluid Drag |
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[10] For small values of the Reynolds number, this law states that the drag on an object is equal to six pi times the dynamic viscosity, the radius of the particle, and its velocity. | ||||

Answer:
[prompt on Stokes' Law, do not accept Stokes]
Stokes' Theorem |
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[10] This result useful in fluid mechanics states that, for n physical observables in r linearly independent dimensions, a system can be described as a function of n - r dimensionless constants. | ||||

Answer:
Theorem
Buckingham Pi |
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Diatomic oxygen fits the D-sub-infinity one of these, while carbon monoxide is the C-sub-infinity and methane is Td, or tetrahedral. For 10 points each:, | ||||

[10] Name these mathematical structures, into which chemists classify molecules. | ||||

Answer:
s
point group |
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[10] The elements of point groups are the rows, and a point group's operations are the columns, of these constructs. | ||||

Answer:
character table |
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[10] Staggered ferrocenes possess a symmetry operation with this name. Denoted S-sub-n, they combine a rotation of two pi over n degrees with a reflection across the plane perpendicular to the reflection axis. | ||||

Answer:
improper rotation |
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Stars pass from its Hayashi track to the Henyey track to the main sequence. FTPE:, | ||||

[10] Name this diagram which plots absolute magnitude of stars against temperature. The original version had spectral type. | ||||

Answer:
diagram or Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
HR |
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[10] This branch coming off of the main sequence contains stars of about two solar masses, including subgiants, those stars of the red clump, and red giants. Most low/intermediate mass stars pass through it. | ||||

Answer:
Asymptotic Giant Branch |
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[10] Stars in the AGB might show signs of this nucleosynthetic process, which involves slow neutron capture and fast beta-minus decay, producing stable isotopes. | ||||

Answer:
Process
S |
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S-35 Methionine can be used to determine protein stability in this type of assay, which can also use N-15 or tritiated nucleotides. FTPE:, | ||||

[10] Name this assay which is used to chart the rate of macromolecule elongation or turnover, which begins with a labeled medium which is subsequently flooded with unlabelled substrate. | ||||

Answer:
assay
Pulse/Chase |
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[10] A pulse-chase assay was used to determine that lagging strand synthesis occurs through these short strands of DNA, named for a Japanese couple. | ||||

Answer:
fragments
Okazaki |
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[10] Another pulse-chase method uses the two color FLASH/REASH (flash-reesh) system developed by this UCSD scientist, who won a Nobel alongside Shimamura and Chalfie for work on GFP. | ||||

Answer:
Roger Tsien |
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It appears in many situations where an 'energy' is distributed between identical 'particles,' but its canonical derivation stems from the thermal equilibrium of the kinetic theory of ideal gases. For 10 points each:, | ||||

[10] Name this distribution that describes the speeds of particles in a gas when quantum mechanical and relativistic effects are neglected. | ||||

Answer:
distribution [prompt on partial answer]
Maxwell-Boltzmann |
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[10] The average kinetic energy of a particle in a gas is directly proportional to the product of the temperature, the boltzmann constant, and this real number. It appears because we assume the particle has no internal degrees of freedom. | ||||

Answer:
[accept equivalent fractions such as Three Halves or one and one half, unless the team is clearly making up large numbers like "three hundred eighty-seven over two hundred fifty-eight"]
one point five |
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[10] The Maxwell-Bolztmann distribution is particularly useful in describing this system, in which an artificial bounded space contains a number of particles which interact only via collision. | ||||

Answer:
[accept Boltzmann's Gas in a Box, accept word forms, but there must be a box, and a gas must be inside of it]
Gas in a Box |
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Taking the Hartree product of two electron wavefunctions does not satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle or antisymmetry under fermion exchange, so these mathematical tools arise. For 10 points each:, | ||||

[10] Identify these linear combinations of single-electron wavefunctions, a single one of which is used in Hartree-Fock theory. | ||||

Answer:
determinants
Slater |
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[10] This post-Hartree-Fock method adds electron correlation using second, third, or fourth order perturbation theory. | ||||

Answer:
perturbation theory
Moller-Plesset |
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[10] This method considers electron correlation terms by considering a namesake operator, the sum of single-excitations, double excitations, triple excitations, and so forth. The level of excitations after the last one it includes explicitly is generally calculated via perturbation theory. | ||||

Answer:
Coupled Cluster |
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It is a special case of a conjecture that has only one exception, the Klein bottle, known as the Heawood conjecture. FTPE:, | ||||

[10] Name this theorem that solved Guthrie's problem, which was proven by Appel and Hankin using a computer. Its also generalized by the Hadwiger-Nelson problem. | ||||

Answer:
theorem
Four color |
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[10] For a graph, this number, symbolized chi, is the number of colors needed to properly color a given graph. Mycielski's theorem says there exists triangle free graphs with arbitrarily high values of it. | ||||

Answer:
number
Chromatic |
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[10] This theorem says that, for any coloring using a fixed number of colors, a sufficiently large complete graph will have complete monochromatic subgraphs. | ||||

Answer:
's Theorem
Ramsey |
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In a solid, it is the highest band normally occupied by electrons at absolute zero. For 10 points each:, | ||||

[10] Name this band found directly below the band gap in semiconductors and usually synonymous with the conduction band in metals. | ||||

Answer:
Band
Valence |
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[10] When modeling metallic solids, this approximation developed by Bloch states that electron wavefunctions stay near the atomic cores of a crystal lattice. The atomic wavefunctions superpose to create the band structure of the solid. | ||||

Answer:
Approximation [prompt on TBA]
Tight-Binding |
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[10] Materials in this state are predicted by band models to conduct because of the odd number of electrons per cell, but insulate due to correlation effects. Bose-Einstein condensates have been shown to phase transition to it. | ||||

Answer:
Insulator
Mott |
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This compound may be obtained by refluxing rhodium (III) chloride with excess triphenylphosphine in ethanol. For 10 points each:, | ||||

[10] Name this hydrogenation catalyst. | ||||

Answer:
's catalyst
Wilkinson |
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[10] Wilkinson's catalyst can react with carbon monoxide to give a complex struturally analogous to this iridium-centered compound which binds side-on to oxygen gas very reversibly. | ||||

Answer:
's complex
Vaska |
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[10] Studies on Vaska's complex laid the groundwork for this kind of catalysis, like modern hydroformylation reactions and Ziegler-Natta catalysis, which occurs in the same chemical phase. | ||||

Answer:
catalysis
homogeneous |
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The GOR method, which is an improvement on this set of statements, uses a 17 amino acid window. FTPE;, | ||||

[10] Name this set of rules which assigns each amino acid a propensity to form a particular secondary structure, in addition to a frequency parameter. Its used to predict secondary structure. | ||||

Answer:
rules
Chou-Fasman |
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[10] This diagram, which plots the phi and psi angles of each amino acid in a protein, is also used to assign secondary structures. Its named for an Indian. | ||||

Answer:
plot
Ramachandran |
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[10] The Chou-Fasman rules predict that this achiral amino acid is the least likely to be in an alpha helix, partly because it introduces a lot of entropy. | ||||

Answer:
Glycine |
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Name some types of glacial ridges, for 10 points each., | ||||

[10] The edge of a glacier scraping till and rocks form these ridges, which come in "push," "lateral," and "terminal" varieties. | ||||

Answer:
s
moraine |
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[10] A stream underneath a glacier will deposit a braided ridge of water-polished sediments known by this name. | ||||

Answer:
s
esker |
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[10] These ridges are gently sloping on one side and sharply sloped on the other, and form when a glacier goes over a long rock outcropping; it is basically a roche moutonee extended to form a ridge. | ||||

Answer:
s
cuesta |
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One form of this reaction is preferred in order to avoid rearrangement or multiple addition, in which case it is followed by the Clemmensen or Wolff-Kishner reductions. For 10 points each:, | ||||

[10] Name this reaction, whose "acylation" type is replaced by the Gatterman-Koch reaction to add formyl units. | ||||

Answer:
reaction
Friedel-Crafts |
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[10] A one-carbon unit can also be installed, so long as you don't mind it being chlorinated, in this reaction, which uses formaldehyde and hydrochloric acid and, generally, zinc (II) chloride catalysis. | ||||

Answer:
reaction
Blanc |
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[10] Also commonly catalyzed by aluminum trichloride, though also requiring a protic acid, is this coupling of two aryl groups. The yield is, as expected, generally not great. | ||||

Answer:
reaction
Scholl |
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In sea urchins, this process requires the bindin receptor ERB1, while the key interaction in this process in humans is partly mediated by the Izumo protein. FTPE:, | ||||

[10] Name this formative event, in which a sperm and an egg combine to create a zygote. | ||||

Answer:
(accept "Fertilization" I suppose)
conception |
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[10] In humans, the glycoproteins of this layer of the egg are cleaved by acrosomal enzymes after fertilization, preventing more sperm from getting in. It's sometimes known as the egg coat. | ||||

Answer:
or Zona PellucidaZP |
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[10] This is the name given to the layers of follicular cells attached to the Zona Pellucida, which are responsible for supplying the ovum with nutrients. | ||||

Answer:
Corona radiata |
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Gron states this problem stems from the impossibility of synchronizing clocks in a rotating frame, while Kaluza resolved it by appealing to the non-euclidean geometry of general relativity. For 10 points each:, | ||||

[10] First, name this paradox which states that, for a cylinder rotating at a significant fraction of the speed of light, the circumference appears to change in length while the radius does not. | ||||

Answer:
Paradox [do not accept Ehrenfest problem, because that was stated in the prompt]
rotating disk |
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[10] This physicist's namesake observers follow worldlines rotating on the outside of the cylinder, and led to the development of Born Coordinates. He also names a stochastic differential equation that describes Brownian motion. | ||||

Answer:
Paul Langevin |
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[10] One use for the Langevin equation is to explore a landscape representing this thermodynamic variable. Popular forms include those named after Helmholtz and Gibbs. | ||||

Answer:
Free Energy |
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One section of this work criticizes Burt's twin studies, while another notes that there's a correlation between the author's age and the distance between galaxies to illustrate the causation fallacy. FPTE:, | ||||

[10] Identify this work, which was revised to challenge Hernstein's and Murray's The Bell Curve in 1986, and argues that craniometry and psychological intelligence testing are all terrible. | ||||

Answer:
The Mismeasure of Man |
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[10] This author, whose more famous for some work with Niles Eldridge on punctuated equilibrium, wrote The Mismeasure of Man. | ||||

Answer:
Stephen Jay Gould |
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[10] The title essay in this collection by Gould notes that the title appendage is misnamed, and is actually an extension of the sesamoid bone. | ||||

Answer:
The Panda's Thumb |
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It gives the cell potential as the standard potential minus R T over z F times the natural log of the reaction quotient in its full-cell form. For 10 points each:, | ||||

[10] Name this electrochemical equation, a special case of the Goldman equation. | ||||

Answer:
equation
Nernst |
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[10] When there is net current flow through the electrode, the Nernst equation does not apply in part because of this quantity, which requires more energy to be used from an electrolytic cell to drive a reaction than thermodynamics would predict. | ||||

Answer:
Overpotential |
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[10] This equation relates reaction rate to overpotential, and it's a special case of the Butler-Volmer equation. | ||||

Answer:
equation
Tafel |
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The parallel version requires that the impedance be calculated by adding phasors, but the series set-up is commonly encountered as an example of a damped harmonic oscillator. For 10 points each:, | ||||

[10] First, name this simple AC circuit consisting of three basic circuit elements. | ||||

Answer:
Circuit [accept RLC Circuit, LCR Circuit in any order, prompt on tuned circuit, prompt on anything else that sounds reasonable]
Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor |
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[10] This dimensionless number describes the strength of damping in an RLC circuit. It is inversely related to the bandwidth of the resonance by delta f equals f nought over this value. | ||||

Answer:
uality factor
Q |
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[10] While Q determines the 'peakedness' of the resonance, the resonant frequency of an underdamped RLC circuit is approximately equal to one over the square root of this value. | ||||

Answer:
[accept LC, or word forms thereof]
the product of Inductance and Capacitance |
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This process has an oxidative and a reductive phase, which is responsible for synthesizing ribose for use in DNA and RNA. FTPE:, | ||||

[10] Name this alternative to glycolysis whose intermediates include xylulose, ribulose, and sedoheptulose. | ||||

Answer:
pathway/shunt or the Pentose phosphate shunt or hexose monophosphate shunt or PP shunt
HMP |
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[10] The PP shunt is also used to create this reduced electron carrier, which is used as a reducing agent in the Calvin cycle. | ||||

Answer:
or NADPHWhatever that stands for |
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[10] Another shunt is responsible for creating this molecule, a sugar with stabilizes the low-affinity state of hemoglobin, triggering the release of oxygen in tissues. Its levels get higher at high altitudes. | ||||

Answer:
or 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate or 2,3-BPG or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate2,3-DPG |
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