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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Tossups by Packet 07
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Agarwal proved that decision problem versions of this problem are NP-complete, and its unclear whether that version of this problem is in APX. Kooshesh and Moret combined Chazelle's triangulation algorithm with one proof of this problem to give a linear time algorithm for it. For n vertices, it needs big-Omega of n to the three-halves entities to satisfy the problem in the interior since objects such as the Schonhardt polyhedron are not tetrahedralizable. The exterior version of this problem is sometimes known as the fortress problem, and the original problem posed by Victor Klee can be proved by first showing that every polygon can be triangulated and then by making a 3-coloring of the triangulated polygon; this was the proof given by Steve Fisk, though the problem was originally proven by Chvatal, who showed it requires floor of n over 3 guards. For 10 points, name this problem that asks how many guards are needed to watch over the eponymous institution.
Answer: Art Gallery Problem
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These cells can either be activated through the DAP10-NKG2D system or the CD244 receptor, and several of their surface receptors contain ITAM or ITIM motifs to control their activity. The classical form of the ADCC process is mediated by these cells when activated through their CD16 receptors. A C-type lectin called Ly49 binds to MHC I, allowing these cells to pick their targets, and they are the only immune cells to express CD56. They are commonly activated by cytokines from macrophages and product interferon gamma, and they perform their most notable function through the use of granzymes. Lacking CD3 or the TCR, they are responsible for destroying cells that lack self markers. For 10 points, name these cells responsible for destroying tumors and virus-infected cells.
Answer: NK Lymphocyte or Natural Killer cell
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Heathcock developed two one-pot variations of this reaction, one of which cuts back on polymerization using beta-chloroketones. Napthalene derivatives are synthesized using a variation of this reaction which uses a compound methylene sulfoxide ortho to an ester, while another variation uses dichloro-cis-2-butene. Using a pentadienone in this reaction can synthesize a compound named for Hajos and Parrish, while it can more famously be used to create a compound used in several terpene and steroid syntheses, named for Wieland and Meischer. The aforementioned variations are named for Hauser and Wichterle, the former which has a Dieckmann condensation instead of the usual second step. Using a methyl vinyl ketone, for ten points, name this reaction used to create alpha-beta unsaturated cyclic ketones, which consists of a Michael addition followed by an aldol condensation.
Answer: Robinson annulation
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Rosenthal developed an assay to test the efficiency of this process via poison-primer extension, and cloroplasts perform this activity to when generating ndh. The rat serotonin-2C receptor has four sites for this process, whose distribution can change through extended antipsychotic use. Catalyzed by TUTase through the cleavage-ligation mechanism, this process can be guided by a poly-U tail on one molecule. In humans, this process differentiates between the 100 and 48 forms of Apolipoprotein B, this process was first discovered in the kinteoplasts of trypanosomes, who insert uridines into various transcripts via a guide RNA. ADAR catalysis the version occurring in tRNA to change adenine to inosine. For 10 points, name this process distinct from splicing that alters the sequence of an RNA post-transcriptionally by conversion or insertion.
Answer: RNA editing
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A nonlinear version of this effect results in the particles quivering in figure-eight patterns and like the Stark and Autler-Townes effects can be studied using ultra-high-peak power lasers. In plasmas the coherence of this effect can be used to measure electron temperature and density. The derivation of the normal form of this process allows ignoring the magnetic component of the Lorenz force and relies on considering one body in question as a damped harmonic oscillator. This effect is responsible for the partial linear polarization of the CMB, and its cross-section is proportional to the square of the Compton wavelength and equal to the square of the classical electron radius times eight pi over 3. For 10 points, name this process which is the non-relativistic equivalent of Compton scattering, in which a charged particle deflects an electromagnetic wave.
Answer: Thomson Scattering
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This man names the thermal mechanism of nitrogen oxidation in the atmosphere, and his namesake number is proportional to the effective activation energy and gives the bifurcation point for a propagating thermal front. With von Neumann and Doring, he names a model of shock waves, and he showed that after the Big Bang an ellipsoid of gas would collapse along its short axis, leading to the formation of his namesake pancakes. Building on Gliner's work, he showed that the cosmological constant contributes its value times the metric tensor divided by a constant to the energy-momentum tensor. He's the second namesake of a process used to map galaxy clusters, and which transfers energy from electrons to photons in the Cosmic Microwave Background. For 10 points, name this physicist who names a form of inverse Compton scattering with Rashid Sunayev.
Answer: Yakov Zeldovich
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A Nintendo game with this name ends with the caption "Conglaturation! You have completed a great game. And prooved the justice of our culture." One sequel to a film with this name features Bobby Brown as a doorman at the Gracie Mansion, with the song "Higher and Higher" playing a crucial role in the plot. A television show based this film featured a character who underwent a makeover because the network thought her pointed glasses were too "scary," although this makeover was later explained away as being the result of demonic influence. Lines in this film include "Dogs and cats living together! Mass hysteria!"and "This man has no dick," a reference to EPA agent Walter Peck. Revolving around the goings-on at 55 Central Park West, the home to Dana Barrett, who is possessed by Zuul, a servant to Gozer, for 10 points, name this 1984 comedy which ends with the Stay-Puft Marshmallow Man destroyed by the titular group of paranormal investigators.
Answer: Ghostbusters (accept The Real Ghostbusters)
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A class of alkylating agents including carboquone and ThioTEPA contain this functionality, which can be synthesized from vinyl dihalides and DBU in a reaction named for Cromwell and Gabriel. One method of synthesizing these compounds involves the [3+2] addition of a guanidinium ylide to carbonyl compounds. Leighton and Rhenquist modified one important method of synthesizing these compounds by lowering the temperature and adding glass beads, while another method was modified to use LiAl4 instead of a Grignard reaction. That method has an "intermolecular trapping" variant developed by Taguchi and begins with a ketoxime, known as the Hoch-Campbell reaction. A more popular method of synthesizing them uses sulfuric acid on a beta-amino alcohol, known as the Wenker synthesis. Like a related class of compounds, they have very high ring strain, making them susceptible to nucleophilic attack. For 10 points, name these nitrogen-containing three-member rings, the aza variants of epoxides.
Answer: Aziridines (accept ethenylamines)
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The SH3 domain contains several overlapping instances of this structure, which is also found in a radially symmetric arrangement in neuraminidase, known as a "propeller" domain. Aspartic proteases contain three of them in the psi-loop, while a meandering linkage of them is found in the Greek key structure. The immunoglobulin fold contains only these elements, while a more famous superstructure contains several of these twisted into a cylinder and linked by disordered turns, and is commonly found in RBP, porins, and Green fluorescent protein; that motif if this structure's namesake "barrel". They can be either parallel or antiparallel, the former of which has straight hydrogen bonds. For 10 points, name this protein secondary structure in which the side chains of amino acids point outwards, which is complementary to the alpha helix.
Answer: Beta sheet
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In this process, dialectric suppression cancels the infrared divergence of one formula describing it. At high density, the angle of multiple scattering is often greater than the emission angle, leading to a suppression of it known as the LPM mechanism. Along with pair production, large zenith angle air showers may be a result of this process occuring with muons. Using the Rosseland formula shows that the opacity due to it is proportional to the temperature to the negative seven-halfs, a result known as Kramers' law. Another version requires a correction called the Gaunt factor. That version can be derived from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and occurs in plasmas, and is known as "thermal". Characterized by a flat spectrum with a cutoff frequency, applying the Born approximation to this process gives the Bethe-Heitler formula. For 10 points, name this process in which a charged particle emits energy as its trajectory is altered, often occuring between electrons and nuclei and also known as braking radiation.
Answer: Bremsstrahlung or free-free radiation or braking radiation
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Esser created a positive one of these systems, and in general positive ones contain a notion of comprehension and were first introduced by Malitz. Another one of these is defined in terms of histories, birthdays, and levels. In addition to the Scott-Potter one, predicative separation and collection are integral to the Kripke-Platek one of these systems, while using forcing proofs in a more famous one of these shows that it is independent of Martin's Axiom and the Suslin Hypothesis. Quine developed the New Foundations one, while adding impredicative comprehension to another one of these systems gives the Morse-Kelly one. That system defined the idea of a proper class and is named for Von Neumann, Bernays, and Godel, which is a conservative extension of one which Paul Cohen was proved was independent of the continuum hypothesis. For 10 points, name these systems, one of which has axioms of extensionality, regularity, union, and choice, called ZFC.
Answer: Set theories (reasonable equivalents that include the word "set")
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An intermolecular aza-variation of this reaction can be used to form spiroaminals, and Li and Corey note that the Staudinger intermediate can undergo this reaction to form heterocycles. One modification of this reaction uses a compound usually derived from the Arbuzov reaction, and that modification was further improved by Masamune and Roush by replacing NaH with lithium enolates, and by Gennari and Still using KHMDS and 18-crown-6 to improve stereoselectivity. An analogue of this reaction which uses silyl carbanions is named for Peterson, while another alternative to this reaction uses a compound containing a bridging chlorine and methylene group attached to dimethyl aluminum and titanocene. The currently believed mechanism states that the cis-intermediate undergoes the reverse reaction much faster than the trans intermediate, while that species, according to Maryanhoff and Reitz, undergoes isomerization in a process called "stereochemical drift," a fate that can be avoided by adding a lithium compound to convert the intermediate to a betaine. The initial preparation uses an SN2 reaction to add triphenyphosphine to an alkyl halide, which is then deprotonated to create a reagent with adjacent positive and negative charges. An alternative to using Tebbe's reagent, for 10 points, name this reaction which contains a ester variant named for Horner, Wadsworth, and Emmons and another variation which switches the stereochemical preference named for Schlosser, in which a phosphonium ylide is used to convert carbonyls to alkenes.
Answer: Wittig reaction (it's the longest tossup ever!)
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One phenotype of this disease is the progressive loss of the PACSIN1 protein. The mutant form of the protein responsible for this disease is SUMOylated by the Rhes protein in some cell populations, and that protein is cleaved by Apopain and helps control expression of BDNF. The mutant protein is also responsible for controlling cellular trafficking via its interaction with HIP1, and mutations in that protein can lead to the Westphal variant of this disease, which manifests itself in an early age. Its inheritance is a classic form of genetic anticipation, and is caused by an expansion in the number of CAG repeats in chromosome 4. This disease causes a progressive loss of the striatum of the basal ganglia and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, which leads to the involuntary dancelike movements characteristic of a chorea. For 10 points, name this neurological disease that eventually leads to dementia, named for a British neurologist.
Answer: Huntington's disease
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For plasmas suspended in tokamaks, this process is commonly modeled by the Hasegawa-Mima equation. It can be numerically simulated by two-equation k-epsilon or k-omega models, while simpler models include the algebraic Johnson-King and Cebeci-Smith models. A Lagrangian formulation of this process requires using a substantive derivative as a tracer and finding hyperbolic fixed points. Atmospheric instances of this phenomenon can be modeled using the von Karman constant, while like convection, analyzing it often requires averaging the stress tensor over time, a strategy known as the Boussinesq approximation. The rate of energy dissipation to the power is inversely proportional to its length scale according to the Kolmogorov theory, and the transition to it is characterized by an increased ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. Characterized by eddies and vortices, for 10 points, name this type of flow that occurs at high Reynolds numbers.
Answer: Turbulence or Turbulent flow (word forms ok)
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This object's extinction curve features a bump at 220nm due to the presence of graphite, and one type of matter here is distributed according to the MRN power law, which was later extended by Drane. McKee and Ostriker proposed a three-phase model of it, adding a dynamic phase to the equilibrum two-phase FGH model, which divided it into cold-dense and intercloud regions. Evidence for the existence of this region came from the dip in a broad oscillating Ca II absorption line of delta-Ori and other so-called forbidden transitions, and this regions primary heating mechanisms are photoelectric grain heating and low-energy cosmic rays. This region also contains superbubbles created by stellar winds, and is responsible for the ubiquitous 21-cm H line. Also containing HII regions and molecular clouds, for 10 points, name this region of space that consists mostly of hydrogen, the gas and dust that floats between stars.
Answer: Interstellar Medium or ISM (Do not accept "Intergalactic Medium")
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Ayers derivation of this theory used the fact that a certain exchange reaction was endothermic, and Kornblum's rule for ambident nucleophiles follows from it. One equation related to this theory is used to find the enthalpy change in terms of electrostatic and covalent interactions, the Drago-Wayland formula. Parr's quantitative version of it sets a parameter eta equal to the second derivative of total energy over electron number, and MO theory predicts that a chemical system will seek to maximize said parameter. The Fukui function can be used to evaluate reactivity under this theory, which makes sense since this theory sorts molecules by their HOMO-LUMO gap. A test for sorting molecules under it reacts them with methylmercury ion, and this theory is used to explain why adding iodide to AgCl precipitates silver iodide and why carbon monoxide reacts with nickel over hydrogen. Sorting species in terms of polarizibility, for 10 points, identify this theory developed by Ralph Pearson, which sorts acids and bases into those that are small with high charge states and those that are big with low charge states.
Answer: Pearson's Hard-Soft Acid Base or HSAB
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The learning of this behavior sees increased interneuron production in area X, and this behavior is usally accompanied by an increase in synapsin and ZENK expression in the basal ganglia. The main circuits involved in this behavior are centered on the HVC and Robust Nucleus of the Archistratum, while its acquisition requires the LMAN and DLM. Organisms can be classified as closed-ended or open-ended based on their ability to acquire this behavior, and its acquisition goes through a sensory phase, followed by sensorimotor and crystallization phases. Participation of the lateral labiae of the syrinx allows for the precise production of "sexy syllables" during mating displays involving this behavior, while other instances may involve antiphonal duets or vocal mimicking. For 10 points, name this behavior used to signal alarm, mating, and territoriality by avians, which to humans just sounds like chirping.
Answer: Bird vocalization or Bird song (Accept reasonable equivalents like "bird calls", more specific things like "bird mating calls", whatever, prompt on things like "language" or "speech" until birds are mentioned)
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In one variation of this experiment, John Wheeler considered a thought experiment in which the choice whether to measure the output is delayed until after the experiment begins. It has nothing to do with Bell's theorem, but a variation of this experiment involving a BBO crystal and a coincidence detector involves measuring entagled states, known as the quantum eraser. Claus Johnsson performed this experiment with electrons, and modifications of in which the apparatus is partially closed off are used to show the principle of complementarity. Classically, the results of this experiment can be derived by noting that the pattern occurs when the path lengths differ by multiples one-half the wavelength of the incident light. Usually explained using Huygens' principle, for 10 points, name this experiment used to demonstrate the wave nature of light, in which light passing through the namesake apparatus creates a series of fringes.
Answer: Young's Double-Slit Experiment
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With de Waele, this scientist described an early model of a power-law fluid, and he lends his name to a rule which states that in a polymorphic mineral, the least stable polymorph crystallizes first. He invented a type of viscometer which has a U-shaped tube with two bulbs, and this man gives his name to a process that is responsible for the growth of phenocrysts below the solidus temperature and the growth of cloudy microemulsions. That process, in general, sees larger precipitates siphon materials from a smaller one, and is known as his namesake ripening. His namesake law of dilution is used to find the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte solution, but he's most famous for a process performed in tandem with the Haber-Bosch process in which ammonia is oxidized. For 10 points, name this German chemist whose namesake process creates nitric acid.
Answer: Wilhelm Ostwald
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In the same year, the scientists behind this experiment corrected the work function for tungsten by taking into account the Schottky effect. A second test conducted by the scientists behind this experiment noted that there was no change in polarization, and the insulation in the apparatus was too weak to use a retarding potential. Fadley modified the apparatus to allow molecular beam epitaxial growth, and part of the interpretation relied on a formula that gives the index of refraction in terms of the bombarding potential. Changing the angle of the detector gave a maximum at 50 degrees, while another component was previously determined to have a plane spacing of 2.15 angstroms on its {111}-face, leading to a wavelength of 165 nm according to Bragg's Law. Performed at Bell Labs and used to test the de Broglie relation, for 10 points, name this experiment where a beam of electrons was fired at a Nickel target, a proof of wave-particle duality.
Answer: Davisson-Germer Experiment
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Bonuses by Packet 07
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This is the Joshua Lederberg Memorial Bonus. FTPE:,
[10] Name these small segments of DNA discovered by Lederberg that can be passed between bacteria via transformation or transduction.
Answer: Plasmid
[10] This type of plasmid, which often encode an ABC transporter like tetAB or Mdr1, is responsible for transferring antibiotic resistance between cells.
Answer: R Plasmid or factor
[10] In artificial plasmids, this region contains around 20 different restriction enzyme cut sites in order to make it compatible with several different inserts.
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They are examples of quarkonia, quark anti-quark pairs, such as the J/psi, and none include the top quark because it decays too quickly. For 10 points each:,
[10] First, name this class of particles that mediate the residual strong interaction in atomic nuclei, not to be mistaken for the muon which was discovered around the same time.
Answer: Meson
[10] This physicist first posited the existence of the meson. His proposal involved a namesake potential which drops off exponentially with r instead of as 1/r.
Answer: Hideki Yukawa
[10] This value for a particle is defined to be the projection of its spin onto it's direction of motion. Unlike chirality, it represent handedness, and not asymmetry of the weak force.
Answer: Helicity
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Ansa- ones have a bridge that connects their two ligands. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this class of sandwich compounds consisting of a metal ion bracketed by two cyclopentadienyl ligands.
Answer: metallocenes
[10] This concept refers to the number of contiguous atoms, generally in one conjugated or resonant system, bound to a metal center. Allyl ions, for example, can either be mono-this or tri-this.
Answer: hapticity
[10] When only one of the two cyclopentadienyl derivative ligands is present, a half-sandwich compound results. When three ligands like carbonyl are present as well, they're given this name for the furniture they resemble.
Answer: piano stool compounds
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First detected by the BeppoSAX satellite, long-duration ones are believed to occur when a quickly rotating low-metallicity star, like a Wolf-Rayet, becomes a black hole. FTPE:,
[10] Name these energetic extragalactic events.
Answer: Gamma Ray Burst or GRB
[10] These objects, similar to GRBs, exist within the Milky Way and are believed to be spinning magnetars. They emit X-rays and gamma rays at random intervals.
Answer: Soft Gamma Repeater
[10] This standard model of GRBs predict a long-wavelength delayed emission known as an afterglow. It posits that ultra-relativistic particles transfer to radiation in a thin region, with an "inner engine" to accelerate them.
Answer: Fireball shock model (accept "relativistic fireball", random yelling of "HADOKEN", etc)
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They were derived by examining the meticulous data assembled by Tycho Brahe, and the T-squared over R-cubed relation was later derived by Newton via universal gravitiation. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this set of three laws describing the motion of celestial bodies.
Answer: Kepler's three laws of planetary motion [accept reasonable equivalents]
[10] This is the most efficient intermediate orbit, in terms of fuel usage, to propel a spacecraft between two circular orbits. It is an ellipse with short axis equal to the shorter radius.
Answer: Hohmann Transfer [accept Hohmann orbit]
[10] This equation finds the velocity at any point along an elliptical orbit. It states that velocity is equal to the square root of the product of G, the mass of the central object, and two over the radius minus one over the semi-major axis.
Answer: Vis-Viva Equation
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Also known as Veitch diagrams, they are created using a gray code. FTPE:,
[10] Name this method of minimizing boolean expression, that places the inputs on either axes of a grid and the outputs within the cells.
Answer: Karnaugh maps
[10] This algorithm, which accomplishes the same task as Karnaugh mapping, involves finding prime implicants of the function. Its partly named for the guy who wrote Two Dogmas of Empiricism
Answer: Quine-McClusky algorithm
[10] Karnaugh maps are often used to find these situations, in which the output is highly dependent on the sequence of outside events. It occurs in multithreading.
Answer: Race condition or Race hazard
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This paradigm emphasizes reactions being run at STP, as well as atom economy, where one ensures that the largest proportion possible of any stoichiometric reagents are used in the product. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this field, which supports using lanthanide triflates for Lewis acids, not to mention phase-transfer catalysis or outright solvent-free reactions.
Answer: green chemistry
[10] The supercritical form of this compound was advocated, alongside the use of aqueous hydrogen peroxide, as a key development in green chemistry. As a solid, this compound is called dry ice.
Answer: carbon dioxide
[10] This green chemist and co-winner with Knowles and Sharpless of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Chemistry won for work on chiral hydrogenation. He's closely associated with the BINAP ligand.
Answer: Ryoji Noyori
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In Drosophila, they include segment polarity and pair-rule genes, and the MADS-containing genes in plants are similar to them. FTPE:,
[10] Name these genes that encode for transcription factors important in developmental control. Their central domain is highly conserved.
Answer: HOX genes or homeobox genes or homeotic genes or homeodomain genes
[10] This scientist, alongside Eric Weischauss, performed a massive screen of malformed Drosophila embryos in order to find genes that control development
Answer: Christiane Nusslein-Volhard
[10] This set of proteins is responsible for silencing HOX genes by controlling the methylation states of chromatin around cellular memory modules. They are antagonistic to the Trithorax group proteins
Answer: Polycomb group proteins or PcG
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Identify these mad scientists from high and low culture, FTPE:,
[10] This protagonist of a work subtitled "The Modern Prometheus" eventually dies of pneumonia after following his creation to the Arctic.
Answer: Victor Frankenstein
[10] This antagonist of Fritz Lang's Metropolis created a robot to replace his wife Hel, and uses the robot to get revenge against Joh Fredersen.
Answer: CA Rotwang
[10] This subordinate of Cobra Commander and enemy of the GI Joe team is responsible for creating the Battle Android Troopers and creating Serpentor from the DNA of various historical military commanders
Answer: Doctor Mindbender
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It is a symmetry exactly held by the strong and electromagnetic force, but broken in certain weak interactions that also break CP. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this transformation equivalent to reversing all linear and angular momuntum in a particle collision. The product of it and CP is invariant.
Answer: Time Reversal or T
[10] This statement holds that a irreversible process can never be created from time-symmetric dynamics. In particular, it implies that the Second Law of thermodynamics prefers one direction of time.
Answer: Loschmidt Paradox
[10] This mathematical construct is simply a vector-like object which reverses sign under rotation by two pi. The type named for Dirac are members of the fundamental representation of a complexified Clifford Algebra, other types include Weyl and Majorana.
Answer: Spinor
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Schild regression studies the cellular response resulting from their binding to receptors. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these molecules, classed as agonists and antagonists relative to a given receptor, which complexes with a biomolecule. Neurotransmitters are good examples.
Answer: ligand
[10] This phenomenon refers to when ligand binding to one site increases the affinity for subsequent ligand to bind at other sites, such as with hemoglobin and oxygen. It can happen via allosteric effects, for example.
Answer: cooperativity
[10] This plot has a slope equal to negative the affinity constant of a ligand with a protein. It graphs r, which is the ratio of bound ligand concentration to total available binding sites, against r over c, where c is the free ligand concentration.
Answer: Rosenthal-Scatchard equation [or Scatchard plot]
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Answer some questions about membrane dynamics, FTPE:,
[10] This model of membranes proposes a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that can move around. It replaced the Davidson-Danielli and Gorter-Grendel models.
Answer: Fluid Mosaic Model
[10] This technique takes a fluorescently labeled membrane and washes out the color in one section using a laser in order to measure the membrane component's diffusion rates.
Answer: FRAP or Flourescence Recovery After Photobleaching
[10] These enzymes are responsible for switching phospholipids from one layer to the other in order to maintain an asymmetric membrane.
Answer: Flippases
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When glaciers are found atop volcanoes, whacky science occurs. For 10 points each:,
[10] These are the flat-topped mountains, which are often located in isolation on flat plains, that occur when a volcano erupts under a glacier.
Answer: tuyas
[10] Tuyas have a layer of this type of lava, which is formed when the glacier melts enough so that the lava is surfaces underwater, forming roundish blobs that, despite their name, are not all that fluffy.
Answer: pillow lava [prompt on subaqueous extrusion]
[10] Tuyas have these kind of eruptions, which are interactions between magma and enough water so that not all of it can be boiled into steam. Depending on whether the material in question is quenched slowly or quickly, slow-forming hyaloclastite or explosively-formed hyalotuff may be formed from this type of eruption.
Answer: phreatomagmatic eruption
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Their strength depends strongly on the material of the dielectric, both on the dielectric multiplier it provides, and the E field it can sustain before it breaks down. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this simple circuit element which stores energy in the electric field between two plates.
Answer: Parallel Plate Capacitor
[10] This method can be used to determine the electric field in a capacitor by treating it as a collection of charges interacting with a large planar conductor, which is then replaced by imaginary charges.
Answer: Method of Mirror Images [prompt on anything including mirror]
[10] Ultracapacitors have been created using these materials, notable for their extremely low density and fractal internal structure. It's a type of colloid in which a liquid component has been replaced by gas.
Answer: Aerogel
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One convertase in the classical version of this pathway is inhibited by decay accelerating factor, and is activated by IgM. FTPE:,
[10] Name this pathway of the innate immune system, a set of zymogens that when activated creates a series of complexes and proteins that blow holes in pathogen membranes and opsonizes invaders.
Answer: Complement system
[10] This ring-shaped complex of about 20 proteins is formed on the surface of bacteria after the activation of the complement system. It blows holes in the membrane and is inhibited by CD59.
Answer: Membrane attack complex of MAC
[10] C5a, a component of the complement pathway, is this type of cytokine, which functions to attract and recruit phagocytic cells by taxis.
Answer: Chemokines
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This process is often followed by viewing under a UV lamp, and the separation is often used to determine a solvent system for a column. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this form of chromatography which is carried out on a silica-coated glass plate.
Answer: thin-layer chromatography [or TLC]
[10] Following TLC, amines and carbamates are stained by this compound, the hydrate of indane-1,2,3-trione.
Answer: ninhydrin [or 2,2-dihydroxyindane-1,3-dione]
[10] Testing using ninhydrin is used to monitor solid-phase peptide synthesis, in order to determine when the protein has unprotected sites. Solid-phase peptide synthesis is named for this biochemist.
Answer: Merrifield synthesis [or Robert Bruce Merrifield]
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Euclidean spaces with Euclidean norms are a common example of them, and every Hilbert space is also one of these. FTPE:,
[10] Name these topological spaces, which are often infinite-dimensional function spaces. In general, they are complete, normed vector spaces.
Answer: Banach Space
[10] Since a Banach space is complete, every one of these sequences has a limit in the space. The proof of of the forward statement of the Heine-Borel theorem relies on them.
Answer: Cauchy sequence
[10] This generalization of the derivative, defined on Banach spaces, is less general than the Gateaux derivative. It exists when there exists a bounded linear operator A such that the limit of norm of f of x + h minus f of x minus A of h divided by the norm of h is zero.
Answer: Frechet derivative
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One of the reagents in this organometallic transformation bears strong similarity to the Petasis reaction. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this reaction whose net effect is to install an alkyl group on a vinyl or aryl group, which accomplishes that transformation via palladium catalysis and boronic acids, rather than the tin used by the Stille reaction.
Answer: Suzuki-Miyaura coupling
[10] The Suzuki coupling ends with the "reductive" form of this event. First term organic classes cover three mechanisms for this process, denoted unimolecular and bimolecular, that complement nucleophilic substitution.
Answer: elimination
[10] This coupling instead installs a terminal alkyne on a vinyl or aryl group. It has a second interlocked catalytic cycle, in which the alkyne is deprotonated hen introduced into the main cycle by transmetallation
Answer: Sonogashira coupling
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Drugs to treat this disease include Peglotase and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. FTPE:,
[10] Name this disease which is caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals on joint cartilage, like the toe, for example.
Answer: Gout
[10] This X-linked genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the HGRPT gene causes gout, but more notable symptoms include biting yourself.
Answer: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome or LNS
[10] These are the names of the uric acid crystal deposits commonly found in gout. They're also found in patients with hyperuricemia.
Answer: Tophus or tophi
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Holey fibers can be use to manufacture two-dimensional versions of these structures, whose fibrous versions may replace fiber optics. FTPE:,
[10] Name these optical analogues of semiconductors, which contain repeating internal regions of high and low dielectric constant that only allow certain wavelengths.
Answer: Photonic crystals
[10] Photonic crystal fibers are sometimes named after the namesake of this this law, which expresses the interference pattern of X-ray diffraction. It states n lambda equals 2d sin theta.
Answer: Bragg's Law
[10] Photonic crystal slabs partially rely on this effect, which in other contexts can result in a shift in polarized light via the Goos-Hanchen and Imbert-Fedorov effects.
Answer: Total internal reflection

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