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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Tossups by Packet 06
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One version of this reaction has a final step that can be carried out using caesium carbonate at 70 degrees or NaHDMS at negative 70 degrees. Like the Reformatsky reaction, Samarium-2-Iodide can be used in this reaction, specifically in place of sodium amalgam in the second step, which sees the radical elimination to give the desired product. Using a heteroaryl compound in this reaction forces a Smiles rearrangement followed by spontaneous elimination, while a one-pot version of this reaction uses a tetrazole reagent and is named for Kocienski. Its first step sees the in situ production of an ester after a carbanion is transformed into an alcohol. Usually resulting in the E-isomer and using n-butyllithium and a ketone, for 10 points, name this reaction which transforms phenyl sulfones to alkenes.
Answer: Julia-Lythgoe olefination
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In crystaline solids this value along with the coefficient of thermal expansion can be determined via powder diffraction. Its isothermal form ignores the effects of changing temperature, but it is usually measured in its adiabatic form, where changing temperature can cause problems if the material is not degassed. Its isotropic form can be calculated from Lame's first parameter and two thirds of the shear modulus. The square root of this quantity over density is equal to the speed of sound in the medium, though this relation fails in anisotropic solids because this value becomes a tensor. It can be expressed as dee pee over dee rho over rho, though more commonly density is replaced by relative volume change, and it has the same units as Pressure. For 10 points, name this porperty of a substance which measures its resistance to a change in volume, the reciprocal of compressibility.
Answer: Bulk Modulus of Elasticity [prompt on incompressibility until the end]
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An improvement of this technique uses a glass substrate in a microfluidic cartridge, then moves the plate under an aperture in order to take measurements; this version allows easy application of compounds and is called "planar" . Coating the apparatus with Sylgard 184 cuts back on noise in this assay, which often uses an automated perfusion apparatus. In another variation, gramicidin or amphothericin-B in the apparatus creates perforations in the target in order to get whole-cell information. Most versions of this technique rely on the formation of a gigaohm seal. Invented by Nobelists Sakhmann and Neher, for 10 points, name this electrophysiological assay that uses a specialized micropipette to record currents in sections of membrane.
Answer: Patch clamping (Prompt on "Voltage clamping")
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A language can be generated by one of these constructs if any string in the language can be broken up into five separate substrings that pass three different criteria, such as having the three middle substrings combined being less than the "pumping length." That version of the pumping lemma for languages generated by these can be proven through the use of derivation trees generated by these constructs. The CYK algorithm can be used to determine if a string can be generated by one of these, and an alternate form of representing them is the Greibach Normal Form, which is used in showing that these constructs are equivalent to push-down automata. Defined by terminal and nonterminal alphabets, production rules, and a start symbol, for 10 points, name this type-2 grammar which can generate languages more powerful than regular ones but not as powerful as context-sensitive ones, developed by Noam Chomsky.
Answer: Context-free Grammars [prompt on Push-down Automata or Context-free Languages]
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In most plants, the residual feed undergoes this process in a large coker unit, while in modern instances the unit that performs this process receives the input from a feed hydrotreater, which is in turn attached to a vacuum distillation column. Shukhov developed an early thermal method of performing this process, which was later replaced by the Burton process. Units performing the modern version of this process use Type Y zeolites, and operate by using a two-stage cyclone to regenerate the spent catalyst after the reactant has combined with slurry oil and passed through the catalyst riser. That method is the fluid catalytic process, which has replaced several radical-generating thermal methods. Used to create high-octane gasolines from crude products, for 10 points, name this chemical process commonly used in the petroleum industry, in which long hydrocarbon chains are broken down into smaller ones
Answer: Cracking (accept Fluid catalytic cracking or thermal cracking, accept oil refining)
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This is the name of a television show set in Cedar Springs which featured such characters as Turner, a toddler who had the body of a full grown man. A video game of this name features the very minor character of Mark Eteer, who appears on a television, while a staircase in this game is said to be "out of order." Characters in this game can enhance their strength by using an item called the Hunk-O-Matic, while a way to die in this game is to attempt to microwave a jar of water from the pool. One ending to this game features the villain reforming after he gets a publishing contract, while another seems rocketed into space in a car. A notorious incident in this game allows for the microwaving of Weird Ed's hamster, while supporting characters include Nurse Edna and Dr. Fred. Revolving around Dave's attempt to free Sandy from the meteor, for 10 points, name this PC and NES game which later inspired the sequel Day of the Tentacle.
Answer: Maniac Mansion
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Pringle and Lynden-Bell used a Green function approach to find solutions for the diffusion equation governing these structures, whose gravitational instabilities are the subject of the Toomre Q parameter. Balbus and Hawley postulated the MRI instability for them, and their rate of formation is given by the Bondi-Hoyle equations. One theory describing them correctly predicts the appearance and disappearance of a double-peak in the spectra of cataclysmic variables. That model uses Kramer's Opacity Law and features a viscosity proportional to the scale height and sound speed, a nine-equation system known as the Shakura-Sunyaev model. Advection dominated flow causes puffing in them below the Eddington limit, and magnetic field lines in these objects are dragged in the Blandford-Znajek mechanism. They are a hallmark of Active Galactic Nuclei and can power X-ray pulsars. Often displaying relativistic jets from their centers, for 10 points, name these circular regions of matter that surround quasars and black holes.
Answer: Accretion Disk (Accept Protostellar disc until AGN)
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When deriving this phenomenon, noting that the system in question is equivalent to a Coloumb gas leads to the fact that the scale only contributes a constant. A simpler derivation considers the fact that the equation for the delta-G of vortex formation is dominated by an entropy term at low temperatures. Based on the binding and unbinding of two vortices, this phenomenon takes a system from a regime in which the spin-wave approximation holds to a disordered one. In superfluid Helium-4 films this phenomenon is responsible for a discontinuity in the superfluid density, leading to a two-dimensional version of the lambda transition. Occurring from ground states with a continuous symmetry like in the XY model, for 10 points, name this infinite-order phase transition that sees the disappearance of long-range order in a low temperature regime, named for two physicists.
Answer: Kosterlitz-Thouless transition
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This functional group is selectively stained by methylene orange. Aromatic versions are created in the Leuckhart reaction from diazonium salts, while compounds undergoing the Corey-Seebach reaction have been reacted with a protecting group containing two of them. In the catalytic cycle of ribonucleotide reductase, a radical is transferred from this functional group to an active site carbon, and one of these functional groups in GAPDH attacks the aldehyde group of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. These compounds can be synthesized by a reduction following the use of Lawesson's reagent. A version of ethanol with one of these functional groups added is used to denature proteins in protein gel electrophoresis, while papain and caspase are proteases that contain one of these functional groups at the active site. Notably present on the side chain of cysteine, they are also present in skunk spray. For 10 points, name these compounds that can be synthesized from the SN2 reaction of an alkyl halide with hydrogen sulfide, the sulfur analogues of alcohols.
Answer: Thiols or mercaptans or sulfhydryl
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During T-cell development, this protein is ubiquitinated on its N-terminus by the ITCH enzyme, and this protein is antagonistically regulated by transcription of the glucocorticoid receptor via the cytoskeleton. During G1 phase, this protein transactivates cyclin D1, and this protein binds directly to the promoter of cyclin A2. This protein contains a leucine zipper which it uses to either dimerize or form the AP-1 transcription factor with another gene, which then binds to TPA response elements. The viral form of this protein, originally discovered in the chicken ASV17 retrovirus, lacks its inhibitory delta domain. This protein's transactivation domain contains ser-63 and ser-73, which are phosporylated by MAPK8, 9, and 10, also known at this protein's namesake N-terminal kinases, or JNKs. The binding partner of c-Fos, for 10 points, name this oncogene responsible for the response to irradiation, osmotic shock, and apoptotic control.
Answer: c-Jun (accept "JunB")
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The Bowden-Tabor model can be used to describe this behavior in molybdenum disulfide*, while applying an AC voltage to an NaCl crystal results in a dynamic version of it. Polymer brushes are a common method of achieving this phenomenon, and this term was coined by Hirano after a study using UHV scanning tunneling microscopy. One model describing this phenomenon uses a harmonic oscillator hanging from leaf springs over a periodic potential, and has a stickslip regime for eta greater than 1, known as the Tomlinson model. This effect can be applied to the construction of MEMS and other nanotechnology, especially because two graphite sheets rubbing against each other display it. For 10 points, name this effect where two surfaces display little to no friction against each other.
Answer: Superlubricity (accept "friction" until *)
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The double covers of Enrique surfaces are these objects, and in two complex dimensions the only compact simply connected ones are the K3 surfaces. Considering their Hodge numbers gives a derivation of the mirror symmetry, which is equivalent to applying T-duality to their toroidal fibers. Flux-free compactifications over one of these preserve two to the power one minus n supersymmetries, and they contain a nonvanishing harmonic spinor. These objects have vanishing first real Chern class and a metric with a holonomy contained in SU(n), and one of their namesakes proved that they have Ricci flat metrics. For 10 points, name these mathematical surface, defined as Kahler manifolds with trivial canonical bundles, some of which have the same shape as the extra dimensions of spacetime in string theory, named for two guys.
Answer: Calabi-Yau manifolds
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One specimen of this creature was controversially re-classified into the genus Wellnhoferia. All known remains of this prehistoric creature were discovered in the Solnhofen limestone deposits. This denizen of the Late Jurassic period was once thought to be closely related to Compsognathus, but is now thought to be more closely related to the dromaeosaurs. This creature lacked a breastbone, and thus was probably incapable of lifting its arms over its body and engaging in flapping, the process its descendents use for flying. For ten points, name this oldest known fossilized bird.
Answer: Archaeopteryx
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Their discoverer found that they have the ability to decolor solutions of Michler ketones, and adding cyanide as a dummy ligand improves their economy. Adding 12-crown-4 to solutions of these compounds forces them into a linear configuration, while methyl ones adopt an 8-member ring structure in ether solutions. They couple to an alkyl halide in the Corey-House-Posner-Whitesides reaction, and these compounds give exclusive 1,4-addition to alpha-beta unsaturated ketones, making them more regioselective than Grignard reagents. They're usually prepared in THF at negative 78 degrees by adding two equivalents of an organolithium reagent to copper iodide. For 10 points, name these organocuprate reagents named for an American chemist.
Answer: Gilman reagents (accept organocuprates before mention)
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Tom Reilly theorized the existence of "Zone 14," in which the chance of this event occurring is increased. Onody and de Castro showed that in a specific population, the probability of doing this n times followed a power law, while Dixon and Robinson modeled the chance of this happening in an approximately ninety-minute period as an interacting birth process. In July 2009, a team from Stuttgart did this four times to win a competition in which the objective was to do this with robots more than the opposing team. According to legend, Niels Bohr was thinking about some unknown mathematical problem when a player for Mittweida unexpectedly did this. For 10 points, name this action, which according to a 2009 study by Bar-Eli and Azar, can be almost always be performed if a penalty kick taker sends an on-target shot toward the upper part of the net.
Answer: scoring a soccer goal [accept any reasonable equivalents; prompt on anything mentioning soccer]
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These sequences can be located by size-fractionation of PCR products followed by RIP mapping, or else by looking for arcs on a neutral/neutral 2D gel electrophoresis. A six-protein complex present at these sites recruits Cdt1, which is inhibited by geminin. The SV40 Large T-antigen binds to one of these, and BrdU labeling shows that groups of 20 to 80 of them are activated simultaneously. Licensing factors bind to these sites, and when activated, these sequences are responsible for recruiting the MCM proteins, which bind to these sequences after the phosphorylation and degradation of cdc6. In E. Coli, these sequences are composed of AT-rich 13-mer repeats followed by 9-mer repeats, and bind to DnaA, which unwinds it before binding primase and polymerase. Also the site of the ORC complex in Eukaryotes, for 10 points, name these sequences which are the starting points for DNA duplication during S phase.
Answer: Origins of Replication or Replication Origins (accept Origin of Replication Complex or ORCs or pre-Replication Complex or Initiation Complex for those who don't listen)
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Zhu explained one version of this phenomenon using a scanning tunneling microscope inside an electron microscope, noting that polarons can transition between liquid and solid states - that effect was originally discovered by von Helmolt in perovskites. An anisotropic version of this phenomenon is used in "barber pole" electronic compasses, while another version can be improved by using spin valves in alternating layers to cut back on RKKY coupling. A version of this phenomenon occurs due to a decrease in scattering by breaking weak antiferromagnetic coupling between adjacent ferromagnetic layers, and is used in MRAM. Coming in a "Colossal" and "Tunneling" forms, for 10 points, name this effect, the "giant" variety of which is used in hard drive read heads and was characterized by Fert and Grunberg, the decrease in resistivity of a material with an applied magnetic field.
Answer: Magnetoresistance (Accept "giant magnetoresistance", "colossal magnetoresistance", "anomalous magnetoresistance", etc)
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Lipschitz classes are important to determing how bijectively this statement holds numerically. This statement relates an analytic functional and an algebraic operator, the latter of which is related to the formal de Rham Cohomology. It can be extended to parametrization along a curve in higher-dimensional space, which in the case of irrotational vector fields uses Poincare's theorem to yield the gradient theorem, and it can be extended to complex functions as long as they remain continuous in their domain. One proof of this result, which was established independently by two mathematicians, involves taking a continuous function, applying the Mean Value Theorem to successive divisions of some interval, and then noting that sum is bounded above and below by an object named for Reimann. For 10 points, name this pair of theorems that relate the two important branches in its namesake field of math, the definite integral and the derivative.
Answer: Fundamental Theorems of Calculus [do not penalize for singular/plural mistakes, accept Second or First in front of Fundamental because textbooks just can't decide on whether they are really one theorem or two]
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Goldstein extended this theory with a two-term partition function for H-bond interactions, while LCST behavior cannot be accounted for by this theory and require adding "holes". A variation of this theory by Krigbaum adds a term for volume elements, and considering the critical temperature for an infinitely-long molecule in this theory gives rise to the theta point. This theory is derived by considering a lattice in which each space can only be occupied by one monomer, then calculating the combinatorial entropy assuming ideal mixing. Usually expressed in terms of the Gibbs free energy expansion plus an interaction term chi, for 10 points, name this theory used to model the mixing of polymer solutions, named for two guys.
Answer: Flory-Huggins solution theory
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One section of this organ is vascularized by the penicilliary radicles. This organ's central artery is surrounded by PALS tissue, while myofibroblasts cover its external surface. The sinuses of this organ empty into the trabecular vein, while another section of this organ can be stained by immunohistochemistry against ERTR-9 or MARCO. The cords of Billroth are present in another section of this organ, which stores approximately half of the body's total monocytes. It can be subdivided into sections containing red or white pulp. B cells mature in its marginal zone, and weakening of the ligaments around it leads to a condition in which it "wanders". Often sequestered in sickle-cell anemia, for 10 points, name this largest lymphoid organ in the human body.
Answer: Spleen
 
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Bonuses by Packet 06
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It was originally discovered in Burkitt's Lymphoma patients, and was named based on homology to an oncogene found in the myelocytomatosis virus.,
[10] Name this oncogene, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, the target of the APC pathway that dimerizes with the mad and max factors.
Answer: c-myc
[10] The translocation that leads to myc overexpression moves one of these genetic elements, which unlike promoters are distant from the body of a gene, but like promoters upregulate transcription.
Answer: Enhancer
[10] Myc and other bHLH transcription factors bind to this particular sequence, whose consensus sequence is CANNTG and is also important for regulation of circadian rhythms.
Answer: E-box
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Riparian zones can make this bad thing happen less. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this ecological problem whereby an ecosystem, usually a body of water, experiences an increase in the concentration of nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, usually because of fertilizer runoff.
Answer: eutrophication
[10] Another bad thing that can happen to lakes is when a bunch of CO2 builds up on the bottom, then the entire lake turns over, releasing the CO2 and suffocating everyone who lives nearby. Lake Monoun in Cameroon did this in 1984.
Answer: limnic eruption [prompt on lake overturn or really anything that involves lakes flipping or erupting or exploding in some way]
[10] A limnic eruption would ostensibly cause one of these pockets of scentless oxygen-poor air to form, which is a bad thing for anyone who wanders into one. This word takes it name from the Swahili for "evil wind."
Answer: mazuku
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While they can also be found in insulating materials, they are better known for forming the basis for the BCS theory. For 10 points each:,
[10] First, name these bosonic quasiparticles formed from two coupled fermions, such as electrons in a superconductor.
Answer: Cooper Pairs
[10] Cooper pairs are created in this hypothetical form of coupling in ultra-dense baryonic matter, in which the chiral symmetry of three massless quarks is broken. It sees the correlation between two namesake properties.
Answer: Color Flavor Locking [accept CFL, Flavor Color Locking, accept synonyms for Locking]
[10] CFL is important in this form of matter, believed to be found at expected at both high density and high temperatures, such as the early universe or the center of neutron stars. It notably exhibits deconfinement.
Answer: Quark-Gluon Plasma [accept word forms]
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It was first proposed by the namesake of an equation that predicts the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this equation that gives the rate constant of a reaction as k equals A times e to the negative activation energy over ideal gas constant times temperature, named for the namesake of an acid-base theory.
Answer: Arrhenius equation
[10] This theory, developed to explain the rate of electron transfer reactions, gives a formula for the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor based on the amount of wavefunction overlap between the initial and final states.
Answer: Marcus theory
[10] An more extensive and quadruply-eponymous theory of reactivity gives unimolecular reaction rates from characteristics of the potential energy surface. Marcus, its final namesake, was the one to merge the earlier theory with Eyring's transition state theory.
Answer: RRKM theory [or Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory.
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Identify some things about computational DNA evolution, FTPE:,
[10] The Felsenstein and Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano models are modifications of this one-parameter doubly eponymous substitution model, which assumes equal base frequencies and mutation rates.
Answer: Jukes-Cantor model or JC69 model
[10] This founder and bottleneck effects are special cases of this effect, in which random mutations change the overall distribution of alleles. Its particularly powerful in small populations.
Answer: Genetic Drift
[10] This theory, posited by Kimura, says that genetic drift is the primary driving force behind molecular evolution.
Answer: Neutral theory
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ANSWER; Killing Vector,
[10] Name these vector fields, whose Lie derivates with respect to themselves vanish over the particular metric that they preserve.
Answer:
[10] Killing vector fields are defined over these manifolds, whose tangent space at every point is a Hilbert space, which lets you define angles, curves, gradients, etc. They are a special case of Finsler manifolds.
Answer: Riemannian manifold
[10] Killing vectors are the generators for these relations between metric spaces, which are isomorphisms that also preserves distances.
Answer: Isometry or Congruence mapping
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Dividing this quantity by area gives the brightness, and the Tully-Fisher relation computes it from the amplitude of the rotation curve. FTPE:,
[10] Name this quantity, the amount of energy a body radiates per unit time.
Answer: Luminosity
[10] This formula states that the luminosity of an elliptical galaxy is directly proportional to the stellar velocity dispersion to the power of a constant. It assumes the mass to light ratio is constant.
Answer: Faber-Jackson relation
[10] This luminosity function, valid at low L, posits that the number of galaxies within a particular luminosity bin to be proportional to the product L to the power alpha times the negative exponent of L, with both L's being normalized.
Answer: Schechter Function
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In quantum mechanics they can be represented by quantum numbers when the system does not transition from one energy state to another. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this class of conserved quantities encountered in thermodynamics when a process is slow and the system is always in equilibirum.
Answer: Adiabatic Invariant [accept equivalents for Invariant]
[10] These devices can be used to trap a plasma by causing escaping particles to experience a force parallel to the field lines, making them bounce back. This can be derived by noting the adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment.
Answer: Magnetic Mirror Effect [prompt on magnetic confinement]
[10] The entropy of light is an adiabatic invariant under expansion or compression, leading to the derivation of this law for the distribution of blackbody radiation. It fails for long wavelengths.
Answer: Wein's Distribution Law
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In intermediate stages of development, these cells express the CD20 receptor, and upon maturity they are subdivided into plasma and memory types. FTPE:,
[10] Name these lymphocytes that develop in the bone marrow.
Answer: B cells
[10] Mutations in genes required antibody production or B cell maturation causes this disease, which often requires people to live in bubbles. Most cases are an X-linked mutation in the common gamma chain.
Answer: SCID or Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
[10] In mature B cells, this process, which involves nicking near S-regions and removal of constant regions, allows a B-cell to change the isotype of the antibodies on its surface.
Answer: Class switching recombination
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This process mounts a crystal on a goniometer and takes diffraction measurements called phases. FTPE:,
[10] Name this process used to form models of molecules, invented by von Laue and further developed by Bragg.
Answer: X-ray Crystallography or X-ray diffraction
[10] These indices, three integers typically given as l, m, and n, are used to refer to the possible Bravais lattices of a crystal.
Answer: Miller indices
[10] This quantity denotes the agreement between a set of diffraction data and the constructed model, defined as the normalized sum over all states of the difference between the observed and calculated structure factors.
Answer: R factor
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Since I'm out of earth science and astronomy, answer these questions about planetary geology. FTPE:,
[10] Created during the Amazonian epoch, this feature is three times taller than Mount Everest. It's a shield volcano.
Answer: Olympus Mons
[10] Quaoar and Enceladus both exhibit this phenomenon, where geysers spew cold liquids like ammonia, water, and methane. Several Kuiper belt objects exhibit it.
Answer: Cryovolcanism
[10] Shockwaves during the impact that created the Caloris basin on Mercury may be responsible for creating this type of terrain on the other side. It has characteristic hills and furrows.
Answer: Weird terrain
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It is very strong evidence for the expansion of the universe, and can be used to estimate the size and age of the universe. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this rule that states that galaxies are moving away from us at a velocity proportional to their distance away from us.
Answer: Hubble's Law
[10] This is the residual motion of a astronomical body after it's Hubble velocity has been subtracted out. It is generally caused by inhomogeneities in the gravitational field, such as revolution about the center of a supercluster.
Answer: Peculiar Velocity
[10] These illusionary super-long structures that seem to point at Earth are caused by variations in the peculiar velocites of a cluster of galaxies which make them appear to be stretched out in redshift space.
Answer: Fingers of God
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Two particles with the same charge experience this effect. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this phenomenon arising from and named for an r squared force law, in which simple electrostatic force between two particles tends to push them apart.
Answer: Coulomb repulsion
[10] This quantity measures the Coulombic repulsion between particles in a colloid. A high enough value of this, larger than about ten millivolts, prevents flocculation or coagulation.
Answer: Zeta potential
[10] This distance denotes the length scale at which Coulombic interactions between charged particles are of the same magnitude as thermal energies, that is, close to Boltzmann's constant times temperature.
Answer: Bjerrum length
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When poked, this animal exhibits the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex, which exhibits both sensitization and habituation. FTPE:,
[10] Name this model organism, commonly known as the California sea slug, which is commonly used in studies of synaptic plasticity.
Answer: Aplysia californica
[10] This Columbia University scientist and author of the memoir In Search of Memory won the Nobel Prize in 2000 alongside Carlsson and Greengard for his studies of the Aplysia gill withdrawal reflex.
Answer: Eric Kandel
[10] Synaptic plasticity in Aplysia is partially mediated by this second messenger, a ringed nucleotide which binds to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and to the CAP protein in the lac operon.
Answer: cyclic AMP or cAMP
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It is important in the field of thin film chromatography, and in certain liquids that form a convex meniscus, such as mercury in glass, it may work in reverse. For 10 points each,
[10] Name this effect in which a liquid is drawn into a narrow opening or tube.
Answer: Capillary Action [accept Capillarity, Capillary Motion, prompt on wicking]
[10] This value, symbolized psi, is the sum of a pressure term, a solute term, a gravimentric term, and some other factors. Its usefulness, especially in plant biology, stems from the fact that water will always move to minimize it.
Answer: Water Potential [do not accept Hydraulic Head]
[10] This equation, given by L equals the product of surface tension, pore diameter, and dunking time over four times the viscosity of the liquid, yields the amount of fluid absorbed into a porus material by capillary action.
Answer: Lucas-Washburn Equation [accept Fisher's Equation, because it was Fisher who first applied the Washburn equation to the study of biscuits. That's right. Biscuits.]
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Zintl ions like a two-minus, nine atom tin cluster play this role with respect to cryptands, as do many cations in crown ethers. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this concept from supramolecular chemistry, paired with the "host" compound.
Answer: Guest
[10] This method for finding equilibrium constants when all the interactions are nonbonding assumes one reactant is in great excess, making the other transparent, and finds the association rate in terms of the change in UV-vis absorbance.
Answer: Benesi-Hildebrand method
[10] This law of optics gives absorbance as the molar absorptivity times path length times concentration.
Answer: Beer-Lambert law
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It doesn't apply to spaces with an even number of dimensions, and it fails to distinguish between the inward and outward travelling cases. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this principle which states that any point on a wavefront can be considered a source, and that the wave propogates which some definite characteristic speed.
Answer: Huygens Principle [accept Huygens-Fresnel Principle]
[10] This function, which can be modeled by a Fredholm integral, returns the distorted image of a point source, and is used to model image blurring. It is caused by both optical aberrations and diffraction effects.
Answer: Point Spread Function [accept PSF, prompt on Impulse Response]
[10] A point spread function could also be considered a filter over this domain, which is taken to the time domain by an inverse Fourier transform.
Answer: Frequency Domain [prompt on Fourier domain]
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One muscle important in this sense is the muscle spindle, and patients lacking it include those suffering from limb hypermobility. FTPE:,
[10] Name this sense carried by superfast type Ia sensory neurons, that allows the brain to understand its own orientation in space.
Answer: Proprioception
[10] Another important proprioceptive organ is a "tendon organ" named for this scientist, who was an intellectual rival of Santiago Ramon y Cajal. He's also got this apparatus named for him that's involved in packaging.
Answer: Camillo Golgi
[10] These small mechanoreceptors are sensitive to light touches and are present in the fingertips. They contain a nerve ending surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue.
Answer: Meissner's corpuscle
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Chaitan's constant expresses the probability that the answer to this problem is "yes", and oracle machines and hypercomputation may get around it. FTPE:,
[10] Name this fundamental problem of computation theory, which asks whether a given program will finish running in a finite amount of time.
Answer: Halting Problem
[10] This theorem states that any non-trivial property about the language recognized by a given Turing machine is undecidable. Its proof relies on the undecidability of the halting problem.
Answer: Rice's Theorem
[10] An alternate proof of Rice's theorem relies on the recursion theorem named for this man, who's namesake star gives all of the strings that can be created concatenation of a given set of characters.
Answer: Stephen Kleene
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Its first step involves the addition of hydrazine, after which nitrogen gas is eliminated. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this basic analogue to the Clemmensen reduction, which takes a carbonyl to an alkane.
Answer: Wolff-Kishner reduction
[10] This one-pot modification of the Wolff-Kishner reduction employs ethylene glycol as solvent.
Answer: Huang Minlon modification
[10] This reaction couples the reduction using hydrazine of a ketone with the opening of an alpha-beta epoxide to give an allylic alcohol.
Answer: Wharton reaction

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