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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Tossups by Packet 05
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Kawada and Cohen used a combination of an HDAC6 inhibitor and a protease inhibitor to selectively kill cells infected with this virus, and cells infected with it show upregulated fgr tyrosine kinase. Expression of its nuclear antigens are controlled epigenetically through the Wp, Cp, and Qp promoters, and also encodes for a series of miRNAs near its BART and BHRF1 genes, the latter of which is a Bcl2 homologue. Its latent cycle is promoted by the transmembrane proteins LMP-1 and 2, and causes hairy leukoplakia in AIDS patients. Also responsible for post-transplant lymphoproliferation, this virus is associated with a disease that sees a translocation of c-myc and a starry sky appearance under an H&E stain, called Burkitt's lymphoma. For 10 points, name this herpesvirus that infects B-cells and commonly causes mononucleosis.
Answer: Epstein-Barr virus
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The conservation of this quantity explains why the cross section of the decay of pp to d-pi-plus is twice that of pn to d-pi-0, and the rho mesons are the vector bosons corresponding to this quantity. Yang and Mills used the conservation of this quantity in the title of their original paper outlining their gauge theory. This quantity explains the nearly identical masses of the pions, which have value 1 for it. The electric charge minus this quantity is equal to one-half times the hypercharge according to the Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula. Used to classify different types of hadrons in the Standard Model, its symmetry is the invariance of the strong Hamiltonian under action of SU(2). Used to explain the difference between nucleons by Wigner and Heisenberg, for 10 points, name this quantity which helped develop the quark model, a quantum number with is negative for the down quark and for the up quark.
Answer: Isospin or Isotopic spin or Isobaric spin
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Sublimation on its surface created a hexagonal structure around its Plain of Abatus, and that same process has created a series of maculae. It contains crater chains named for Set and Kraken, while its atmosphere contains a haze of nitriles and hydrocarbon, created by the action of sunlight on methane. Extensive diapirism may be responsible for a series of ridges in its western hemisphere known as its cantaloupe terrain, and it also has the Ho and Lo sulci which were created by strike-slip faulting. Drag from a debris disk is believed to be responsible for its almost circular orbit, while its other features include Hili and Mahilani, volcanos which spew liquid nitrogen. The only large moon in the solar system with a retrograde orbit, Voyager 2's flyby of this body discovered evidence of Cryovolcanism. For 10 points, name this largest moon of Neptune.
Answer: Triton
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Zhao and Song's version of this reaction replaced one component with wet MeNO2 and dripped in the main reagent and per-iodic acid together, a procedure which was also used by Zhang. One acid-sensitive alternative to this procedure is named for Collins, while one reaction similar to this one uses the same reagent in pyridine and methelyene chloride, named for Sarett. The use of acetone as a solvent precludes its use with esters, while a gentler alternative to it was developed by Suggs and Corey and uses PCC as the reagent. The main compound forms a chromate ester before attacking the substrate, and that substrate is formed from adding chromium trioxide to sulfuric acid, known as this reaction's namesake reagent. For 10 points, name this oxidation commonly used to take alcohols to ketones or carboxylic acids.
Answer: Jones Oxidation
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This man has a condition called dextrocardia, where his heart is on the right side of his body, allowing him to survive being shot in the chest. One character who works for this man is a female photographer nicknamed "Freelance," who uses a broken flashbulb to cut another character's face. This character sends Mr. Jones to pick up the protagonist, although Jones is exposed and kills himself with a poison cigarette. He can first be heard talking off screen to the bumbling Professor Dent, and he reportedly gained his funds by embezzling from the Tongs. Calling the protagonist a "stupid policeman," he seems to die when he falls into a cooling vat and cannot climb out with his metal hands. For 10 points, name this bad guy, played by Joseph Wiseman, an evil scientist who works for SPECTRE and was the first villain encountered on film by James Bond.
Answer: Dr. Julius No (accept either)
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This process can be enhanced using gallium arsenide/aluminum arsenide heterojunctions, and quantum coherence effects can be used to circumvent the need for it. Water undergoing this process in star-forming regions leads to the super-strong 22GHz spectral line. The 21cm transition in hydrogen can be exploited to facilitate this process by applying a magnetic field and flipping the electron spins. This phenomenon often leads to a negative absolute temperature, and it is usually created in a three or four level system via a pumping process, after which the system escapes it either through spontaneous or stimulated emission. For 10 points, name this phenomenon in which the majority of particles in a system are in an excited state, which commonly occurs in lasers.
Answer: Population inversion (Prompt on lasing)
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Unusually for human cells, around 50% of them are polyploid and multinucleate. These cells are arranged into sheets supported by reticulin networks, and surround vascular areas called sinusoids. They are responsible for synthesizing serum albumin, fibrinogen and thrombin, and they also synthesize apoproteins in order to export LDL and HDL. Separated form endothelial cells by the Space of Disse, these cells are also the main site of gluconeogenesis. These cells express carbamoyl phosphate synthase and arginase I as part of the urea cycle. Existing alongside Ito and Kupffer cells and responsible for bile production, for 10 points, name this cell type responsible for detoxification, named for and found in the liver.
Answer: Hepatocytes
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The polydispersity index is a ratio between two different averages of this quantity, the distribution of which is precisely controlled in ATRP and other "living" methods. It is raised to the power a in order to obtain the intrinsic viscosity in the Mark-Houwink equation, while it's number-averaged type is inversely proportional to fractional conversion via the Carouthers equation. It shows a bimodal distribution in systems displaying auto-acceleration. For linear molecules, using a polystyrene standard in gel-permeation chromatography experiments can be used to calculate it. For non-polymers, this quantity varies between isotopomers, and can be obtained from molar amount by multiplying by Avogadro's number. For 10 points, name this quantity often measured by adding the atomic weights of the constituents of a molecule.
Answer: Molecular weight or Molecular mass
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David Wessel described this property as a certain kind of "control structure." McNally and Handel presented subjects with five stimuli differing only in this property, and showed that subjects were more likely to place them in the correct temporal order when two consecutive ones had the same value for this property. Terasawa, Slaney, and Berger described this property as having "thirteen colors" in a paper exploring the parameter space for this property in terms of Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients. A work by Pierre Boulez pairs this property with "composition," and in addition to melody identification and pitch direction discrimination, discrimination of this property is part of the Clinical Assessment of Music Perception developed by researchers at Washington to test cochlear implant users. For 10 points, give this term that is nebulously defined as the auditory attribute of a sound that is neither pitch nor loudness.
Answer: timbre
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This pathway is responsible for the basal-to-suprabasal transition in the epidermis by forcing differentiation of cells expressing keratins 1 and 10. One protein in this pathway is inhibited by the Numb protein, while in one instance this pathway results in transcription of PreT-alpha. This pathway is subject to modulation by the glycosylases Lunatic, Radical, and Manic Fringe, and one ligand for this pathway is deleted in Alagille [Ah-la-jeel] syndorme. Its namesake protein is cleaved by a gamma-secretase complex, which can then drift into the nucleus to activate the CSL transcription factor. Upon interacting with a ligand, that protein's extracellular component is cleaved by TACE. This pathway functions primarily through juxtacrine signaling using the delta or serrate ligand, and its functions include activating the HES neurogenesis pathway and, via jagged, controls VEGF-modulated angiogenesis. For 10 points, name this signaling pathway, originally discovered due to some namesake indentations on Drosophila wings.
Answer: Notch signaling pathway
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For bipolar magnetic regions of the sun, the competition between this effect and magnetic buoyancy leads to varying amounts of tilt. Adding a term for this phenomenon to the Navier-Stokes equations with zero viscosity leads to the Taylor-Proudman theorem, and this effect is also responsible for the formation of Taylor columns. This effect is also the basis for the Christoffel voltage, and a parameter for this process is inversely proportional to the Rossby number. Considering the cross product formulation of it shows that one component of this effect is proportional to the sine of the latitude, and this effect is responsible for the direction of cyclones. Also useful for aiming intercontinental ballistic missiles, for 10 points, name this effect which is easily demonstrated by a ball rolling on a carousel, a fictitious force created by rotating reference frames.
Answer: Coriolis force or effect or acceleration
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ABSOLVER is a program which finds functions useful to this algorithm, and Nilsson's sequence and this algorithm can be notably applied to solve the 8-puzzle. It runs in polynomial time only when its heuristic's error is bounded by the log of the "perfect heuristic," and a similarly named algorithm works when multiple goal states are defined. Its notable innovation is to use both the sum of two weights and an Open and Closed list when determining which node to examine; it will behave perfectly when its heuristic is exact, and it is only guaranteed to find the optimal solution when the heuristic function is admissible, or strictly less than the actual cost. Developed in 1968 to combine Best First Search and Dijkstra's algorithm, for 10 points, name this search algorithm that finds the shortest path along a graph between two nodes using a distance-plus-cost weighting.
Answer: A Star
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Ultrafast variations of this technique can either use a double-resonance approach or the time domain vibrational echo method, which both use femtosecond lasers. The maximum resolution in this procedure is inversely proportional to the path length, and a rightward peak shift in this technique is indicative of pi backbonding. Liquid paraffin or nujol can be used as a mulling agent in this technique, whose sample is smeared between potassium bromide disks. Normal modes only appear for molecules with a dipole moment, and unique classification is obtained via complex fingerprint region. Some modes are obtained from scissoring, wagging, twisting, and rocking of molecules, and distinctive peaks occur due to symmetric and asymmetric stretching. For 10 points, name this spectroscopic technique that uses wavelengths longer than visible light.
Answer: Infrared spectroscopy or IR spectroscopy (Accept Fourier Transform IR spec or 2D/Two-dimensional IR spec)
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Cell lines that simulate this disease include LNCaP and DU145, while this disease usually sees a marked upregulation of glutamate carboxypeptidase II. This disease often sees an increase in the copy number of the AR gene, and has been eliminated in trials of the monoclonal antibody originally developed to treat melanoma, called ipilimumab. One important marker of this disease is a serine protease also known as kallikrein III, which is responsible for cleaving coagulum proteins. Abiraterone is currently being tested to combat this disease, whose progress is measured by the Gleason Score and whose other markers include EPCA-1 and EPCA-2. Like baldness, this disease can be treated with finasteride, a DHT-blocker marketed as Proscar. PSA testing is used to screen for this disease in men over 45. Usually diagnosed by rectal exam, for 10 points, name this cancer common in older men, which attacks a gland in the reproductive system.
Answer: prostate cancer
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This term, or "dynamic," describes any improvement on the hardness test of using a scleroscope or a Shore durometer, the most common of which uses the ASTM A956 standard. In addition to the Leeb hardness test of this type, another process described using this term is monitored continuously by the GRACE satellite and is the reason that Salmioja is a World Heritage Site. That process by this name accounts for the fact that much more of Finland is not underwater compared to 2000 years ago. Harry Fielding Reid formulated a theory of this process after observing the displacement from the San Andreas Fault, and it also comes in a "post-glacial" variety. For 10 points, name this word that, with "elastic," describes an early model for how earthquakes distributed energy.
Answer: rebound [accept embedded in any of the terms mentioned in the tossup]
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Mathematically this effect can be derived by considering the monodromy factor of a U(1)-connected flat complex line bundle, and Ho and Warner proposed using the COW experiment to test for the gravitational analogue of this effect, in which particles are excluded from a curved region of space. Devices capable of trapping and releasing individual photons are this effect's namesake "rings", which were created from quantum dots. This effect causes oscillations in resistance in carbon nanotubes and is responsible for flux quantization in SQUIDs, and was confirmed by Tomomura using an apparatus covered with niobium and copper and containing a toroid. The classic example of this effect involves beam of electrons splitting around a solenoid, then recombining with a phase shift equal to the Berry phase. Sometimes also named for Ehrenberg and Siday, for 10 points, name this effect in which particles are influenced solely by a vector potential in the absence of a magnetic field.
Answer: Aharonov-Bohm Effect
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Geometric method for calculating this property's extent include the Krygowski HOMA method and the the Bird index. The extent of this property is retarded slightly in the Miller-Nixon effect, while hetero-versions of this property can be explained by the Hosmane-Liebman method, which is a modification of the earlier Dewar-Breslow definition. Another method developed by Schleyer relies on finding the average of the diagonal elements of the shielding tensor, which is calculated by complexation of lithium; that method is called the Nucleus-Independent Chemical shift. Herges synthesized the first compound with a chiral version of it, which occurs with an odd number of out-of-phase overlaps. The PPP method expands another method of showing this property, which states that a molecule must have 4n plus 2 pi electrons. For 10 points, name this property which is the subject of Huckel's rules, most notably exhibited by benzene.
Answer: Aromaticity (accept Mobius aromaticity, and accept anti-aromaticity until "plus 2")
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The number of objects in a Tamari lattice of a sequence of length n+1 is the nth one of these, while the rows of the Narayana triangle add to these numbers. These numbers can be used to define the quadruple factorial, while they also arise which considering the number of monotonic paths under the diagonal of a grid. As n goes to infinity, applying the Stirling approximation the nth of these numbers is equal to 4 to the n divided by n to the 3/2 times the square root of pi, and they more famously arise when considering the number of ways one can cut a convex polygon into triangles. They can be defined using a recurrence relation of the sum of adjacent pairs of numbers in the sequence, or by the formula 2n choose n divided by n+1. Originally arising while analyzing the Tower of Hanoi, for 10 points, name these numbers that start 1, 1, 2, 5, 14?
Answer: Catalan numbers
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This man's namesake number is the ratio of sensible heat to specific heat, and while researching the rate that an ice layer forms on water, this man created a class of partial differential equations in which the phase boundary moves with time. With Maxwell, this scientist names an equation that describes multi-component diffusion, and this man's namesake flow is driven by particles being removed or added at an interface. He's the first namesake of an equation used to calculate the luminosity of stars when multiplied by 4 pi r squared, and is derived by either using the Maxwell relations with 3P equals u or integrating Planck's law over a half-sphere. Also the namesake of a constant equal to 5.67 times 10 to the negative 8. For 10 points, name this physicist who, with Boltzmann, names a law of blackbody radiation, a Slovenian.
Answer: Joseph Stefan
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Dawson proved that no matter the starting value of this quantity there always exists a stable value for it, and for a population, this value is multiplied by 4N in order to obtain the Watterson estimator, and in a neutral system taking that estimator multiplied by two t times this value gives the divergence. Haldane calculated the equilibrium frequency to be the square root of this value divided by the selection coefficient, and at balance the genetic load is equal to 1 minus e to the negative L times this value. A3G rapidly increases this value for HIV, resulting in an error-catastrophe. Assuming this value is relatively constant over time for a certain locus lends itself to molecular clock studies, and high values of it are often correlated with poor polymerase fidelity, as in many viruses. Also increased by EMS or radiation and usually evolved to balance selection, for 10 points, name this parameter equal to about 10 to the negative 8 in humans and symbolized mu, the speed at which a particular sequence of DNA changes.
Answer: Mutation rate or mu before mention (Accept reasonable equivalents)
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This scientist's chiral palladium catalysts were used in his synthesis of the anti-HIV agent Terpestacin. His early work includes elucidating the structure of juvenile hormone, and he's not Grubbs but he used a rhuthenium-catalyzed alkyne-alkene coupling in his synthesis of bryostatin-16. His galanthamine synthesis used isovanilin as the starting product, and this man dubbed sulfones "chameleons" for their variable nucleophilicity and invented the term "atom economy". One of his reactions was used to form an acetylated cyclohexenone in the first step of his Tamiflu synthesis, and when that reaction is coupled with a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement it create allenes. One compound named for him contains a cyclohexane with two amide groups bridging to two PPh3 moieties. That compound is his namesake ligand, which in one reaction attaches to zerovalent palladium in order to form a pi complex with an alkene, which is then attacked by a nucleophile. For 10 points, name this highly cited Stanford chemist who names an asymmetric allylic alkylation, the editor of the gripping read Comprehensive Organic Synthesis.
Answer: Barry M Trost
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Bonuses by Packet 05
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This disease is diagnosed via immunoflourescence in a namesake "band test" and is characterized by a peculiar butterfly rash. FTPE:,
[10] Name this autoimmune disease that comes in systemic, discoid, tumid, verrucous, and drug-induced forms.
Answer: Lupus erythematosus
[10] Lupus is characterized by the production of antibodies against this organelle, which contains a double membrane and shows up under the DAPI stain.
Answer: Nucleus
[10] This eponymous disease, which is similar to lupus, sees the production of antibodies against the glands that produce tears and saliva. Its often rheumatoid factor positive.
Answer: Sjogren's syndrome
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Like petals, eudicots usually have 4 or 5 of these, and merosity refers to the number of these. FTPE:,
[10] Name these flower parts, which are collectively known as the calyx and are usually green.
Answer: Sepals
[10] This Arabidopsis gene, when mutated, causes sepals to fuse together, which inhibits pollination. Unusually, plants that only carry mutant copies of this gene have been recently found to have children that contain a wild-type copy of it, suggesting some form of non-Mendelian inheritance.
Answer: HOTHEAD or HTH
[10] This bacterium, which carries Ti plasmids, are used to create transgenic Arabidopsis by transformation.
Answer: Agrobacterium Tumefaciens
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This palladium-catalyzed reaction installs an alkyl group on an alkene in the presence of base. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this reaction, which notably doesn't require phosphorus ligands when conducted in ionic liquids.
Answer: Mizoroki-Heck reaction
[10] One essential step of the Heck reaction sees a rotation about a carbon-carbon bond to allow for the beta-elimination of this species.
Answer: hydride
[10] Of analogous mechanism to the Heck reaction is this industrial oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde. Copper (II) chloride is used to oxidize palladium back to the two plus state.
Answer: Wacker process
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This is the set of all points in space that can reach a given point in a lattice without crossing a Bragg plane, though they are sometimes extended such that the n-th one of these allows n-1 Bragg plane crossings. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these primitive cells which correspond to Voronoi diagrams in a reciprocal Bravais lattice.
Answer: First Brillouin Zone
[10] This geometrical construction is used to demonstrate the relationship between the wavelength of incident x-rays and the diffraction angle. It is a sphere in the reciprocal lattice.
Answer: Ewald Sphere [accept Ewald's sphere of reflection, prompt on sphere of reflection]
[10] At these points, which occur at critical points of the Brillouin zone, the density of states in a solid is continuous but not differentiable. Notably, these may contribute to high temperature superconductivity in some copper compounds.
Answer: van Hove Singularity [accept equivalents for Singularity]
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It is useful in defining the fractional derivative of the power function, and Euler gave a definition in terms of an infinite product. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this generalization of the factorial function to the negative and complex reals with poles at each negative integer.
Answer: Gamma Function
[10] This formula for doubling the gamma function is named after a mathematician who also lends his name to a transform important in statistical mechanics which relates the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian.
Answer: Legendre Duplication Formula
[10] This approximation to the gamma function involves an arbitrary constant sigma and its namesake also gave a method for determining the eigenvectors of a symmetric sparse matrix.
Answer: Lanczos Approximation
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These depictions of cyclic monosaccharides don't depict unnecessary hydrogens and assume an unmarked atom is carbon. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these projections that use a thicker line to depict the closer side of the ring.
Answer: Haworth
[10] Five-member sugar rings can't be planar, nor can they form the chair and boat conformations of cyclohexane and its derivatives. Instead, their most common conformation is given this name, generally either C2'-endo or C3'-endo.
Answer: Pucker
[10] Bands arising from nucleic acids, such as C-N and -NH2 bending modes, shift depending on the sugar pucker conformation. This form of spectroscopy based on a form of inelastic scattering and features Stokes and anti-Stokes lines.
Answer: Raman spectroscopy
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Populations that grow this way are dominated by their growth factor rather than carrying capacity, and it is commonly seen in diatoms. FTPE:,
[10] Name this type of selection which emphasizes high numbers of offspring, as opposed to K-selection.
Answer: r-selection
[10] This type of reproductive strategy is common among r-strategists, in which they reproduce once and then die; it is contrasted with iteroparity.
Answer: Semelparity
[10] The R/K selection model was developed by MacArthur and Wilson while studying the biogeography of these isolated formations, which in one notable example saw a bunch of adaptive radiation.
Answer: Islands (accept archipelago)
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It makes use of Pauli Spin matrices to satisfy its anti-commutation relations. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this equation for spin one half particles which generalizes the Schrodinger Equation to relativistic energies.
Answer: Dirac Equation
[10] This other relativistic generalization of the Schrodinger equation applies to spin-zero particles. It becomes the screened Poisson equation under time independence.
Answer: Klein-Gordon Equation [prompt on KG Equation, accept Fock inserted anywhere in the name]
[10] This equation describes massive spin one bosons, such as the vector bosons that act as carriers for the weak force. It's developer also names an action that describes a massive spin one field in Minkowski spacetime.
Answer: Proca Equation
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This property is possessed by soaps and detergents, and generally requires possessing a long hydrocarbon chain as well as a charged group.,
[10] Name this property, which refers to compounds that interact favorably with both nonpolar and polar environments, ie are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
Answer: amphiphilic or amphipathic
[10] This surfactant is used to lyse cells and to denature proteins for a namesake form of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or PAGE.
Answer: SDS [or sodium dodecyl sulfate; or sodium lauryl sulfate]
[10] Amphiphilic molecules can form these structures, where some substrate has particular affinity for a head group, leading to the progressive accumulation of an increasingly organized cover. On gold surfaces, thiols are frequently used, while nonmetal oxide surfaces require silane head groups.
Answer: self-assembling monolayers [or self-assembled monolayer; or SAM]
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It is the optimal compression technique for mapping individual symbols to strings of bits. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this compression algorithm that generates prefix codes for symbols by creating a binary tree where symbols with a higher probability of appearing are closer to the root. This algorithm makes two passes through the data: one to build the tree and one to compress it.
Answer: Huffman Coding
[10] This algorithm uses a dictionary to map strings of symbols to strings of bits, and was the first compression algorithm to improve on Huffman Coding. The GIF picture format uses a variation created by Welch.
Answer: Lempel-Ziv-Welch Coding [Accept Algorithm or Compression if Coding isn't used]
[10] This variation of Huffman Coding only requires one pass through the data and does not require a probability distribution. Characters with a larger weight than its right sibling or parent in its tree are swapped.
Answer: Faller-Gallagher-Knuth Algorithm [Accept Adaptive Huffman Coding or Dynamic Huffman Coding]
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Their general state can be expressed by the Bloch Sphere, and the information needs to describe them grows exponentialy in their number. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this spin 1/2 particle that forms the basis for quantum computing, named for its correspondance to classical computing.
Answer: Qubit
[10] The proof of this statement follows from the requirement that quantum mechanical operators be both linear and unitary. It prevented error correction until a different error correction mechanism was developed by Shore and Steane in 1995, and it prevents superluminal communication using entangled particles.
Answer: Quantum No Cloning Theorem
[10] This is the complexity class of decision problems that can be solved by a Quantum Turing Machine with a high degree of, but not perfect, accuracy. Fortnow and Rogers proved it to be a subset of AWPP, and it contains the factoring and the discrete logarithm problems.
Answer: Bounded error Quantum Polynomial time
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These structures contain the histone variant macroH2A, express SHOX, and have high levels of H3K9 methylation, which is a marker for heterochromatin. FTPE:,
[10] Name these highly condensed, inactivated X chromosomes, whose formation is responsible for the color of calico cats.
Answer: Barr bodies
[10] The X-chromosome codes for this blood clotting factor that associated with von Willebrand factor. Its mutation results in Hemophilia A, or the "royal" form of the disease.
Answer: Factor 8
[10] The creation of a Barr body relies on this untranslated mRNA, which is antagonistic to tsix [`tee-six'] and coats the inactive chromosome.
Answer: XIST (pronounced "exist", but be lenient)
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This form of chromatography employs a pump and automatic detector, obviating hundreds of test tubes and eliminating much misery. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this process, which employs high pressure to ensure a constant mobile phase velocity to simplify column chromatography.
Answer: HPLC [or high-pressure liquid chromatography; or high-performance liquid chromatography]
[10] This equation is used to find the theoretical plate height during most forms of column chromatography. It has terms for eddy diffusion, longitudinal diffusion, and mass transfer, and the Knox equation is based on it.
Answer: Van Deemter equation
[10] This technique, sort of the opposite of isocratic flow, varies the mobile phase's composition to better separate the times when the more polar and less polar component come off the column.
Answer: gradient elution
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One of the conditions that leads to the arise of one of these events is the incommensurability of wordviews between participants in the scientific process. For ten points each:,
[10] Name these phenomena which produce rapid change in worldviews, exemplified by the acceptance of quantum physics over classical.
Answer: paradigm shifts [also accept revolutionary science]
[10] The concept of paradigm shifts originated in this work by Thomas Kuhn, which was harshly criticized for Eurocentrism by Arun Bala.
Answer: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
[10] Kuhn later expanded his theory of paradigms, describing them as what members of a scientific community, and they alone, share, in this later work.
Answer: The Essential Tension
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In magnetic media they must be modified to account for the polarizability of the medium and their namesake added a term to account for capacitors, the electric displacement. For 10 points each:,
[10] First, name this set of four differential equations that describe the propogation of electromagnetic fields.
Answer: Maxwell's Field Equations [accept Maxwell-Heaviside equations, Maxwell-Hertz equations, Hertz-Heaviside
[10] This English engineer and physicist condensed Maxwell's original twenty equations to the four commonly taught today. He also lends his name to the integral of the Dirac delta function.
Answer: Oliver Heaviside
[10] The mathematics behind converting the Maxwell Equations between differential and integral forms can be expressed using this operator. In an n-dimensional vector space it represents an automorphism from p-forms to n minus p forms.
Answer: Hodge Star Operator [accept Hodge Dual] equations]
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Lenticular galaxies lie on the divergence point of this diagram, FTPE:,
[10] Name this diagram, a Y-shaped structure used to classify galaxies into elliptical and spiral types.
Answer: Hubble sequence or Hubble tuning-fork diagram (either is ok)
[10] These galaxies do not lie on the main three branches on the Hubble tuning-fork diagram. They can be classified into type one or two depending on whether they have individual clusters, and the Magellanic clouds are good examples.
Answer: Irregular galaxies
[10] These other diagrams show the velocity contours of a galaxy, and are used to find schematic galaxy rotation curves.
Answer: Spider Diagram
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Identify some things about an unusual infectious agent, FTPE:,
[10] These plant pathogens are quite simply a single-strand of naked RNA, and replicate using cellular RNA polymerase II. The Potato Spindle Tuber one was the first to be identified.
Answer: Viroid (do not accept "virusoid")
[10] These naked RNA particles require viral coinfection in order to replicate. The Varkud one is actually a ribozyme that catalyzes bond cleavage.
Answer: Satellite
[10] This particular RNA, originally discovered in a plant pathogen and minimally containing two stem loops, cleaves itself via an SN2 like isomerization reaction. They have been reeingineered to cleave other targets.
Answer: Hammerhead ribozyme
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The readout from an important form of spectroscopy is actually just a Fourier transform of the signal generated by this process. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this process, whose spin-lattice and spin-spin forms are typically denoted T1 and T2.
Answer: relaxation
[10] Name that form of spectroscopy, carried out on protons and carbon thirteen. The Overhauser effect occurs when nearby electron spins affect a target atom's relaxation, thus giving a correlation cross-peak in a two-dimensional form of this technique called NOESY.
Answer: NMR [or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy]
[10] This spectral shift resulting from conduction electrons in metals is the best available evidence that the superconducting state of YBCO is a spin singlet, since it appears to decrease to zero as temperature falls to absolute zero.
Answer: Knight shift
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This feature is caused by a steady horizontal wind. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this structure formed by the movement of water, at a 20- to 45-degree angle from the direction of wind; ideally, the water continues to move at an angle from the movement of the layer on top of it because of the Coriolis effect, forming this structure.
Answer: Ekman spiral
[10] The Coriolis effect also causes these big circles of ocean currents; the North Pacific one creates a large island of trash somewhere northeast of Hawaii.
Answer: gyre
[10] The thermohaline circulation that causes ocean currents was studied extensively by this oceanographer, who proposed the ideal Ocean Basin Model in which one would create an ideal rectangular ocean basin and simulate current effects based on parameters like depth, bottom friction, and other variables.
Answer: Henry Melson Stommel
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The easiest way to express this quantity is as the curl of the velocity field, while dividing circulation by area also gives it. FTPE:,
[10] Name this quantity, roughly given as the amount of rotation in a particular region of a fluid.
Answer: Vorticity
[10] Considering vorticity in a boundary layer gives a solution to this paradox, which states that the drag force on an object moving at constant velocity in an inviscid and incompressible flow is zero.
Answer: D'Alembert's Paradox
[10] This result is used to calculate the lift generated by a cylinder, which is equal to the unit density, volume, and circulation multiplied together. Its used in wing design.
Answer: Kutta-Joukowski theorem or Kutta-Zhukovsky theorem

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