2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Tossups by Packet 04 | ||||
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The Carroll reaction is a version of this reaction that is followed by a decarboxylation step, and the shikimate pathway creates prephanate in a version of this reaction catalyzed by chorismate mutase. Trichloroacetamides can be created in a heteroatom version of it named for Overmann, while combining it with a Staudinger ligation gives the Chen-Mapp reaction. Performing it on an allylic alcohol or allylic acetate gives the Johnson and Ireland modifications respectively, while unsaturated amides are created in the Eschenmoser modification. The Cope rearrangement shares its [3,3]-sigmatropic mechanism. For 10 points, name this reaction which creates an unsaturated carbonyl from an allyl vinyl ether, whose namesake also developed a reaction that condenses two esters. | ||||
Answer: Claisen rearrangement (prompt on "Sigmatropic rearrangement" or "[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement", do not accept "Claisen condensation") | ||||
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This class of compounds are synthesized by the action of allene oxide synthase and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase from linolenic acid precursors, leading to their characteristic cyclopentanone structure - this is known as the octadecanoid pathway. This class of compounds induce osmotin and thionin expression and also induces chalcone synthase and PAL, and most steps of their synthesis occur in the chloroplast. Also responsible for inducing chlorosis, tuber formation, and accumulation of storage proteins, this class of compounds is structurally related to animal prostaglandins. Often conjugated to valine or isoleucine, these compounds are usually created in response to phospholipase C activation during a breach. For 10 points, name this class of plant hormones responsible for infection and wound response. | ||||
Answer: Jasmonates or Jasmonic acids | ||||
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The Gram series is a better approximation than this result for small values of n, and Skewes identified an upper bound for the first "crossing point" associated with this result; that crossing was generalized by Littlewood. This result is equivalent to two limits involving the Chebyshev functions over x, and modern calculations are given by Lagarias and Odlyzko. Legendre's formulation makes use of two free parameters, one of which is one and the other approximately negative one and sometimes called Legendre's Constant, while the current form uses Guass's estimate of the logarithmic integral. It was proved independently by Hadamard and de la Vallee Poussin through the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. For 10 points, name this result that gives an asymtotic approximation for the namesake counting function, often symbolized by pi. | ||||
Answer: Prime Number Theorem [accept Prime Counting Function before "this result"] | ||||
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This person belongs to an organization whose logo has a wheel and a light bulb, known as the Academy of Inventors, and after his fourteen years of graduate school supposedly designed fast cars and trendy night spots. This man's creation of a single non-local metaparticle allows the use of dark matter for fuel, and he left his first job after refusing to weaponize QT McWhiskers for Mom. This man created his greatest rival after giving him an A-minus on a pop quiz, Ogden Wernstrom. His inventions include Albino Shouting Gorillas, the Gizmometer, and a device used to detect a giant ball of trash headed for earth, the Smelloscope. He once cloned himself from a shapley growth on his back, and he teaches the Mathematics of Quantum Neutrino Fields at Mars University and is very fond of Doomsday devices. For 10 points, name this mad scientist and descendant of Phillip J. Fry, the head of the Planet Express Delivery Company on Futurama. | ||||
Answer: Professor Hubert J. Farnsworth | ||||
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Dvali theorized that the leakage of these particles between branes is the source of dark energy, and this particle's supersymmetric partner obeys the Rarita-Schwinger equation, and, if it's the lightest supersymmetric partner and R-parity is conserved, said partner is stable. Penrose derived the existence of nonlinear ones of these from general curved twistor spaces in one seminal paper. In string theory, Schwarz and Scherk noted that this particle corresponds to a vibrating closed string at Planck tension. It is a massless spin-2 boson, and a planet-sized detector next to a neutron star would take 10 years to detect even one of these particles, which are responsible for curving spacetime according to general relativity. For 10 points, name this hypothetical particle, the carrier of the gravitational force. | ||||
Answer: Graviton | ||||
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These compounds undergo an oxidation in the Teuber reaction and the Elbs Persulfate reaction. Bis- versions of these compounds along with carboxylic acids are produced in the Dakin reaction. It mixed with isoamyl alcohol and chloroform in a DNA extraction reagent, and it is also the solvent in the Lowry protein assay. This compound is carboxylated in a reaction used to synthesize salicylic acid, while one method of creating it uses propylene and goes through a namesake radical intermediate. In addition to the Kolbe-Schmidt and Cumene processes, adding a methyl group creates cresol. For 10 points, name this compound which consists of benzene with an attached hydroxyl group. | ||||
Answer: Phenol (prompt on "alcohol", accept "Aromatic alcohol" or "aryl alcohol") | ||||
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This process results in a statistically significant increase in the sum of squares of condensed fragment length in a test devised by Sawyer, and in humans this process is responsible for extensive balancing selection among HLA-D alleles. The RecLOH process occurring on Y chromosomes is a version of this process occurring in palindromic regions, and in yeast, an instance of this process is catalyzed by the HO gene and occurs between the MAT locus and either the HMR or HML cassettes, results in mating type switching. In neurospora, this process is responsible for 3 to 1 or 5 to 3 allele ratios, and occurs when a double stranded break is repaired by a single strand from a homologous chromosome, resulting in a double Holliday junction that is resolved in a particular way. For 10 points, name this recombination process, which, unlike crossing over, results in unequal exchange between homologous chromosomes, transforming the target segment into a sequence identical to the donor. | ||||
Answer: Gene conversion (Prompt on "recombination" or "Chromosome exchange" or "Chromosome/chromatid/strand exchange", but do not accept "Crossing over") | ||||
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The JIVE institute processes data gathered using this technique, while the HALCA spaceborne telescope was launched as part of an array that uses this technique. This technique uses Jennison's closure-phase imaging method, which helps reduce delay errors. This technique was used to define the international celestial reference frame, is used to track spacecraft, and measure the movement of the earth's tectonic plates to millimeter scale. It relies on an atomic clock to synchronize a string of radio telescope antennas arranged in an array, essentially having the array function as one gigantic telescope. For 10 points, name this type of interferometry which gives the VLBA array its name. | ||||
Answer: Very Long Baseline Interferometry or Very Large Baseline Interferometry or VLBI | ||||
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A version of the immunoassay called MARIA takes advantage of these devices, while FOCUSS and Minimum Norm methods are used to solve the "Inverse Problem" of these devices. Medically, these devices are used in liver susceptometry tests, while a Finnish team them to develop the first cortical MEG. A group of these devices were used to measure the spin of the four niobium-coated gyroscopes on Gravity Probe B. The original version of these devices was improved by implementing a fractional-turn geometry, which was developed by James Edward Zimmerman along with this devices' RF version. The earliest version of this device contains a loop with two Josephson junctions in parallel. For 10 points, name these highly sensitive magnetometers, whose acronym suggests a cephalopod. | ||||
Answer: SQUID or Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices | ||||
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More accurate alternatives to this equation include one based on the Hankinson-Thomson model known as COSTALD. One modification to this equation replaces one variable with a point 29 minus point 08 omega term and the other with an exponential, while another modification of it adds a specific compressibility factor called the Z sub RA term. In addition to the Yamada-Gunn and Spencer-Danner modifications, another alternative to this equation is the VDNS expansion. The two-paramenter Lyderson-Greenkorn-Hougen correction requires additional knowledge of the density, and this equation contains a term equal to one minus the reduced temperature to the two-sevenths power, which is multiplied by the critical volume and compressibility. For 10 points, name this equation used to calculate the molar volume of a saturated liquid. | ||||
Answer: Rackett equation | ||||
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** In this style, a program can only be understood in terms of the state of relevant variables, because variables are generally mutable, and assignments are the only operations that can change that state. It is the natural form for expressing Von Neumann architecture, and it is typically contrasted with another programming style identified strongly with lambda calculus. FORTRAN, COBOL, and ALGOL, along with low-level machine language are always this paradigm as are high level object oriented languages like C++ and Java. Analogous non-computer implementations would include recipes and instruction booklets. For 10 points, name this programming language paradigm which expresses a program as a series of commands. | ||||
Answer: Imperative Programming Language [accept procedural language] | ||||
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A synthetic version of this compound is sold under the trade name Glakay. This vitamin is necessary for the creation of the active form of osteocalcin and MGP. This compound is initially reduced to a hydroquinone, which is then converted to an epoxide, then back to its normal form; that process is catalyzed by this compounds namesake epoxide reductase, which is blocked by warfarin. All of them consist of a napthoquinone ring with an alipathic and isoprenoid side chain. This vitamin's primary function is in the creation of gamma-carboxyglutamate, which is found in the Gla-domains of Protein C, factor 7, and prothrombin. For 10 points, name this vitamin that is required for blood clotting. | ||||
Answer: Vitamin K | ||||
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In one scene in this movie, one of the heroes vaporizes a leaping Tiger, saving the main villain's daughter, while Barry Atwater, who later portrayed vampire Janos Skorzeny in The Night Stalker, plays an early victim, Chief Engineer Quinn, who is killed by a creature with strange footprints. One character in this movie used a plastic educator to enhance his mind so that he could use the technology of the advanced but extinct Krell race. This movie introduced Robby the Robot, and it takes place on Altair IV, where Morbius terrorizes a rescue ship crew with a monster created by his mind. For ten points, name this classic 1956 sci-fi movie, which sets The Tempest on the titular celestial object. | ||||
Answer: Forbidden Planet | ||||
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This property is displayed by ProHance, Optimark, and other Gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents. HAMR drives curcumvent the size limits for one form of this phenomenon, and that form has a relaxation time proportional to the exponential of the nanoscale anisotropy times the volume, according to the Arrhenius-Neel law. On a bulk scale, ferrofluids display the super- version of this phenomenon. This phenomenon is proportional to the hyperbolic tangent of mu B over k T according to the Langevin law, which in one regime reduces to M equals C times B divided by T, a law named for Curie. This phenomenon occurs above the Curie point in some materials, and materials that exhibit it have positive magnetic susceptibility. For 10 points, name this type of magnetism in which domains will weaky align with an applied field. | ||||
Answer: Paramagnetism | ||||
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Stopped-flow competition experiments can be used to find burst-phase intermediates in this process, and its transition states are characterized in phi value analysis. This process can be analyzed via dual-polarization interferometry or monitored by the disappearance of the 225nm band in circular dichroism spectroscopy. Molecules that have undergone this process tend to have a lower hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Bryngelson and Wolynes applied the principle of minimal frustration to this process, leading to the important "energy landscape theory" of it. Often beginning with a random coil and passing through molten globule states, the kinetics of this process can be obtained from a chevron plot, and considering the time needed to undergo this process leads to Levinthal's paradox. Anfinsen used ribonuclease to study this process, which is assisted by GroEL-GroES, Hsp70, and other chaperonins. For 10 points, name this process that can be co- or post-translational, the configuration of a polypeptide into its 3-dimensional structure. | ||||
Answer: Protein folding | ||||
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This scientist had the brilliant idea of comparing the effect of gravity on a pendulum both on the earth's surface and down a mine shaft to make his prediction that the mean specific density of the earth was 6.566. Stokes corrected one of this man's theories to account for non-linear third-order motion, and that theory of this man was the first to correctly use potential flow to describe gravity waves on the ocean's surface. He claimed that gravitational equilibrium was achieved by increased crust thickness, and not increased rock density, in a model of isostasy that competes with the Pratt model. For 10 points, name this British scientist who also names the best focused spot of light possible to make with a perfect circular lens, his namesake "disc." | ||||
Answer: Sir George Biddell Airy | ||||
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A second-order version of this effect was derived by Opik and Price and results from mixing between states, while determining the adiabatic potential energy surface for systems undergoing this effect leads to the "Mexican Hat" potential. UV-vis spectra for systems undergoing it show splitting of bands, and this effect explains the structure of the cyclooctatriene anion. This phenomenon is responsible for the sharp vertical transition line between low-spin and high-spin states in some Tanabe-Sugano diagrams, and another version of this effect occurs because orbital angular momentum defines the parity of the wavefunction in linear molecules, a version partly named for Renner. It occurs most strongly in systems in which the e sub g orbitals are unevenly occupied, forcing them into a lower energy state. For 10 points, name this effect in which a molecule is distorted in order to break degeneracy and lower energy. | ||||
Answer: Jahn-Teller effect | ||||
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On an EEG, this organ shows up as having theta and large irregular activity, and variant 7 of exon 1 of the glucocorticoid receptor is unique to this organ. One set of cells here project to the nucleus accumbens and the septal nuclei, known as the subiculum. Consisting mainly of pyramidal and granule cells, this structure is surrounded by the perirhinal and enterohinal cortices. The trisynaptic loop in this organ contains Schaffer collaterals, which are also part of the Papez circuit. This organ is divided into areas labeled CA1 to 4, and one subsection of this structure contains molecular, granular, and polymorphic layers and is known as the dentate gyrus. This organ contains several cells that fire when an organism is a specific environment, known as place cells, while damage to this organ may lead to anterograde or retrograte amnesia. For 10 points, name this region of the brain that is responsible for memory and shaped like a seahorse. | ||||
Answer: Hippocampus | ||||
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The R-sub-xi class of these mathematical objects adds a breaking term to another one of these, and depending upon the selection of the parameter xi can create ones named for Yennie, Landau, or Feynman and t'Hooft, which are selected in order to eliminate Fadeev-Popov ghosts. These objects use sections of a fiber bundle at each point to denote a basis, and the set of possible basis transformations at each point forms a finite-dimensional Lie group. One of these objects was first developed by Maxwell when he observed that classical electrodynamics is invariant under redefinition of the divergence of the vector potential, which led to the notion of "fixing" these in order to cope with excess degrees of freedom. Yang and Mills defined a non-abelian one, and the first fully quantized one was QED. FTP, what are these objects used in field theories in which transformations and invariances of potentials and fields are described by symmetry groups, some of which are named for Lorenz and Coloumb? | ||||
Answer: Gauge (accept "Gauge Theories", "Gauge Transformations", etc) | ||||
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Britzinger showed that chiral ansa-indenyl ligands can help direct the action of these compounds, and these compounds use MgCl2 or SiO2 as a support. Using vanadium instead of the usual central atom reverses the stereochemistry of the product, and metallocenes are sometimes used to improve control of the product distribution. The less-accepted Green-Mooney mechanism for their operation has a hydride shift, while a competing theory has a substrate occupy a vacant site in the coordination sphere of the central metal atom, followed by a migration. This results in repeated 1,2-insertions and is known as the Cosee-Arleman mechanism, which produces either iso or syndiotactic products. Usually terminating via beta-hydride elimination, for 10 points, name these aluminum and titanium chloride compounds used to create polyethylenes, a type of catalyst named for two chemists. | ||||
Answer: Ziegler-Natta catalysts | ||||
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Bonuses by Packet 04 | ||||
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It holds for both longitudinal and shear waves, and it follows directly from Fermat's principle. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name this law used in the derivation of Brewster's angle that relates the index of refraction to the angle of the incident and refracted wave. | ||||
Answer: Snell's Law | ||||
[10] This property of a travelling wave is the angular frequency divided by the wave number. Because it can be greater than c, this property causes apparent paradoxes that can be resolved by noting it never transmits information. | ||||
Answer: Phase Velocity [do not accept velocity] | ||||
[10] Because in dispersive a dispersive medium the index of refraction depends on frequency, one can use this formula to determine the index of refraction in a transparent optical material at a given wavelength by using namesake coefficients. | ||||
Answer: Sellmeier Equation [accept Sellmeier formula, or reasonable equivalents] | ||||
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The time of reionization after the Big Bang's can be determined by a suppression in the spectra of these objects known as the Gunn-Peterson trough. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name these stellar objects believed to be powered by supermassive black holes, with really high redshift. They are a subtype of Active Galactic Nuclei. | ||||
Answer: Quasar or Quasi-stellar Radio Source | ||||
[10] Quasars with lower redshift contain this collection of spikes in their spectra, which is a sum of absorption lines of neutral hydrogen. | ||||
Answer: Lyman-alpha Forest | ||||
[10] On a BPT diagram, AGNs fall on the top right, while the bottom left is populated by these objects, which are galaxies heated by star formation rather than a supermassive black hole. M82 and the Antennae galaxies are some examples. | ||||
Answer: Starburst galaxies | ||||
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These organometallic reagents, more gentle than organolithium, will react with carbon dioxide to give a carboxylic acid. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name these reagents, whose interactions with carbonyl are thought to proceed through a six-membered ring transition state, alkyl magnesium bromides. | ||||
Answer: Grignard reagents | ||||
[10] Addition of a Grignard reagent to a nitrile gives a ketone after passing through an intermediate of this functional group. It has carbon double bonded to nitrogen and is reduced by sodium cyanoborohydride. | ||||
Answer: imines | ||||
[10] This type of interaction occurs where two electrons from a carbon-hydrogen bond enter an empty metal d-orbital. | ||||
Answer: agostic interaction | ||||
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It causes problems in magnetic tape recordings, which are solved by a high frequency bias signal that effectively averages the the oxide grain scrambling to zero. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] First, name this property notably exhibited in ferromagnets when the magnetization lags the applied magnetic field. | ||||
Answer: Hysteresis | ||||
[10] This effect is decreased by compressive stresses and enhanced by tensile stresses in materials with positive magnetic anisotropy. It is caused by defects in the structure of a material when domain walls get snagged and break free. | ||||
Answer: Barkhausen Noise [accept Barkhausen Effect, because we're nice] | ||||
[10] This theory of phase transitions, important to understanding Barkhausen noise, is marked by organization into a power law distributions in some observable, followed bycascading response to input. For example, the slope of a sand pile is independent of how fast sand is dropped. | ||||
Answer: Self-Organized Criticality [prompt on SOC] | ||||
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Identify these things about malevolent computers from fiction, FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Probably the archetypal evil artificial intelligence, this character from 2001: A Space Odyssey was capable of art appreciation and reading lips. He was deactivated and later fused with Dave Bowman. | ||||
Answer: HAL 9000 | ||||
[10] This AI created by the Forerunners was the Monitor of Installation 04 in the Halo series, who attempts to stop Master Chief and Cortana from destroying the ring. He's later killed in Halo 3. | ||||
Answer: 343 Guilty Spark | ||||
[10] The Computer Tyrants originally ruled this planet in the DC comics universe, which is more famously the home of Pulsar Stargrave and the Superman villain Brainiac. | ||||
Answer: Colu or Yod | ||||
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Answer some questions about the RNAi pathway, FTPE:, | ||||
[10] microRNAs are processed by this enzyme in the nucleus, which interacts with the RNA binding protein Pasha. Like Argonaute, it is an RNAse class III enzyme. | ||||
Answer: Drosha | ||||
[10] This cytoplasmic RNAse enzyme is responsible for removing the stem loop from pre-microRNA into small interfering RNAs and initiates the formation of the RISC complex. | ||||
Answer: Dicer | ||||
[10] miRNAs and other determinants of mRNA turnover aggregate into these cytoplasmic bodies, which are responsible for mRNA storage and decapping. | ||||
Answer: Processing bodies or P bodies or GW bodies or DCP bodies | ||||
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This reaction can employ a compound named for Danishevsky, and its inverse electron demand form is carried out with electron-withdrawing groups on the diene. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name this doubly-eponymous cycloaddition, all of whose products contain a cyclohexene ring. | ||||
Answer: Diels-Alder reaction | ||||
[10] The Diels-Alder reaction, like all cycloadditions, is an example of this general class of reactions treated by the Woodward-Hoffman rules, like sigmatropic reactions, cheletropic reactions, and electrocyclic reactions. | ||||
Answer: pericyclic reactions | ||||
[10] All or nothing, electrocyclic reactions proceed in one of these two fashions, depending on the orientation of the p-orbitals.These terms describe the way that those final substituents re-orient themselves in the product. | ||||
Answer: conrotatory and dysrotatory | ||||
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Linked lists notably rely on this data type, and C++ allows its namesake arithmetic. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name this construct that contains a reference to the memory location of some other variable. | ||||
Answer: Pointer | ||||
[10] This is the process of turning objects in memory into a bytestream that can be saved to disk. It involves making a graph of all the relations between objects so that each is only converted to a bytestream once. | ||||
Answer: Serialization | ||||
[10] Also performed during serialization is this process, which converts a pointer reference in memory into a static reference which can be saved to disk. Avoiding it involving replacing pointer reference in code with array references. | ||||
Answer: unswizzling [accept deswizzling or reverse swizzling] | ||||
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One section of it is enervated by the nervous spinosis, and one layer of them is filled with cerebrospinal fluids. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this group of membranes that protects the central nervous system. They can be inflamed in a namesake "itis". | ||||
Answer: Meninges | ||||
[10] This layer of the meninges lies between the dura mater and pia mater. CSF flows underneath it, and it has a cobweb-like shape. | ||||
Answer: Arachnoid membrane | ||||
[10] While they have nothing to do with the meninges, these eponymous interneurons in the spine are excited by alpha motor neurons and inhibit that same motor neuron. | ||||
Answer: Renshaw cell | ||||
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It can be considered a lemma of the Euler-Lagrange Equation, but it was not formalized until 1915 when Hilbert asked its namesake to investigate the problem of energy conservation in General Relativity. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name this result which derives conserved currents from symmetries in physical laws. | ||||
Answer: Noether's Theorem | ||||
[10] These are the quantum analogue of Noether's Theorem that relate the correlation functions of certain observables. They take the form of relations between the Green's Functions due to QFT symmetries. | ||||
Answer: Ward-Takahashi Identities | ||||
[10] The WT Identities suffer from these problems, including the Adler-Bell-Jackiw one corresponding to the axial vector divergence. In general, they are a destruction of a classical symmetry in a quantum theory. | ||||
Answer: Anomaly [accept word forms] | ||||
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Gauss first posited this concept, which is essentially an equipotential surface on the surface of the earth. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name this surface that can basically be understood as the smooth and irregular surface that would be created by gravitational and rotational effects if all of the water in the oceans were at rest. | ||||
Answer: geoid | ||||
[10] Finding a mathematical model for the geoid starts by taking a spherical harmonic expression that satisfies this partial differential equation, then doing some mathy shit to account for the fact that the earth is actually an ellipsoid. If you solve this equation in spherical coordinates, you will get Legendre polynomials. | ||||
Answer: Laplace's equation | ||||
[10] One can find the relation between geometric and dynamical flattening due to gravitational and rotational potentials after solving for the gravitational potential of a spheroidal planet and applying this eponymous formula. | ||||
Answer: McCullagh's formula | ||||
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Polymerization reactions involving them include initiation, elongation, and termination steps, and generally cannot be well controlled. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name these species, formed by peroxides and halogens in the presence of initiators like AIBN, with one unpaired electron. | ||||
Answer: free radicals | ||||
[10] Since free radicals have magnetic momentclose to one of these units, equal to fundamental charge times h-bar over two electron rest mass. It is invoked in the definition of the Lande g-factor, among others. | ||||
Answer: Bohr magneton | ||||
[10] The addition of a radical to a special nitrone, usually PBN or DMPO, gives a persistent radical, allowing for subsequent EPR spectroscopy to detect otherwise short-lived radicals in this technique. | ||||
Answer: spin trapping | ||||
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It is occasionally given the symbol Z, for the German word zustands-summe, and it is defined to be the sum of the Boltzman factors over all possible states to normalize certain probabilities. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name this function which represents the all the accessible energy states and whose natural logarithm is proportional to the Helmholtz free energy. | ||||
Answer: Partition Function | ||||
[10] This result states that the intensive variables are not independent. At constant temperature and pressure, it reduces to the statement that the sum of the product of each component's chemical potential and particle number equals 0. | ||||
Answer: Gibbs Duhem Relation [accept Gibbs Duhem equation] | ||||
[10] This diagram displays a partition as a series of left-justified columns of dots. Two are called conjugate when they can be transformed into each other by reflection about the NW-SE line. | ||||
Answer: Ferrers Diagram [accept Ferrers Graph, accept pronunciation Ferrars] | ||||
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This disease is caused by a colonization of S. aureus or S. pyrogens, which leads to massive T-cell activation. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this disease, which was discovered in patients using super-absorbent tampons. | ||||
Answer: Toxic shock syndrome | ||||
[10] The toxin produced in toxic shock syndrome functions as one of this type of immune-response eliciting molecules, which unlike normal antigens lead to activation of up to 20% of all T cells. | ||||
Answer: Superantigen | ||||
[10] Toxic shock syndrome also creates a "storm" of these glycoproteins, which includes interleukins and interferons. In general, these are a group of cell signaling molecules that modulate immune function. | ||||
Answer: Cytokine | ||||
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It is one of the simplest proposed methods for finding an absolute scale of electronegativity, though it is usually subsequently linearly transformed to match up with the Pauling scale. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Give this scale of electronegativity, calculated as the average of the first ionization energy and the electron affinity. | ||||
Answer: Mulliken scale | ||||
[10] This doubly-eponymous scale uses Slater's rules to find the effective nuclear charge experienced by an electron on the surface of an atom, then divides by the square of covalent radius. | ||||
Answer: Alfred-Rochow scale | ||||
[10] These triangles are a three-axis simplex between metallic, covalent, and ionic bonds, underscoring that they are three distinct kinds of bonding. | ||||
Answer: Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle | ||||
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The primitive knot is responsible for organizing this event, and it is preceded by the formation of the epiblast and hypoblast. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this stage of embryonic development in which the embryo forms the three germ layers. | ||||
Answer: Gastrulation | ||||
[10] This is the primitive gut that forms during gastrulation. Its open end is the blastophore, and eventually forms into the digestive tract. | ||||
Answer: Archenteron | ||||
[10] These are the pieces of mesoderm that form around the neural tube and eventually become the muscles, dermis, and vertebrae. | ||||
Answer: Somites | ||||
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They represent the monopole-monopole interaction between ions in a crystal lattice through the approximation of the ion as a point charge. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Identify this named after a Geman physicist which represents lattice sums. | ||||
Answer: Madelung Constant | ||||
[10] This equation, which has a constant of 1.20 times 10 to the negative 4, states that the lattice energy is inversely proportional to the sum of the cationic and anionic radii. It also include a 1 minus d over sum of radii term. | ||||
Answer: Kapustinskii Equation | ||||
[10] Unlike the Ewald method, this method for determining the Madelung constant of a lattice involves collecting ions into neutral unit cells, and directly summing the interaction of those cells. | ||||
Answer: Evjen Method [prompt on Euler's transformation, I guess] | ||||
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These are among the weakest of a set of interactions approximately governed by the Lennard-Jones potential. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name this subclass of van der Waals forces, which arise from instantaneous dipole-dipole inteactions. | ||||
Answer: London dispersion forces | ||||
[10] This three-body potential, equal to E-naught plus the ratio of one plus cosine gamma i cosine gamma j cosine gamma k to the cube of rij times rjk times rik, arises from a third-order correction to London forces | ||||
Answer: Axelrod-Teller potential | ||||
[10] The process of solving for a potential for London forces involves perturbing V with respect to one over distance, an expansion given this name because its terms can be modeled as arising from two of the namesake objects | ||||
Answer: multipole expansion | ||||
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Ito extended this theory with the flocculus hypothesis, and it predicted the existence of LTD in Purkinje cells. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this theory regarding a certain part of the brain, in which parallel fibers synapse onto Purkinje cells, and are in turn activated by climbing fibers, allowing for the storage of motor skills. | ||||
Answer: Marr-Albus theory | ||||
[10] The Marr-Albus theory applies to this part of the brain, which consists of layers of folia and is responsible for motor coordination. | ||||
Answer: Cerebellum | ||||
[10] This narrow wormlike structure between the two halves of the cerebellum is responsible for subconscious knowledge of the body's relative position in space. | ||||
Answer: Vermis | ||||
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Answer some questions about solving ODEs and dynamical systems, none of which are simply "plug it into MATLAB, you cheap bastard". FTPE:, | ||||
[10] When integrating factors, separation of variables, undetermined coefficients, or prayer doesn't work, you can resort to this method. You first solve the fundamental system to give a solution to the homogenous version, then using the Wronskian and Cramer's rule to find a particular solution. | ||||
Answer: Method of Variation of Parameters | ||||
[10] This theorem says that an orbit of a dynamical system that stays in a confined space will either move towards a fixed point or a periodic orbit. | ||||
Answer: Poincare-Benedixson theorem | ||||
[10] The Poincare-Benedixson theorem says that a 2D dynamical system can't have one of these, some of which are named for Tamari, Lorenz, or Henon. They are complex fractals toward which a dynamical system evolves. | ||||
Answer: Strange attractor | ||||