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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Tossups by Packet 03
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Nikoletopoulos introduced long range order to this model by applying it to a small world graph. It can be used to model nucleation processes in the "critical droplets" theory, and general cases can be attacked by the Metropolis algorithm with a Boltzman distribution. Its three-dimensional form was proven to be computationally intractable by Istrail, and it was solved by Lars Onsager in the two dimensional case, where its critical value is two over the natural log of one plus the square root of two. It is a specific case of the Potts model, and if the value of J in this model is negative, it results in the opposite of the effect usually associated with it. It its most famous application it replaces intermolecular interactions with a grid of spins, which can only be up or down, and the energy is considered to be the sum of their interaction with each other and with an external magnetic field. For 10 points, name this model of a ferromagnet.
Answer: Ising Model
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In a 1944 film starring Jon Hall, he is killed by the dog Brutus which possesses this trait, while Hall previously played a character with this trait who fought an evil Japanese agent played by Peter Lorre. In a 1951 film, Abbott and Costello worked with a boxer who developed this ability, and a character with this trait appears at the very end of Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein. A 1992 comedy featured Chevy Chase develop this ability and is entitled Memoirs of a man with this trait. In the comic The League of Extraordinary Gentleman, a character with this trait is raped to death by Mr. Hyde, while the most famous fictional character with this trait was played by Claude Rains in his film debut. For 10 points, name this special ability possessed by Dr. Jack Griffin, the titular character of a novel by H.G. Wells, which allows him to walk around buck naked.
Answer: Invisibility (accept Being Invisible, other obvious esquivalents)
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The formation of these compounds shows both a fast and slow relaxation phase, which lead to Aniansson and Wall's stepwise association-dissociation equilibrium model for their formation. Armstrong and Henry developed an HPLC variant that uses them, which analyzes proteins in biological fluids. Milk clotting results from casein forming these structures. One of their properties is determined using steady-state fluorescence quenching; that value is the number of molecules present in one of these structures at their critical concentration, known as the aggregation number. They only form above the Krafft temperature, and inverted ones form in organic solvents and have heads pointed inwards. They are the basis for the action of detergents, and are formed from surfactants. Similar to liposomes, for 10 points, name these spherical structures formed from amphipathic molecules, which have their hydrophobic tails pointing in and heads pointing out.
Answer: Micelles
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This man names a version of the Wheatstone bridge which contains seven resistors, and he's not van Der Pauw but he developed a method of four-terminal sensing. An effect named for Gibbs and this man leads to small droplets having higher effective vapor pressure than larger ones, and this man names a particular type of wave that balances the Coriolis force along a topographical boundary. The Weiare-Phelan structure is the solution to one problem named for this man concerning the most efficient soap film, and he names an equation for calculating the vapor pressure of a circular water droplet. He named a transformation based on inversive geometry used to define functions as harmonic at infinity and a viscoelastic material with Voigt, while the fact that the line integral of the velocity field is constant in isentropic flow is known as his namesake circulation theorem. An effect used in the Linde cycle in which a gas is cooled at constant enthalpy is named for him and Joule. For 10 points, name this Scottish physicist who names an absolute temperature scale.
Answer: William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (either is fine)
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Mutations in the APL gene cause defects in this tissue, and another type of cell in this tissue expresses WRKY27, which influences the NO response. The CONSTANS protein in Arabidopsis acts in this tissue in order to regulate flowering. In sections this tissue appears green under the fast-green stain, but it is more commonly viewed using .05% aniline blue, which stains callose. This tissue is surrounded by Bast fibers, and these tissues sometimes operate by Robert Turgeon's polymer-trap mechanism. This tissue is responsible for some forms of translational repression by carrying fragmented tRNA, and the ribosomes and mitochondria for this tissue are primarily stored in its companion cells. Ernst Munch proposed the pressure-flow hypothesis for transport through this tissue, which consists of sieve tube elements. For 10 points, name this tissue that transports organic molecules and sugars in plants.
Answer: Phloem
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** One of these algorithms should exhibit avalanching on all inputs and outputs, and examples include MD4, FNV, Linear Feedback Shift Register, and Cyclic Rendundancy Check. These algorithms can be divided into addative or multiplicative and rotative varieties based on whether they shift the accumulator as they traverse the input. The requirement of uniform distribution is often made more difficult by very non-uniform inputs, and a common problem is for a small set of input bits to cancel each other out. These algorithms are useful in the provision of digitial signatures, and to be used in cryptograhpy they typically must be one-way and collision-free. For 10 points, name these unary functions that return a key used in a namesake data type with Big O of one lookup time.
Answer: Hash Function [accept simple Hash functions]
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One famous synthesis of this molecule relied on the Kondo-Mori vinylic gamma-lactone synthesis and uses a Staudinger ligation and a mesyl leaving group to create a bicyclic moeity. Another synthesis uses Hoffman elimination to create the vinyl group, and replaces an amide with a benzyl in order to facilitate a final Claisen condensation. Jacobsen's synthesis makes a boronic ester from piperidine, followed by coupling and a Sharpless reaction to form a cyclizable epoxide. The first method of synthesizing it uses hypobromite in the first step and reduces the penultimate ketone via aluminum, performed by Rabe and Kindler. Stork's stereoselective synthesis of this compound is remarkable due to its four stereocenters, and it was first isolated from the cinchona tree. Containing a fused pyridine and anisole, for 10 points, name this compound synthesized by Doring and Woodward, which was originally used to treat a disease caused by Plasmodium, malaria.
Answer: Quinine
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These structures are commonly interrupted by using 1-heptanol or the ulcer drug carbenexolone, and in the juxtaglomerular apparatus these structures are present between mesengial cells. Synchronization via these structures in the Islets of Langerhans are responsible for insulin oscillations, and the ventral tegmental area contains GABAergic cells with these structures. Also located in the cerebellum and between astrocytes in order to create a syncytium, these structures contain two hexamers of connexin proteins attached to each other. They are used to transport ions and small molecules between cells and are used to electrically synchronize cells more quickly than a traditional synapse would be able to. For 10 points, name these intracellular connection present between cardiac muscle tissue.
Answer: Gap junctions or electrical synapse or connexins/connexons before mention
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This effect is measured either through the field modulation method or the torque method, and its general form can be expressed using the Dingle temperature and adding a cosine term for the Zeeman effect in the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula. Observing this effect requires a cyclotron orbit smaller than the mean free path, and Onsager proved that this effect is proportional to A to the negative 2, which is why this effect is used in high-field laboratories to measure the areas of Fermi surfaces. This effect can be understood as a slight fluctuation in the gap between Landau levels, leading to one fewer of them being filled. It is the counterpart of an effect that sees oscillations in resistivity, named for Shubnikov and one of this effect's namesakes. For 10 points, name this doubly-eponymous effect in which the magnetic susceptibility of a system oscillates in response to an external magnetic field.
Answer: De Haas-van Alphen effect (or dHvA)
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Clark and Kiser confirmed a catalyst-free version of this reaction, which was used to create crosslinked hydrogels. Bertozzi's modification, developed to label glycans, uses an initial insertion into an 8-membered ring in order to us the ring strain as a catalyst. It has been used to couple bovine serum albumin to polystyrene. Using TBTA ligands improves the stability of the catalyst in this reaction, which has the same product as the Banert cascade. The original version of this reaction has a 1,3-dipolar addition mechanism, but a more famous variant originally developed to create peptide derivatives uses copper-(I) as a catalyst. That reaction is the centerpiece of click chemistry. For 10 points, name this reaction, a favorite of Sharpless, a cyclization which sees the creation of 1,2,3-triazoles from alkynes and azides.
Answer: Azide alkyne cyclization (until mention) or Huisgen cyclization (accept AAC, accept CuAAC or copper-catalyzed AAC)
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This man categorized the relationship between body size and organ structure in his seminal essay "On Being the Right Size", and one theorem named for this man states that the probability of a single beneficial mutation surviving is two times its selective advantage. He stated that during hybridization, the heterogametic sex is more likely to suffer sterility. The difficulty of selecting multiple traits at multiple loci leads to a high substitution cost of natural selection, known as his namesake dilemma. This man introduced a quasi-steady state approximation to enzyme kinetics along with Briggs, and he published a series of 10 key papers, collectively entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection". For 10 points, name this British population geneticist, who alongside Fisher and Wright is responsible for the modern evolutionary synthesis.
Answer: John Burdon Sanderson Haldane
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A homonym for this word names a potassium-containing component of impact breccias and basalts that explanations for the moon's formation must account for. Structural engineers are wary of the Schottky defect, which can lead to the Nabarro-Herring type of this phenomenon, while in polymers this phenomenon can be modeled by the Maxwell or Kelvin-Voigt models. A differential interferogram shows a sharp phase discontinuity to measure the aseismic form of this phenomenon. Modeling another phenomenon with this name typically requires a diffusion constant k-sub-d, and depends highly on the wetness of the material in question and the slope. For 10 points, name this word for a form of mass wasting that is contrasted with saltation in that the particles in question do not leave the ground.
Answer: creep [accept KREEP]
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Wald's formulation of this quantity states that it is the Noether charge of the diffeomorphism symmetry in n-dimensional gravitation, and this quantity is used to define the Immirzi parameter in loop quantum gravity. Susskind and Uglum computed it in the infinite mass limit via superstring theory. T'Hooft attempted to use the brick-wall model to calculate it, and the fact that it is maximal for a given volume leads to the holographic principle. The constant of proportionality for this quantity is equal to 1 divided by four times the Planck length squared, and the classical no hair theorem implies that this quantity is zero. The formula for this quantity sets it directly proportional to the area, and was derived by Bekenstein, who considered an object falling past the event horizon, then applied a generalized form of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. For 10 points, name this quantity equal to the disorder carried by a black hole.
Answer: Black hole entropy (accept Hawking-Bekenstein entropy or Hawking entropy)
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One version of this method uses the Runge-Gross method to show a useful one-to-one correspondence, known as the time-dependent version. Some applications of this process use the Burke-Enzerhof exchange model or the BLYP exhange correlation, while Salsbury and Harris developed a version of it that takes magnetic fields into account. The fundamental equation in this method sets the charge density equal to the sum of the squares of a series of orthonormal wavefunctions. This formalism rests upon the HK theorems, while one method of deriving it relies on adding a kinetic energy term, via the Weizsacker correction, to the Thomas-Fermi model. Based on the aforementioned Kohn-Sham equation, it breaks down in systems with dispersion forces or strong correlation, and unlike Hartree-Fock it doesn't require a many-electron wavefunction. For 10 points, name this theory which can be used to find the electron density of a many-body system's ground state in terms of a series of functionals, commonly used in quantum chemistry and computational physics.
Answer: Density Functional Theory or DFT (accept Kohn-Sham until mention)
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During one test, this program created Lake Chagan, and other notable tests included the debut of the T-5 torpedo and Operation First Lightening. Several members of this program were killed during an accident at the Mayak plant. This program's "third idea" was the equivalent of a rival country's Teller-Ulam device, and one scientist from this nuclear program won the 1975 Nobel Peace Prize for advocating disarmament and earlier invented the tokomak. For ten points, name this nuclear program whose scientists included Sakharov and whose first test was nicknamed "Joe 1" for Joseph Stalin.
Answer: Soviet Nuclear Program [accept equivalents about Soviets making nukes]
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When working with basement membranes, adding a chaotropic agent like NaSCN during this assay improves its fidelity, and Rheumatoid factor causes high levels of false positives in it. Reagents undergo a checkerboard titration before this assay, and Czerzinsky developed a version of it used to measure cytotoxic T-cell responses and identify cytokine-producing cells, known as its "SPOT" version. Another version is performed by first attaching one capture molecule to the substrate, known as the "sandwich" version. Often performed following a blocking step with BSA or casein and visualized using urease, alkaline phosphatase, or HRP, the more standard version of this assay requires the creation of a standard curve, known as the "indirect" version. Used in HIV testing or when a western blot is insufficient, for 10 points, name this assay performed in a microtiter plate, which uses antibodies to quantify the amount of antigen in a sample.
Answer: ELISA or EIA or Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
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These events are immediately followed by a suppression of cosmic ray intensity known as the Forbush Decrease, and the SECCHI instrument is designed to study the evolution of these events. Low and Smith used a low-dimensional MHD model to propose that they evolve from a magnetic bubble called a flux rope which then destabilizes when a toroidal current is applied, which was partly confirmed by the LASCO experiment. Typically they contain a dense core called the prominence and a cavity of low electron density. Often originating in helmet streamers and sometimes associated with Moreton waves and arcades, they can cause Auroras via magnetic reconnection, and can cause power outages and disrupt transmissions like solar flares. The cause of an 1859 storm and usually originating from groups of sunspots, this is for 10 points, what events in which the outer layer of the sun spews a bunch of plasma and a trailing magnetic field?
Answer: Coronal Mass Ejections or CME
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Dorr and Grimm developed a scrubbing method to reuse the exhaust created by this process. One component is passed through a Tyndall box in order to test for the presence of arsenic oxides, which are removed by allowing it to poison an Fe(OH)3 catalyst prior to said step. In the main chamber of this process, the temperature is around 500 degrees Celsius with pressure at 1.5 atmospheres, and it contains pellets of Vanadium pentoxide catalyst. The product passes through an absorption chamber, while its final step sees the dilution of oleum to product the desired product. Developed by Peregrine Phillips to replace the lead-chamber process, for 10 points name this chemical process used to manufacture sulfuric acid.
Answer: Contact process
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A group of proteins including Cernunnos, Artemis, and XRCC4 is responsible for cleaning up after this process as part of a DNA-PK complex; that complex is responsible for an error-prone version of the NHEJ process. The main protein involved in this process contains a DDE motif in the active site and a nonamer-binding region, and is mutated in Omenn syndrome. This process obeys the 12/23 or one-turn/two-turn rule for spacers, and occurs around RSS sites. A polyadenylation signal exists right after the C-mu site in the target locus of this process, and this process occurs between the alpha and beta chains of the T-cell receptor. This process is complementary to somatic hypermutation and was originally outlined by Tonegawa. For 10 points, name this process when diversity, variable, and joining chains of certain loci are cut up and moved during B-cell development, leading to the creation of diverse antibodies.
Answer: VDJ recombination or VJ recombination (accept NHEJ or non-homologous end-joining until mention, accept "Immunoglobulin creation" or "Immunoglobulin synthesis" or "Antibody synthesis" or whatever until mention, prompt on "recombination" or "homologous recombination")
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Ballieu showed that the number of these of order p cubed for p an odd prime is 3p + 50, two subtypes of these are shown to be equivalent by the Akizuki-Hopkins-Levitzski theorem. The number of strict inclusions in a maximal chain is used to define the Krull dimension of these objects, and Artinian ones don't contain a left or right chain of infinitely descending ideals. Modules are similar to vector spaces except that their coefficients come from one of these, and Guassian integers and Eisenstien integers both form one of these. Those with a multiplicative identity and no zero divisors are known as integral domains. The one of the formal power series and number ones are examples of Notherian ones, and they forms an Abelian group under addition, and a semigroup under multiplication. For 10 points, name this construct which is more general than a field.
Answer: Ring
 
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Bonuses by Packet 03
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The original synthesis of this molecule relied on the dimerization of bromocyclopentadienone, and this molecule's octanitro derivative is a shock-resistant explosive. FTPE:,
[10] Name this molecule, formula C8H8, whose bonds are all at right angles and looks like a certain platonic solid.
Answer: Cubane
[10] Eaton's synthesis of cubane also relied on this ring contraction rearrangement, which takes an alpha-halocycloketone to a carboxylic acid via strong base.
Answer: Favorskii rearrangement
[10] The Favorskii rearrangement goes through an intermediate that looks like this cyclic three-carbon molecule, which can be described by the Walsh bent orbital model.
Answer: Cyclopropane
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Answer some things about non-standard base pairing in DNA, FTPE:,
[10] Guanine can base pair with Thiamine sometimes as a result of switching from its keto form to its enol form, a process known as this.
Answer: Tautomerism (word forms ok)
[10] This type of basepairing, which is prevalent in G-quadruplexes, allows the formation of triple helical nucleic acid molecules. Its present in transfer RNA.
Answer: Hoogsteen Base Pairing
[10] Speaking of tRNA, the anticodon sequences often contain inosine, allowing for a relaxation of codon-anticodon pairing that is given this name. It allows there to be only about 40 tRNAs rather than the full 64.
Answer: Wobble baseparing
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Alain Connes developed a non-commutative version of this theory which includes general relativity, while the original version of this theory leads to the hierarchy problem. FTPE:,
[10] Name this common model of particle physics, which is a gauge theory describing the electroweak and strong interactions with gauge group SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1).
Answer: Standard Model
[10] The standard model also posits this mechanism, which explains the masses of the W and Z bosons in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking by a namesake condensate.
Answer: Higgs mechanism (its also named for some combination of Brout, Englert, Hagen, Anderson, Kibble, and Guaralnik)
[10] This type of theory, an extension to the standard model, posits that there is no Higgs field. Instead, symmetry breaking leads to the standard model via the formation of fermionic condensates.
Answer: Technicolor theories
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The kinematic approximation for this theory is invalid if the magnetic field in question becomes so strong that it affects the fluid motion central to this theory. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this theory that suggests that the Earth generates its magnetic field because of magnetohydrodynamic properties of the outer core, which must be convecting for this theory to be true.
Answer: geodynamo theory
[10] Small dynamos are hard to excite when this man's namesake magnetic dimensionless number is low, and he also names a dimensionless number that approximates the ratio of kinematic viscosity to thermal diffusivity that is used to characterize convection, which is also used to non-dimensionalize certain dynamo models.
Answer: Ludwig Prandtl
[10] This ratio is represented Q, and is the ratio in an igneous rock of remnant magnetization to the induced magnetization of a standardized magnetic field.
Answer: Konigsberger ratio
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The SMILES notation uses them, and they are useful for naming Re and Si faces of diastereotopic molecules. FTPE:,
[10] Name these triply-eponymous rules that are used to denote stereocenters as R or S.
Answer: CIP rules or Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules
[10] Corey and Trost came up with the idea of adding these compounds, which creates a stereocenter in a racemic molecule in order to hinder the production of an undesired stereoisomer.
Answer: Chiral auxiliary
[10] Evans oxazolidinones are chiral auxiliaries used in this reaction, of which most modifications follow the Zimmerman-Traxler model and which creates a namesake product.
Answer: Aldol condensation
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HAT medium is used to in the creation of these cells, which are later selected and cloned using an interleukin-6 containing medium. FTPE:,
[10] Name these immortal cell lines which are formed by fusing B cells with myeloma cells that lack the HGPRT gene.
Answer: Hybridoma
[10] Hybridomas are used to create this type of antibody, which are incredibly specific and only bind to a single epitope. Infliximab and herceptin are some pharmacological examples.
Answer: Monoclonal antibodies
[10] Hybridoma selection occurs due to the use of an immortal line that lacks this enzyme, which is present in B-cells - the fused lines are thus heterozygous. It is responsible for transforming thymine to TMP.
Answer: Thymidine Kinase
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Answer some questions about circuit mesh analysis, FTPE:,
[10] This theorem states that any combination of voltage sources and resistors can be transformed into a single source and resistor in series with each other. It is the counterpart to Norton's theorem.
Answer: Thevenin's Theorem
[10] Thevenin's theorem is used to solve this system, which is used in analog-to-digital converters. It's a repeating unit of resistors, interspersed with a series of perpendicular resistors that operate as voltage dividers.
Answer: Resistor ladder
[10] This transformation is used to take a network of 3 resistors that terminate at a common node to a triangular configuration.
Answer: Y-delta transformation or star-mesh transformation or T-pi transformation or delta-star transformation
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Jerry Vinokurov wants you to know that this is responsible for the 1/3 term in the equation of state for the early universe. FTPE:,
[10] Name this principle behind solar sails, where electromagnetic waves push objects around.
Answer: Radiation pressure
[10] This effect occurs when the radiation pressure from the sun causes dust in the solar system to spiral into the sun. Its more pronounced for smaller objects, which is why the planets haven't crashed into the sun.
Answer: Poynting-Robertson drag
[10] The Yarkovsky effect also occurs due to radiation pressure; this other effect is a second-order variation in the Yarkovsky effect that occurs because photons will carry momentum away from a rotating body.
Answer: YORP effect or Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Razievskii-Paddack effect
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These compounds self-react in the Thorpe reaction, while one of these compounds is partially reduced in the Stephens Aldehyde Synthesis. FTPE:,
[10] Name this functional group, which consists of a carbon triple bonded to a nitrogen.
Answer: Nitrile or cyano
[10] This reaction synthesizes nitriles by adding a cyanide ion to an alkyl or aryl halide. Unfortunately isonitriles are often created as a side product.
Answer: Kolbe nitrile synthesis
[10] This other nitrile synthesis takes an aromatic carboxylic acid to a nitrile by using a thiocyanate reagent.
Answer: Letts nitrile synthesis
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This hormone is responsible for the upregulation of aquaporin-2 in the collecting duct of the nephron. FTPE:,
[10] Name this peptide hormone secreted from the posterior pituitary, which decreases urine volume.
Answer: Anti-diuretic hormone or ADH or vasopressin
[10] Decreased ADH leads to this condition, which results in increased thirst, urine production, and blood sodium. Its also caused by taking lithium.
Answer: Diabetes insipidus
[10] These neurons, present in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, synthesize both ADH and vasopressin. Their axons project into the posterior pituitary.
Answer: Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
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The Rayleigh-Plasset equation can be used to model this phenomenon, and Julian Schwinger thinks the Casimir effect is responsible for it. FTPE:,
[10] Name this phenomenon in which acoustic waves cause the collapse of bubbles in a liquid, leading to a flash of light.
Answer: Sonoluminescence
[10] The bubbles can be formed in this process, where the pressure of a particular region falls below the vapor pressure of the liquid. It occurs around propellers, for example.
Answer: Cavitation
[10] An oscillating bubble experiences this force, which occurs when the pressure gradient couples with the oscillations, resulting in translation of the bubble along the gradient.
Answer: Bjerknes force
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Answer some questions about crystal field theory, FTPE:,
[10] CFT and the Tanabe-Sugano diagram are used to analyze complexes that bond via electrons in these orbitals, which can store up to 10 electrons.
Answer: d orbital
[10] This series lists ligands in order of their crystal field splitting energy. I- is on one end, while CO and CN are on the other.
Answer: Spectrochemical series
[10] This effect is a decrease in electron-electron repulsion in a transition metal ion when a ligand binds to it. Its strength roughly follows the spectrochemical series, with many exceptions.
Answer: Nephelauxetic effect
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It can be explained by the principle of inclusive fitness, and the reciprocal version of this behavior is found in primates. FTPE:,
[10] Name this type of behavior in which an organism risks its own life in order to save another. An example is kin selection.
Answer: Altruism
[10] Kin selection is governed by this equation, which states that the cost of an altruistic action must be strictly less than its benefit multiplied by the coefficient of relatedness.
Answer: Hamilton's rule
[10] This effect is a type of kin selection in which a namesake unusual perceptible trait is recognized and preferentially treated.
Answer: Green beard effect
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Identify these methods that scientists use to rate themselves and their work, FTPE:,
[10] This value is the publishing distance between a mathematician and the namesake figure, one of the most prolific mathematicians ever. It can be combined with a similar measure named for Kevin Bacon.
Answer: Erdos number
[10] This measure, which is equal to the number of articles cited divided by the number of citable items, gives the relative importance of a journal. Nature has one of around 30.
Answer: Impact factor
[10] A professor at UCSD developed this measure of a theoretical physicists' impact, which is based on the set of the most published papers of a scientist.
Answer: h index or Hirsch index
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The Dyall version of this quantity is used to describe two-electron systems, while in general it is given by the Legendre transform of the Lagrangian. FTPE:,
[10] Name this quantity, whose operator form gives the total energy of the system.
Answer: Hamiltonian
[10] In Hamiltonian mechanics, this function is equivalent to the commutator of quantum mechanics. This operation taken on a constant of motion and the Hamiltonian operator is zero according to the Liouville equation.
Answer: Poisson bracket
[10] Classical mechanics is easily defined over one of these manifolds, which is a smooth with a closed, nondegenerate 2-form.
Answer: Symplectic manifold
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Identify these things related to moments of statistical distributions, FTPE:,
[10] The second central moment of a distribution is this quantity, which is equal to the expected value of the random variable squared minus the mean squared. Its also the square of the standard deviation.
Answer: Variance
[10] This measure is equal to the fourth moment divided by the variance squared minus three, and gives a measure of the distributions "peakedness".
Answer: Excess Kurtosis
[10] If you have a sequences of random variables, this term refers to the condition in which the random variables have different variances.
Answer: Hederoskedasticity (word forms ok)
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This protein contains four EF-hand motifs, which are all capable of binding to its namesake divalent cation. FTPE:,
[10] Name this small protein that binds to namesake dependent kinases via their BAA helices, which are responsible for muscle control and neurotransmitter secretion.
Answer: Calmodulin
[10] Calmodulin is inhibited by the edema factor toxin from the bacteria that causes this disease. It is caused by a bacillus that forms resistant endospores, and comes in respiratory and cutaneous versions.
Answer: Anthrax
[10] Another protein that contains the EF-hand motif is this calcium-binding component of muscle, which comes in I, C, and T subunits.
Answer: Troponin
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Honderich's objection to this philosophical position uses French pears on a scale to note that there is no relationship between the greenness and Frenchness of the pears. FTPE:,
[10] Name this thesis originally proposed in the paper "Mental Events", which states that mental events are not regulated by physical laws, and are identical to physical events.
Answer: Anomalous monism
[10] This philosopher posited the theory of anomalous monism. He also argued that all learnable languages must be finitely expressible even if they generate infinite expressions in his paper "Truth and Meaning."
Answer: Donald Davidson
[10] Davidson also posited this thought experiment, in which he's struck dead by a lightning bolt, while a body of water is simultaneously induced to form an exact copy of him by a second lightning bolt.
Answer: Swampman
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Complexes of this element are used in a notable anti-Markovnikov addition, and said complexes can often be explained by 3-center-2-electron bonds. FTPE:,
[10] Name this electron-deficient element, which exists in 10 and 11 isotopes and whose complexes' geometry can be solved via Wade's rules.
Answer: Boron or B
[10] Wade's rules state that boranes take these four configurations, corresponding to 4n plus 2, 4, 6, or 8 electrons. Name any two for 5 points each.
Answer: Closo, nido, arachno, hypho
[10] If a vertex unit is this with respect to BH, it can replaced BH in the electron count. In general, this word refers to groups which have similar frontier molecular orbitals.
Answer: Isolobal
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It's most useful on large programming projects with many developers to facilitate refactoring and modularity. For 10 points each,
[10] First, name this tenet of object oriented programming which dictates that one ought hide the internal workings of a class as much as feasible.
Answer: Encapsulation
[10] In a GUI [pronounced goo-ey], this is the name given to the paradigm that the program reacts to specific inputs from the user. It differs from earlier procedural programming styles because it is non-blocking.
Answer: Event Driven Programming [accept anything containing Event that sounds close]
[10] Event Driven programs often rely on this method of splitting up a programs tasks. One of the namesake constructs is created every time the user interacts with the program, though it often terminates quickly.
Answer: Multithreading [accept word forms, be nice and accept parallelism]
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Andre Geim studied the paramagnetic version of this effect, while the dual version of this effect is responsible for color confinement in some gauge theories. FTPE:,
[10] Name this effect, a form of perfect diamagnetism in which a Type I superconductor expels any externally applied magnetic field.
Answer: Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect
[10] This pair of differential equations can be used to give the penetration depth of the Meissner Effect in terms of the applied magnetic field.
Answer: London equations
[10] In a type II superconductor, impurities lead to this "trapping" of magnetic field lines such that they do not move under the Lorentz force.
Answer: Flux pinning

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