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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Tossups by Packet 02
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The existence of this object was first hypothesized to explain a periodicity described by David Raup and Jack Sepkoski, though the universality of that periodicity was challenged by a recent Paul Renne and Timothy Culler study on moon rocks. If it is a Brown Dwarf as suggested by Whitmere and Jackon, then the WISE mission will be able to detect it. Calculations that place this object in the constellation Hydra are supported by Lynn Yarris, as well as by the primary proponent of this object's existence, Richard Mueller. This object may cause mass extinctions on Earth by disrupting the Oort Cloud and causing an influx of comets into the inner solar system. For ten points, name this hypothesized red or brown dwarf, which some heterodox astronomers believe to be in a binary system with the Sun.
Answer: Nemesis [prompt on "The Death Star" or on "Solar Companion Theory" or equivalent; do not accept "Planet X"]
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Under Raman spectroscopy, these compounds contain a split peak at 1580 wavenumber called the G mode, and their size can be determined from their Radial Breathing Mode. Their bandgap is plotted against their size in a Kataura plot. Coming in zigzag, armchair, and chiral configurations, rearrangements in them can result in the Stone-Wales defect. They are synthesized upon an iron catalyst using a process gas in the Chemical vapor deposition method, and can also be synthesized by arc discharge. Like related compounds, they can undergo cyclopropanation in the Bingel reaction. They can be either single- or multi-walled and have been proposed for use in space elevators and combat armor. For 10 points, name these cylindrical fullerenes, an allotrope of carbon
Answer: Carbon nanotubes (prompt on "fullerenes" until mention, do not accept or prompt on "buckminsterfullerenes" or "buckyballs")
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One method of artificially creating these proteins is known as oligomerized pool engineering or OPEN. A phage display selection procedure can be used to engineer nucleases based on this structure, which have applications in gene targeting. A version of this domain containing a beta-hairpin at the C-terminus is the Treble clef, while Air2p and the HIV nucleocapsid protein contain a version known as the gag knuckle. Steroid hormone receptors contain one of these structures, which also occur in Egr1 and was originally discovered in the Xenopus protein TFIIIA. The classical version it contains two cysteine and two histidine residues near its recognition helices, which coordinate to a namesake metal ion. For 10 points, name this DNA-binding protein domain which contains a series of alpha helices that "grab" DNA.
Answer: Zinc finger (accept "zinc finger nucleases" until mentioned)
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A version of this phenomenon occurs during implosion in inertial confinement fusion causes the cold D-T fuel to mingle with the hot shell material; this version occurs when a shockwave passes through the system and is named for Richtmeyer and Meshokov. The extent of this phenomenon is proportional to the spatial wavenumber and the Atwood number. The "fingers" due to this phenomenon can be seen in the distribution of debris from the Crab pulsar, and this effect eventually leads to the formation of a "mushroom cap" pattern seen in diapirs, and eventually transitions into Kelvin-Helmholtz phenomena. It is easily observed by accelerating a glass of water downward faster than gravity, or during a nuclear explosion. FTP, name this phenomenon in which, at the interface of two immiscible fluids, the lighter fluid accelerates into the heavier one, an instability named for two scientists.
Answer: Rayleigh-Taylor instability (Prompt on "instability", accept "RT instability", accept Richtmeyer-Meskhov instability before mention, accept "shockwave" before mention)
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Gibbons isolated the first discovered axonemal dyenin from these organisms, and in another study Jeffrey and Jenkins synchronized their cell division, the first organism for which this was done. These organisms were used by ThoCech to isolate a splicing ribozyme. Like yeast, one section of its genome contains Autonomously Replicating Pieces, which during differentiation are fragmented and amplified into about forty-five copies. This organism contains a palindromic chromosome that exclusively codes for rRNA, alongside 275 other chromosomes. During replication, two of these organisms fuse, exchange migratory pronuclei, then split into two exconjugates which then fission. In another study, adding extracts from it to a synthetic primer resulted in the addition of TTGGGG repeats, a study performed by Greider and Blackburn. For 10 points, name this model organism used to discover telomerase, a free-living ciliate protozoan.
Answer: Tetrahymena thermophila
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A synthesis of this molecule by Du Bois uses a rhenium-catalyzed C-H insertion to create oxazolidinones. The first synthesis of this compound by Kishi and Goto used a Diels-Alder reaction with an oxime and a Beckmann rearrangement to synthesize the skeleton, followed by a pair of epoxidations. Isobe's synthesis uses a Claisen rearrangement and Sonogashira coupling to create cyclohexane, then used an Overmann rearrangement to add nitrogen. Its biosynthesis is dependent on symbiotic bacteria in the ovaries and gallbladder of organisms secreting it, and might begin with linking isopentyl-PP and adipose sugar to arginine. This compound contains guanidinium bound to a pyrimidine, along with five hydroxyl-containing rings in the main body. Similar to STX, this compound binds to the opening of fast-current sodium channels, where it remains for tens of seconds; this inhibits contraction of cardiac muscle. Ten thousand times deadlier than cyanide, for 10 points, name this neurotoxin that causes paralysis and death, famously found in pufferfish.
Answer: Tetrodotoxin or TTX
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Webb developed the many-multiplet method of calculating this quantity, which isan extension of the alkali doublet method of calculating variations in it. In the Bridge Theory model of a radiating dipole, this constant and Planck's constant share two degrees of freedom. Due to screening its value increases logarithmically with increasing energy, such that it's canonical form is generally taken to be at infinite distance, and QED predicts it has a Landau pole at some energy level. Dirac's relativistic theory predicted that the energy levels with the same n and j level would differ from Bohr's prediction by a value proportional to this quantity squared, and this quantity is found in the related expression for the Lamb shift. Its value can be directly measured via Von Klitzing resistance in the Quantum Hall Effect, which supports the value obtained through examining the anomalous electron magnetic moment. For 10 points, name this fundamental unitless electromagnetic coupling constant with value approximately one over 137.
Answer: Sommerfield's Fine Structure Constant [prompt on alpha]
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The Tal'darim developed similar abilities to this group after being stranded, and this group first settled Ehlna after they cut themselves off from the Khala. One group of them was the Fist of Ulrezaj, which aligned itself with Alan Schezar. They were led for a time by the traitor Raszagal, and they found a warp gate when they settled on Shakuras. Two nearly identical units represent this group because they were not buildable until the fourth episode, whose eventual goal is to use the Uraj and Khalis crystals to power a Xel'Naga Temple, and this group pilots corsairs. Their high damage output allows them to destroy land-based detector units easily, augmenting their permenant cloaking ability, and a unique unit from this group is named Zeratul. For 10 points, name this tribe of Protoss exiled after the Aeon of Strife.
Answer: Dark Templar [accept Nerazim and award a million points, prompt on Protoss or Templar]
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One of this organ's membranes is enlarged in Menetrier's disease, while neurotensin and serotonin are secreted by the APUD cells in this organ. Auerbach's plexus enervates one section of this organ, whose inner surface contains folds called rugae. Its submucosa contains Meissner's plexus, and some of its glands contain G cells and the mucous-secreting goblet cells. That same section of this organ contains the chief and parietal cells, and this organ is bounded by the pyloric and cardiac sphincters. The organ accomplishes its function by converting its secreted pepsinogen to pepsin using its secreted hydrochloric acid. For 10 points, name this digestive organ that food passes through right after the esophagus.
Answer: Stomach
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Dragoman predicts the existence of a Giant version of this effect in graphene over metallic electrodes. In Type II superconductors, Huber's counterflow model accounts for it by assuming a Lorentz-like force acts on vortices, resulting in a phase slip, and on quantity important in it is given by a formula derived by taking an integral over sigma of E modulated by Fermi statistics, called the Cutler-Mott formula. One cause of this effect is predominant when T is approximately equal to 1/5 of the Debye temperature, and occurs when phonons interact with other particles, causing phonon drag. This effect is used in the radioisotope generators on space probes. This effect occurs because electrons migrate in gas-expansion-like manner away from their positively charged nuclei when heated, and is the inverse of the Peltier effect. For 10 points, name this effect exploited in thermocouples, in which applying a temperature difference to a conductor induces in a current.
Answer: Seebeck effect or Thermoelectric effect
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The volume of a simplex is given by the Cayley-Menger variety of this object, and the Chio condensation is a special case of one formula used to compute them, which states that this operation commutes when an identity element is added. Hadamard put an upper bound on its value equal to n to the power of n over 2, and Sylvester's theorem about them is used to create Bayesian estimators for multivariable normal distributions. When changing coordinate systems inside an integral this operation is applied to the Jacobian, and when finding the extrema of a function, this function is applied to the Hessian. Used to show linear independence or orthogonality, this object is connected with the solution to a system of linear equations via Cramer's Rule. For 10 points, name this alternating multilinear operation applied to a matrix, which returns zero if the matrix is singular.
Answer: Determinant
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The SP K172 flavobacterium was engineered in order to "eat" this substance, while Schlack developed a variation of this compound using a ring-opening reaction on caprolactam subunits. Some solid versions of this compound are filled with molybdenum disulfide in order to cut back on friction. Aramids are a more durable derivative of this polymer, and replaces the methylene linkages with aromatic rings. Common methods of synthesizing this polymer include condensing dibasic acids or dibasic acid chlorides with diamines, and the first version of this polymer was created from hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid linked by amide bonds. Kevlar and Nomex are offshoots of this compound, which like neoprene was originally developed by Wallace Carouthers at DuPont. For 10 points, name this thermoplastic, fibrous polymer, a replacement for silk found in parachutes and women's stockings.
Answer: Nylon
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One subfamily of this phylum is characterized by parapodia reinforced by spiny structures called aciculae, and during reproduction they secrete a viscid sac from the clitellum. Their internal fluids contain a pigment called chlorocruorin, and their larval forms include the metratroch and trochophore. Other sub-taxons include the Myzostomidia which live on crinoids, and the eichuria were recently classified as part of this phylum. Like mollusks, they belong in the lophotrochozoa group, and the largest subgroup of them is the polychaetes. They contain either protonephridia or metanephridia to filter their hemolymph, and are often hermaphroditic. For 10 points, name this protostome phylum consists of the roundworms.
Answer: Annelida or annelids
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Malouf and Faria considered the results of this experiment to note that Schwarzchild spacetime has non-zero torsion, and another version of this experiment was done by Vessot and Levine using a maser on a rocket. This experiment was confirmed by the broadening of the Sun's sodium emission line in Brault's experiment, and its accuracy was improved with the help of Snider. A mylar bag filled with helium was used to cut down scattering, and its controls included switching the frequency from 10 to 50 hertz and using both ferroelectric and moving coil magnetic transducers. This experiment used two samples of iron-57, one of which was placed in a speaker on the roof of Jefferson Laboratory. Reliant on the Mossbauer effect, For 10 points, name this experiment used to verify gravitational redshift, a test of relativity named for two American physicists.
Answer: Pound-Rebka experiment
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Glatzmaier and Roberts used a supercomputer to simulate this process. Vincenzo Carbone discovered that this process's occurrence follows a Levy distribution, which would quash Richard Muller's theory that this process does not occur spontaneously, but must be catalyzed by an outside event. One area which does not show evidence of this process is the Jurassic Quiet Zone, and time periods during which this process did not occur are dubbed "superchrons." Morley, Vine, and Matthews first theorized a test for the veracity of the sea floor spreading theory that depended on this phenomenon, which they theorized would leave polarity markings on bands of rocks parallel to the mid-Atlantic ridge. For 10 points, name this process by which certain field reorients its north and south poles.
Answer: geomagnetic reversal [accept anything that indicates earth's magnetic field reversing polarity]
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One refutation of this theory notes that though the nervous system of C elegans is mapped perfectly, models consistently fail to predict its behavior accurately. Noam Chomsky rejects this hypothesis as meaningless, and based only on the extension of a particular definition. It is a strong form of functionalism associated with the identity thesis, and applied in general it is a corollary of the symbol-system hypothesis. The Turing Test cannot actually answer this question, as refuted by Shannon and McCarthy, and more famously by John Searle in his Chinese room experiment. For 10 points, name this conjecture, which posits that that with the right input and output, a computer model is not merely intelligent, but indistinguishable from a human.
Answer: Strong AI Hypothesis [accept symbol-system hypothesis or SSH before it is given]
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Gajewski defined the bond-making and bond-breaking secondary kinetic isotope effects to determine the mechanism of this reaction. Vogel and Wharton found that it can be accelerated by strain, and another study by Roth and Doering showed that its intermediate preferred the chair conformation over the boat one. The aza- variant can be combined with an intermolecular Mannich reaction to form pyrrolidines. This reaction leads to rapid fluxional interconversion of bullvalene, and one variation is accelerated by deprotonation of a hydroxyl substituent. That variation is used to synthesize gamma-epsilon unsaturated ketones via tautomerization, and is known as the oxy- type. Like Diels-Alder, there's confusion whether there's a diradical or concerted intermediate in this reaction, and it proceeds via the suprafacial route. Sharing its namesake with an elimination of amine oxide, for 10 points, name this sigmatropic rearrangement of 1,5-dienes, named for an American.
Answer: Cope rearrangement
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One application of this method can be used to separate the higher and lower angular momentum to compute the instanton background in QCD, and this method was used by Lin and Toomre to analyze tightly-wound density waves in spiral galaxies. The Langer correction is sometimes applied when its used in a spherically symmetric system, while applications in wave propagation may lead to the eikonal equation. Applying this formalism to a system with two boundaries gives rise to the Bohr-Sommerfeld theory, while a more famous application of it gives rise to connection formulae in terms of Airy functions. It relies on an initial expansion based on powers of Planck's constant, which tends to break down around turning points, then applying an asymptotic matching between the evanescent and oscillatory solutions around those points. For 10 points, name this method that is used to find solutions of Schrodinger's equation, in which the amplitude of the wavefunction is taken to be more slowly varying than the phase, named for three scientists.
Answer: JWKB approximation (Jeffrys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin, in any order, but you need the last 3)
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One of these systems is determined by the level of AQP3, and another one is determined by polymorphisms in ERMAP. In addition to the GIL and Scianna systems, the Chido/Rogers one is based on the presence of the C4A and B components of the complement system. Another one is based on certain components of acetylcholinesterase, known as the Cartwright or Yt system. Another one of these is based on ICAM4 and was categorized by Landsteiner and Weiner. Another one, when completely absent, is responsible for MacLeod syndrome and is based on variants of the zinc endopeptidase protein xk; that system is named for Kell. The receptor for plasmodium vivax is the basis for the Duffy one, while more famous ones include the MNS system and the one responsible for several cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn, known as the Rh one. For 10 points name these systems, which are methods of labeling what types of proteins are present on erythrocyte cell membranes, the most common one being ABO.
Answer: Blood groups (accept blood types, blood antigens, erythrocyte [surface] antigens, erythrocyte [surface] markers, erythrocyte [surface glyco]proteins blood transfusion markers, blood factors, things that make your blood agglutinate, etc. Prompt very generously)
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Along with a binary search tree, one of these structures is used to store future beach-line-changing events in Fortune's algorithm for generating Voronoi diagrams. The ROAM algorithm uses a pair of these data structures to store triangles that can be either split or merged. A meldable heap is a version of this structure implemented using a binomial heap, which gives it a "merge" operation, and the "fringe" structure in the A* algorithm is one of these. They're used on network routing protocols to ensure real-time traffic is forwarded first, and they optionally implement the PeekAtNext operation. In Java these structures implement the "comparable" interface, unlike another structure whose interface they implement. For 10 points, name this data structure that unlike a related structure isn't first in first out but inserts each element with an associated value of importance.
Answer: Priority queue
 
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Bonuses by Packet 02
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Identify these RNA secondary structures, FTPE:,
[10] pre-miRNA notably form this structure, which is also present in tRNA and poorly designed PCR primers. It occurs when a stretch of RNA bends back and basepairs with itself.
Answer: Hairpin or Stem loop
[10] The lariat structure is assumed by one type of these RNA sequences when they excise themselves from pre-mRNA.
Answer: Introns
[10] This structure occurs when half of one stem loop inserts itself in the middle of another. It was originally discovered in the turnip yellow mosaic virus, and is also found in telomerase.
Answer: Pseudoknot
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One method of proving their existence is the Brower theorem, while repeated applications of the cosine function converges to one of these at .739. FTPE:,
[10] Name these values for which applying a function simply returns the input. Another theorem used to find them is named for Kakutani.
Answer: Fixed point
[10] In a dynamic system, changing the parameters can cause a fixed point can lose stability if the real part of the eigenvalue of the linearization around the point becomes zero. The transition is called this.
Answer: Andronov-Hopf Bifurcation
[10] Depending on whether the bifurcation is supercritical or subcritical, the system transitions into a stable or unstable one of these constructs. These solutions are closed loops in phase space which show oscillatory behavior.
Answer: Limit cycle
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This class of chemotherapeutic compounds includes nitrogen mustard and nitrosourea, and usually causes point mtuations. FTPE:,
[10] Name this class of mutagens that works by adding carbon chains to nucleotide bases, which disrupts their basepairing abilities.
Answer: Alkylating agents
[10] EMS is an alkylating agent that works by forming the O-6-ethyl version of this purine base, which contains an amine and a ketone group on its 6-membered ring. It pairs with cytosine.
Answer: Guanine
[10] A classic synthesis of purines like guanine is named for Traube and starts from an amine-substituted pyrimidine and this compound, which got its name because crushing ants gives a large quantity of it.
Answer: Formic Acid or Formate
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Identify some things about culturing stem cells, FTPE:,
[10] Since they have active telomerase, stem cells bypass this eponymous limit on the number of cell divisions that a typical cell can perform.
Answer: Hayflick limit
[10] Stem cells are often cultured on a lawn of these cells derived mouse embryos. They synthesize collagen and extracellular matrix proteins in connective tissue.
Answer: Fibroblasts
[10] This value gives the coverage of a cell culture relative to the medium. 100% means that the plate is completely covered.
Answer: Confluency (word forms ok)
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Jean Perrin used Einstein's explanation of this process to calculate Avogadro's number. FTPE:,
[10] Name this random movement of particles in a fluid, observed in pollen seeds by its namesake.
Answer: Brownian motion
[10] This doubly eponymous PDE describes Brownian motion by using a particle's initial position and velocity to give the probability density function of a particle's later position. Fick's law is its reduction to homogenous systems.
Answer: Fokker-Planck equation (accept Kolmogorov foward equation)
[10] This integral is central to stochastic differential equations because it extends notion of a martingale transform into continuous time. It is defined as the integral of a well-behaved stochastic process with respect to its Brownian motion.
Answer: Ito integral
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Answer the following about literature related to science, FTPE:,
[10] This novel sees the scientist Filip Filipovich implant human testicles into Polygraf Polygrafovich Sharikov, who makes his life hell.
Answer: Heart of a Dog or Whatever that is in Russian
[10] This Michael Frayn play sees a fateful meeting between Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg in the title location in 1947, where they proceed to discuss their work on nuclear weapons.
Answer: Copenhagen
[10] This Susanna Speier play sees a group of commuter rail workers attempt to prove string theory by building a particle accelerator deep underground. It features a notable scene in which a string explains string theory.
Answer: Calabi-Yau
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One consequence of this rule is that a transition that redistributes electrons within a subshell is forbidden, and it arises as a result of parity inversion. FTPE:,
[10] Name this rule that says an electronic transition that preserves symmetry about an inversion center is forbidden.
Answer: Laporte rule
[10] This is the name given to a state which is symmetric about an inversion center. States that are asymmetric are denoted "u", or un-this.
Answer: gerade or g
[10] Laporte's rule doesn't forbid transitions in this type of complex complexes. They include ligand-to-metal and metal-to-ligand varieties, and iodine forms one with C-C double bonds in starch.
Answer: Charge transfer complex or CT complex or Electron-donor-acceptor complex
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Conduction in these materials can be explained via the particle in a box, which shows that electrons in these systems have quantized transverse energy. FTPE:,
[10] Name these one-dimensional conductors, which would have much greater conductivity than copper and cannot be described by the Fermi liquid model.
Answer: Quantum wire
[10] Quantum wires also show this effect, in which conduction is quantized in multiples of the von Klitzing constant. There's also a fractional version.
Answer: Quantum hall effect
[10] This liquid model of one-dimensional conductors posits that spin waves and charge waves propagate independently, and that unlike Fermi liquids, there is no jump in the momentum distribution function.
Answer: Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid
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They are synthesized from aldehydes and hydrazine in the Piloty-Robinson synthesis, and porphyrins contain four of them in a ring. FTPE:,
[10] Name this functional group, a simple aromatic compound that contains four carbons and one nitrogen in a ring. They are also created in the Knorr synthesis and the Hantzsch synthesis.
Answer: Pyrrole
[10] Pyrroles can undergo this reaction, in which an amine reacts with formaldehyde, and then reacts with an acceptor molecule. Beta-amino carbonyls are the result.
Answer: Mannich reaction
[10] This ring is essentially pyrrole with the carbon in the 3 position replaced by a sulfur. It's present in vitamin B1, and can be created in the Cook-Heilbron synthesis.
Answer: 1,3-Thiazole or Thiazolium
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One form of this enzyme transforms coelenterazine to coelenteramide and is found in Renilla reniformis, while another form is found in fireflies. FTPE:,
[10] Name this enzyme which is used in bioluminescence across many species, and as a reporter construct in the laboratory. It's latin for light-bringer.
Answer: Luciferase
[10] This other fluorescent technology screens for protein-protein interactions by attaching a donor chromophore to one protein and an acceptor to another. Common pairs include CFP and YFP.
Answer: FRET or Flourescence/Forster Resonance Energy Transfer
[10] This ABI technology, used in RT-PCR, relies on an oligonucleotide containing a flourophore on one end and a quencher on the other. When the probe is displaced during amplification, the flourophore glows.
Answer: TaqMan
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Simply put, it's the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory of color charged fermions, and it theorizes the existence of strangelets and other exotic matter. FTPE:,
[10] Name this theory that explains the strong force in terms of quarks, gluons, and color charge.
Answer: Quantum Chromodynamics or QCD
[10] This main property of QCD states that the force between quarks doesn't diminish as they are separated, which is why no free color-charged particles are ever found.
Answer: Confinement
[10] Baur, Pirjol, and Steward developed this calculation framework used in QCD, which is used to handle infrared divergences in particles that either have low energy or are travelling in the same direction.
Answer: Soft Collinear Effective Theory or SCET
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One of these phenomena occurring between eccentricity and inclination is named for Kozai. FTPE:,
[10] Identify these phenomena in which two orbiting bodies have orbital periods that can be expressed as a ratio of small integers. Neptune and Pluto have a 3:2 one for example.
Answer: Orbital resonance
[10] Orbital resonances with Jupiter lead to these spaces in the asteroid belt.
Answer: Kirkwood gap
[10] This type of orbital resonance occurs when the precessions of the two resonating objects are also synchronized. There exists one between Saturn and the Asteroid belt.
Answer: Secular resonance
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The Hammet equation can be used to measure these effects, which are responsible for changes in acidity and the directing character. FTPE:,
[10] Give the collective name of these effects, in which an electron withdrawing or donating group affects the acidity of a bond to hydrogen by pushing or pulling electron density through sigma bonds.
Answer: Inductive effect
[10] This other interaction is responsible for stabilizing carbocations and carbon radicals by donating electron density from adjacent sigma bonds.
Answer: Hyperconjugation
[10] This doubly eponymous effect, which was explained by hyperconjugation, is the increase of reaction rate in with decrease in an R group's electron donating ability; this is in opposition to the prediction of the inductive effect.
Answer: Baker-Nathan effect
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The Henderson-Kisliuk equation and the Temkin equation are often used to model molecules undergoing this process, which notably takes place on zeolites and other molecular sieves. FTPE:,
[10] Name this chemical process, in which molecules attach to a surface; activated carbon works pretty well.
Answer: Adsorption
[10] This isotherm equation states that the fractional coverage is equal to alpha-P divided by 1 plus alpha-P. Its formulator also created an adsorption kinetics equation with Hinshelwood.
Answer: Langmuir adsorption isotherm or Langmuir equation
[10] This triply eponymous isotherm modifies the Langmuir equation by allowing for particles to adsorb on top of each other, rather than just on the surface.
Answer: BET theory or Brunaur-Emmett-Teller theory
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This article uses the title creature to show that consciousness is a subjective experience, and notes that even if everyone died from the black death before Cantor was born, transfinite numbers would still exist. FTPE:,
[10] Name this seminal article in the philosophy of mind.
Answer: "What is it Like to Be a Bat?"
[10] This NYU philosopher and author of "Moral Luck" and "Reductionism and Antireductionism" wrote "What is it Like to Be a Bat?"
Answer: Thomas Nagel
[10] "What is it like to be a Bat?" was collected in this volume of essays edited by Dennett and Hofstader, which also includes Searle's "Minds, Brains, and Programs" and Hofstader's own "A Conversation with Einstein's Brain".
Answer: The Mind's I
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Examples of this phenomenon include a group of salamanders in California and some gulls in the north Pacific, while Irwin and Price's AFLP study of warblers gives some quantitative basis for it. FTPE:,
[10] Name this speciation pattern in which a species varies around a geographic barrier in a circular fashion, such that adjacent groups can interbreed but more distant groups cannot.
Answer: Ring species (word forms ok)
[10] Ring species are an example of this type of speciation, in which there is no extrinsic barrier between species and their niches overlap but vary in a gradient. It is distinct from sympatric and allopatric.
Answer: Parapatric speciation (do NOT accept "Peripatric speciation")
[10] Ring species can be considered a circular version of one of these structures, in which a particular trait varies with geographic distance. Dialect continua are an example in humans.
Answer: Cline
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Everyone loves chiral synthesis. Answer some questions about an important concept in stereochemistry, asymmetric induction. FTPE:,
[10] This doubly eponymous model explains asymmetric induction using orbital and substituent polar effects. It posits non-perpendicular attack on carbonyl compounds, unlike the model it modifies.
Answer: Felkin-Anh model
[10] Anti-Felkin selectivity can be achieved via these compounds, which bind to a metal ligand at more than one point. EDTA is an example, and their name means "Crab claw" in some non-English language.
Answer: Chelate
[10] This rule states that the predominant product is the one in which the attacking group moves in via the least sterically hindered face when the adjacent double bond is surrounded by the two most bulky groups.
Answer: Cram's rule
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Answer some things about the grand canonical ensemble, the finest of statistical ensembles, FTPE:,
[10] The grand canonical ensemble differs from the canonical ensemble because it allows exchange of particles. Thus, it defines this quantity, which is the change in system energy when one particle is added.
Answer: chemical potential
[10] Every ensemble, including the grand canonical ensemble, obeys this property, which states that every possible microstate of a system has equal probability of being visited over large timescales.
Answer: Ergodicity
[10] This eponymous type of state is a probability distribution that is invariant over evolution of the system. Running a Markov Chain Monte Carlo system for a while gets you to one of these.
Answer: Gibbs state
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The "alphabet soup" classification scheme divided this type of rock into I and S types. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this type of rock, whose extrusive equivalent is rhyolite.
Answer: granite
[10] If the crystals of granite are larger than the groundmass, the granite will have this property, which basically means that it has big, visible crystals embedded in a fine grained matrix.
Answer: porphyry [accept word forms]
[10] Granites are classified based on their ratios of quartz, alkali feldspar, and this type of rock, which is found on the top of the continuous branch of Bowen's reaction series.
Answer: plagioclase feldspar [prompt on partial answer]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
These cells will tie together neurons in Remak bundles in addition to their more well-known function, which is similar to that of oligodendrocytes. FTPE:,
[10] Name these glial cells that are responsible for myelinating axons in the peripheral nervous system, named for a German.
Answer: Schwann cells
[10] Small packets of Schwann cell cytoplasm are left behind after myelination; these structures go by this name, which serve to subdivide the myelin sheath into layers
Answer: Schmidt-Lanterman incisures or Schmidt-Lanterman clefts or medullary segments
[10] Schwann cells are activated by the beta-1 type of these proteins, which are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins that mediate interactions between a cell and the extracellular matrix proteins.
Answer: Integrins

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