2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Tossups by Packet 01 | ||||
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The Wiskott-Aldrich protein activates another protein that binds to this protein, and on the cell membrane these proteins complex with archvillin and supervillin. Prokaryotic analogues of this protein include MreB and ParM, and another protein that binds to it is mutated in Finnish-type amyloidosis, known as gelsolin. A common method of viewing this protein in cell culture involves using fluorescently-tagged phalloidin, and they tend to collect when nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex. Cadherins and catenins bind to it via vinculin, and ATP binding causes this protein to transition between its globular and fibrous forms. Polymers of it are surrounded by nebulin in one structure, and this protein forms lamellopodia and the contractile ring in cytokinesis. It also binds to troponin and tropomyosin in sarcomeres. For 10 points, name this protein that when arranged in a helix and polymerized forms microfilaments, and which pairs with the motor protein myosin. | ||||
Answer: Actin | ||||
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A chaotically-driven version of this phenomenon can be described using the Julia set and that version's trajectories follow Laputa chains. This phenomenon is represented in the kinetic term of the Hamiltonian of the Hubbard model, and a particular type of this phenomenon in semiconductors is described by the Fowler-Nordheim equation. This process is responsible for the occurrence of the proton-proton chain at lower temperatures than predicted, and it's the subject of the Hartman effect, which shows that its probability is width-independent. Also the basis of operation for the Esaki diode and applied to alpha decay by Gamow, this phenomenon is derived by considering evanescent wave coupling, or a decaying exponential solution for the Schrodinger equation. For 10 points, name this phenomenon in which a particle escapes from a potential well higher than its kinetic energy. | ||||
Answer: Quantum tunneling | ||||
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England and MacKenzie proposed three numbers that characterize whether this activity can occur; one of those numbers relates gravity and thickness to viscosity and strain rate, while another requires the constant mu-sub-c, the coefficient of friction of a brittle layer, which is typically around .5. Those three numbers that characterize this process are the Argand numbers. This process indirectly causes a process called hinge rollback, and this process also causes the formation of an accretionary prism. Convection currents that form because of this process are the source of a spreading axis known as a back-arc basin. The places in which this process occurs are home to extremely low-depth earthquakes in a band known as a Wadati-Benioff zone. For 10 points, name process whereby a higher-density oceanic plate slides beneath a continental plate. | ||||
Answer: subduction | ||||
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Chang developed a double-coupling method using an methyl-aza-amino compound to improve on this method, and one alternative to it uses dansyl chloride. One version of it uses atomic bombardment and is known as the "subtractive" version. Another alternative to this procedure uses a Curtius rearrangement following an addition by benzyl alcohol, named for Bergmann. It is commonly performed in a buffer of trimethylamine, and combining this technique with HPLC can be used to more effectively determine the identities of the PTH derivatives created. The sequenator automates this process, which begins by reacting the sample with phenyl-isothiocyanate, then cleaving using an acid. For 10 points, name this method of protein sequencing that removes amino acids from the N-terminal tail of a protein. | ||||
Answer: Edman degradation | ||||
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One method of interpreting the results of this experiment is the Ma-Sadri-Sarkar maximum likelihood estimator, and Li and Chu used Chinese hamster cells and oubain in order to compare five different estimators for interpreting this experiment. Koch analyzed the case of differing growth rates in this experiment which relied on a formula that modeled its results as the sum of Yule processes, derived by Lea and Coulson. Newcomb's version of this experiment relied on replica plating, and the results showed that the number of TonR colonies had a much larger variance than the expected mean. Used to discredit the Lamarckian hypothesis of acquired hereditary immunity, the experimenters used two or three serial dilutions of culture tubes, followed by plating on phage plates. For 10 points, name this experiment which showed that bacterial mutation occurs in the absence of selection, named for two biologists. | ||||
Answer: Luria-Delbruck experiment or Fluctuation test | ||||
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One example of these organisms killed the majority of space sector 119. That member of the Sinestro corps was eventually stopped by another one of these organisms named Leezle Pon, and was named Despotellis. Another one of these lived on Lusitania and was originally used as a terraforming method, called Descolada. Another series of them were originally discovered by Spencer, Ashford, and Marcus, and had later variants named Uroboros, Progenitor 30, and T-Veronica. Another example was used by Apocalypse to inhibit Cable's abilities, while another managed to kill John Allerdyce and Illyana Rasputina after being released by Mr. Sinister. Those examples are the T-O and Legacy ones, and those repeatedly created by Umbrella Corporation members tend to turn their victims into zombies. For 10 points, name these microscopic organisms, which usually contain DNA or RNA wrapped in a capsid and require a host cell to replicate | ||||
Answer: Viruses (accept more specific answers) | ||||
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This functional group can be created from alkyl aryl ketones and ammonium polysulfide in the Willgerodt rearrangement, and they can also be synthesized using Grignard reagents in the Bodroux reaction. A multicomponent method used to synthesize these relies on an irreversible Mumm rearrangement, called the Ugi reaction. One reaction involving these compounds evolves carbon dioxide after reacting them with bromide and sodium hydroxide, creating a product that retains stereochemistry. Cyclic ones are called lactams, and SDS-PAGE gels are created by crosslinking the acryl version of this functional group. These compounds are transformed into an amine by the aforementioned Hoffman rearrangement, and lithium aluminum hydride reduces them to amines. For 10 points, name these compounds that contain a carbonyl bound to an NH2 unit. | ||||
Answer: Amides | ||||
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Part of the Joback method calculates this quantity by multiplying molecular weight and the exponential of a two-parameter equation, while the Williams-Landel-Ferry model is used to model the temperature dependence of it in polymers. For dilute gases the Champan-Enskog equation can be used to compute it, and methods to measure it include the Ford or Zahn cups. This quantity is multiplied by 2 omega squared in the numerator of the sound attenuation law named for Stokes. For Carreau materials this quantity has an exotic power-law formula dependence, while thixotropy involves a decrease of this quantity in response to shear stress. This quantity can be ignored outside of the aerodynamic boundary layer according to Prandtl. Occurring in both kinematic and dynamic varieties, it appears in the denominator of both Poiseuille's Law, and the Reynolds number. For 10 points, name this property of a fluid, its resistance to flow. | ||||
Answer: Viscosity | ||||
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Deeds of this man include publishing a 1963 paper that extended the Shapely value, and this man showed that the mathematical equivalence of two models of bargaining proposed by Zeuthen and Nash. In the 1953 paper "Cardinal Utility in Welfare Economics and in the Theory of Risk-Taking", this mathematician argued that people would deviate from minimax by maximizing their expected utility when placed in the original position, foreshadowing Rawls's Veil of Ignorance argument. For his work with Reinhard Selten on selection between multiple possible equilibria, this man shared the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994 with John Nash. For ten points, name this Hungarian-American game theorist. | ||||
Answer: John Harsanyi [accept: John Charles Harsanyi; Janos Karoly Harsanyi] | ||||
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Methods of reversing this chemical process include the very expensive modified-oil process and another one used by the Landstar corporation known as the AMR process. Zinc-based compounds used to boost its speed include ZDEC or thiurams. One accelerant used in this process is thiocarbanilide which was developed by Oenslager, while more recent compounds used for that purpose are MBTS, which is used in the production of EPDM compounds. Most versions of this process use compression molding with either a peroxide-based or sulfur-based curing system, which serves to create a complex crosslinked polyisoprene. Partially invented by Charles Goodyear and used to increase durability, for 10 points, name this process which is used to increase the durability of rubber, named for a Roman god. | ||||
Answer: Vulcanization | ||||
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Putting one of these devices in parallel with a resistor to create a hysteresis loop creates a Schmidt Trigger, while one of these devices with a pair of resistors and a capacitor can be used to create a * gyrator. A common one of these devices uses three Widlar mirrors and a Darlington transistor configuration in its class A gain stage, know as the 741. Commonly used in simpler configurations as comparators and integrators, ideal versions of these devices have an infinite slew rate, an infinite CMRR, and more famously, zero input current and infinite open-loop gain. Consisting of an inverting and non-inverting input, for 10 points, name these devices that use feedback to take a series of voltage inputs to create a higher-amplitude output voltage. | ||||
Answer: Operational amplifier or Op-amp (accept Comparator until *) | ||||
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The ZBP1 protein transports mRNA to these sub-cellular structures. The Drosophila protein hamlet controls their development in one type of cell, and their tiling is controlled by the Trc and Fry kinase. The Dasm1 protein is localized to these structures, which grow in response to Sema3A attraction. One substructure in them contains a specialized type of ER which contains synaptopodin and are abnormally shaped in Fragile X syndrome, known as their namesake spines. They can be arranged in laminar, cylindrical, and conical radiation structures, and these structures alter their distribution of NMDA and AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation. Purkinje cells contain several of these structures, and a collection of them is called an arbor. For 10 points, name these structures that radiate from the cell body of a neuron, which usually interact with axons across a synapse. | ||||
Answer: Dendrites (accept dendritic spines until mention, prompt on "presynaptic membrane" or "membrane") | ||||
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Gibtner and Hampel used this reaction followed by a Cadiot-Chodkiewicz coupling to create a carbyne analogue, The intermediate 1,1-dibromoalkene in this reaction can be isolated using a base, while a modification using an electrophile can create chain-extension products. The first step of this reaction uses triphenylphosphine to attack carbon tetrabromide, creating an intermediate carbene which then, in an analogue of the Wittig reaction, forms a ylide. The intermediate is then reacted with butyllithium to create a triple bond. For 10 points, name this reaction that transforms aldehydes to alkynes, named for the father of retrosynthesis and some other less famous guy. | ||||
Answer: Corey-Fuchs reaction (prompt on Wittig reaction, I suppose) | ||||
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A postscript to this book refutes the criticism of Andrew Lugg and discusses the author's subsequent work Three Dialogues of Knowledge. This book argues that the movement from idea to action occurs due to passion, and it cites the education of children as a situation where "coercion and propaganda" are more effective ways of learning the truth than argument. This book cites J.S. Mill to claim that the titular concept is analogous to Chinese foot binding because it deforms individuals, which is why the author claimed that he wrote this book for humanitarian reasons. Originally intended as a dialogue with Imre Lakatos, who was to defend rationalism. For ten points, name this book about epistemological anarchism by Paul Feyerabend, which argues that the scientific process should not have absolute rules. | ||||
Answer: Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge [accept: Wider den Methodenzwang; Against the Method Principle] | ||||
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Dohle bodies are present in these cells during some physical trauma and Wissler's disease, while antibodies against cytoplasmic proteins in these cells circulate in Wegener's granulomatosis. These cells expel a net of chromatin in response to PMA or LPS, known as their namesake "extracellular traps". Hypersegmented ones are a clinical sign of megalobastic anemia, and a low count of these cells occurs when the LYST gene is mutated, a condition known as Chediak-Higashi syndrome. They contain myeloperoxidase, cathepsin G, and defensins in their azurophilic granules, and stain pink under the H&E stain. The most common type of leukocyte, these cells contain a lobed nucleus and undergo a respiratory burst after performing their most notable function. For 10 points, name these phagocytes that are the first in the line of defense. | ||||
Answer: Neutrophil | ||||
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Babu and Mohpatra's solution to this problem involves a quark mass derived from the seesaw mechanism. The commonly accepted solution to this problem was extended to the KSVZ and DFSZ model, which both assume v is much greater than G sub F to the ½, while other solutions to it include a massless up quark. Arising due to a vanishingly small theta-bar angle related to the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment, the most famous proposed solution to this problem adds a global chiral U(1) symmetry, known as the Peccei-Quinn theory, which also proposes a hypothetical particle supposedly detected by PVLAS, known as the axion. For 10 points, name this problem, which asks why, even though its Langragian has a term for it, quantum chromodynamics does not break a particular symmetry studied by Cronin and Fitch. | ||||
Answer: Strong CP problem (Accept variations like "Why the strong force doesn't violate CP" or "Why QCD doesn't violate CP" or equivalents until mention, prompt on anything involving the word "axion" until mention) | ||||
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Kaddison generalized this result to self-adjoint normal elements in a unital positive map. This result can be used to show that the covariance of a pair of random variables is less than the square root of the product of their variances, and one generalization of it is expressed in terms of functions on L-p spaces and is named for Holder. Also applicable to integrals rather than sums, one proof of this result on Euclidean spaces involves rearranging and finding the discriminant of a quadratic polynomial. It is used in the proof of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and for a sequence of length 2 it can be reduced to the triangle inequality. For 10 points, name this result that essentially states that the inner product of two vectors is less than the product of their norms, an inequality named for two guys. | ||||
Answer: Cauchy-Schwarz inequality | ||||
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The CIZA project determined that it only has 10% of its originally postulated mass, while Bertschinger and Dekel calculated the maximum Sachs-Wolfe anisotropy due to its effects. Partly responsible for the dipole anisotropy, it was originally discovered by a group later dubbed "The Seven Samurai". This structure is associated with a filamentous redshift phenomenon known as the Fingers of God. It was found due to irregularities in the Tully-Fisher relationship, resulting in peculiar velocities of up to 700 kilometers per second in several galaxies, and it contains the Norma and Abell 3627 cluster. It lies directly in front of the Shapley Supercluster and is core is located in giant filament of dark matter called the Great Centaurus Wall. Located in the Zone of Avoidance, for 10 points, name this object 250 million light-years across, named for its tendency to pull galaxies toward it. | ||||
Answer: Great Attractor | ||||
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Minimizing the Yang-Mills SU(2) version of this quantity leads to the BPST instanton. Luke used this quantity to create his namesake principle of fluid surface waves, and in quantum electrodynamics, this quantity contains a term proportional to minus one-fourth times the electromagnetic field tensor. This quantity's namesake density is its analogue in quantum field theories. Taking the derivative of this quantity with respect to the time derivative of some generalized coordinate gives a generalized momentum, while the calculus of variations is often used to extremetize its integral, which is known as the action. For 10 points, name this quantity whose Legendre transform gives the Hamiltonian, a mechanical quantity equal to the difference of the potential and kinetic energy. | ||||
Answer: Lagrangian | ||||
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The apparatus that uses this process has a series of reduction pots sitting beneath hoppers containing the ore, and the MHD forces generated during this process causes stirring of the sample, which decreases its purity but increases performance. The overall reaction produces three molecules of carbon dioxide, some hydrogen fluoride, and four molecules of pure metal. The molten sample is placed between an anode of fused coke, which is often prebaked, and a cathode of graphite, and the sample is dissolved in compound of calcium and sodium fluorides known as cryolite in order to reduce its melting point. Usually following the Bayer process and first employed by the Alcoa corporation, for 10 points, name this process used to extract aluminum metal from alumina, named for an American and a Frenchman. | ||||
Answer: Hall-Heroult process | ||||
2009 Lederberg Memorial Science Bonuses by Packet 01 | ||||
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A tandem version of this technique is used in protein sequencing, and analyzers include time-of-flight and ion trap varieties. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this technique which fragments a compound and measure's the pieces' m/z ratio, giving a series of peaks. | ||||
Answer: Mass spectrometry or Mass spectroscopy | ||||
[10] Proteins are commonly prepared for mass spec by either MALDI or this technique, in which the analyte is charged and dispersed into a gaseous form. Fenn won the 2002 Nobel Prize for it. | ||||
Answer: Electrospray Ionization or ESI | ||||
[10] Liquid analytes sprayed out of an ESI capillary takes this shape, before its transfer into the gaseous phase. Its angle can be found from the Legendre polynomial of order Â½. | ||||
Answer: Taylor cone | ||||
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Like Cephieds and W Virginis stars, these objects exist in the instability strip of the HR diagram. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Originally discovered in the constellation Lyra, these variable stars have an absolute magnitude of around .75 with mass around half that of the sun. | ||||
Answer: RR Lyrae | ||||
[10] This effect is the variation in the period and amplitude of RR Lyrae variables, named for a Russian astronomer. It may be caused by resonance in the interior. | ||||
Answer: Blazhko effect | ||||
[10] These variables show variation in luminosity from .003 to .9 over a period of only a few hours. Examples include Denebola, and Vega might be one of these. | ||||
Answer: Delta Scuti or Dwarf Cepheid or Al Velae or Al Velorum | ||||
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These organelles are involved in the production of bile acids, and the PEX proteins are involved in the transport of enzymes to this structure. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name these organelles that are responsible for breakdown of fatty acids and highly oxidized species, closely related to lysosomes and glyoxysomes. | ||||
Answer: Peroxisomes | ||||
[10] This compound, which is oxidized in peroxisomes, is a common excretory product in birds and kangaroo rats. In humans, it is elevated in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. | ||||
Answer: Uric Acid | ||||
[10] This peroxisomal storage disorder occurs when there are mutations in peroxisomal biogenesis proteins. Its similar to ALD and Refsum's disease. | ||||
Answer: Zellweger's Syndrome | ||||
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In particle accelerators, F and D types of these constructs are used to focus a particle beam, and 5 of its nine components are independent. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this configuration of charges, whose potential drops off as 1 over the third power of the distance. Wolfgang Paul invented a type of ion trap that uses it. | ||||
Answer: Quadrupole | ||||
[10] A particle suspended in a quadrupole ion trap obeys this differential equation, which also appears in calculating a rotating dipole's Stark effect and in the elliptic cylindrical form of the wave equation. | ||||
Answer: Mathieu Equation | ||||
[10] The Mathieu equation also appears when studying an inverted one of these physical systems. A double one is a notable example of chaotic behavior. | ||||
Answer: Pendulum | ||||
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For a prime number, this function returns the number minus 1, and this function of n is the number of generators of the group Z over nZ star. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this function which gives the number of integers less than and coprime to n. | ||||
Answer: Euler phi or Euler totient function | ||||
[10] This theorem is states that there are infinitely many primes in an arithmetic progression with first term a and common difference d, given that a and d are relatively prime. | ||||
Answer: Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progression | ||||
[10] This other number theoretic function returns log p if the input is a power of p, and zero otherwise. It can be used to express the Prime number theorem. | ||||
Answer: von Mangoldt function | ||||
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These compounds are commonly used as phase transfer catalysts, and cyclen is an aza-version of these compounds. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name these compounds popularized by Charles Pederson, which are a macrocyclic type of ether. | ||||
Answer: Crown ether | ||||
[10] Synthesis of crown ethers and other macrocyclic compounds sometimes relies on this effect, in which a macrocycle grows "around" a guest compound, rather than linearly in a polymerization. | ||||
Answer: Template effect | ||||
[10] This vitamin contains a macrocyclic corrin ring; it is present in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, taken up by intrinsic factor, and Woodward performed a Nobel-Prize-winning synthesis of it. | ||||
Answer: Vitamin B12 | ||||
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Birkhoff's theorem states that the Schwarzchild metric is the most general, spherically symmetric solution to these equations, while other solutions include the pp-wave, Milne, and Reissner-Nordstrom. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name these equations that describe a curved spacetime, central to general relativity. | ||||
Answer: Einstein field equations | ||||
[10] This other model, a competitor to general relativity, posits that G isn't a constant, but is dependent on a scalar field phi. Its named for two guys. | ||||
Answer: Brans-Dicke theory | ||||
[10] Meinser, Thorne, and Wheeler's standard form of the Einstein field equations is written using the metric tensor, the stress-energy tensor, and this other tensor, whose elements are the trace of a linear transformation between two tangent vectors of a Riemannian manifold. | ||||
Answer: Ricci curvature tensor | ||||
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Along with its normal receptor, this protein binds to Decoy Receptor 3, and upon binding to its normal receptor, the Death-Inducing Signalling complex is formed. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this ligand, a member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor family that induces apoptosis in the immune system. | ||||
Answer: Fas Ligand or FasL | ||||
[10] Both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic signals have to act through this family of proteins, which include Bax, Bak, and Bid. Anti-apoptotic members contain four BH domains. | ||||
Answer: Bcl2 | ||||
[10] During apoptosis, this protein is released from the mitochondria and forms the apoptosome. It's also involved in moving electrons between complex III and IV of the electron transport chain. | ||||
Answer: Cytochrome c | ||||
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Answer some things about two-dimensional video game graphics, FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Animated characters are often composed of these constructs, which are roughly defined as a smaller animated image embedded on a background. | ||||
Answer: Sprites | ||||
[10] On the Super Nintendo, this graphics mode would allow for the scaling and rotating of backgrounds, giving a pseudo-3D effect. It was famously used in the overworld of Final Fantasy VI and in F-Zero. | ||||
Answer: Mode 7 | ||||
[10] This game features the greatest number of character sprites to date. New characters like Dudley, Makoto, and Ibuki join old favorites Ken and Ryu in this fighting game sequel. | ||||
Answer: Street Fighter III (Accept Street Fighter III: New Generation, Street Fighter III: Second Impact or Street Fighter III: Third Strike) | ||||
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This effect results from the decomposition of a light ray into two circularly polarized ones, while the QMR effect is a quadratic version of it. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this effect in which a magnetic field in an optically transparent medium causes the plane of polarization of a ray of light to rotate. | ||||
Answer: Faraday effect | ||||
[10] The angle of the Faraday effect is equal to the applied magnetic field multiplied by the path length multiplied by this proportionality constant, which is very high in TGG crystals. | ||||
Answer: Verdet constant | ||||
[10] The Faraday effect is used for detection in this field, a subdiscipline of electronics which focuses on the transport of a certain property between electrons in semiconductor devices. MRAM notably uses it. | ||||
Answer: Spintronics | ||||
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Neural Cell Adhesion molecules is post-translationally modified with a polysaccharide containing several of these molecules. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name these monosaccharides, which are N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid. Selectins and Hemagglutinin Activity proteins bind to it. | ||||
Answer: Sialic Acids | ||||
[10] Hemagglutinin is present on the surface of these viruses, which also contain neuraminidase proteins on their surface. This explains why they are classified by their H and N forms. | ||||
Answer: Influenza viruses or Orthomyxoviridae | ||||
[10] Asialoglycoproteins bind to a type of lectins denoted by this letter. This letter also denotes a type of calcium-responsive protein kinase, and the glycophorin present on erythrocyte membranes. | ||||
Answer: C | ||||
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This process takes place in namesake "belts." For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name this process, by which land is uplifted and becomes mountainous at a convergent plate boundary. | ||||
Answer: orogeny [accept word forms, or word forms + belts] | ||||
[10] A common classification scheme of orogenic belts groups them by the differences in this process beneath the orogeny. This is the general process by which igneous rocks become a certain other type of rocks, and occurs because of the high pressures and temperatures created by orogenies. | ||||
Answer: metamorphism [accept word forms] | ||||
[10] Because the rocks in orogenies form thrust faults, big slabs of rock can be eroded away from the main body of the rock, in which case the broken-off rock slab is this kind of landform, also called thrust sheets. | ||||
Answer: nappes | ||||
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When this phenomenon occurs due to geometric inhomogeneity in a material, its referred to as "waveguide". FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this phenomenon, key to the operation of prisms, in which light rays of different wavelengths have different indices of refraction. | ||||
Answer: Dispersion | ||||
[10] These relations, which are used to relate the real and complex parts of the refractive index of a material, are used to derive dispersion relations. | ||||
Answer: Kramers-Kronig relations | ||||
[10] This value, which is determined from the index of refraction of the D-, C-, and F- Fraunhofer lines, measures the variation in refractive index with wavelength. | ||||
Answer: Abbe number | ||||
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One modification of this statement adds fugacity and activity coefficients, and its derivation requires an assumption of ideal mixing. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this law, which states that a solutions' vapor pressure is equal to the sum of the product of the mole fraction and vapor pressure of each component. | ||||
Answer: Raoult's Law | ||||
[10] This extension of Raoult's law is used to find the ratio of vapor and liquid compositions of a solution. It's named for a German chemistry society. | ||||
Answer: DECHEMA model | ||||
[10] This law, related to Raoult's, states that a solution's boiling point is linearly proportional to the boiling point of the pure liquid. | ||||
Answer: Duhring's rule | ||||
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Relying on the difficulty of prime factorization, this method is one of the most commonly used encryption algorithms. For 10 points each:, | ||||
[10] Name this encryption protocol that picks two large primes and publishes the product of those primes and a number between 1 and the totient function of the product as its public key. | ||||
Answer: Rivest Shamir Adelman Algorithm | ||||
[10] One way to set up this method is to use Schoof's Algorithm to pick a set of points along a namesake type of curve and then add a point at infinity to create an abelian group. This method relies on the difficulty of computing the discrete logarithm. | ||||
Answer: Elliptic Curve Cryptography | ||||
[10] This encryption scheme publishes a large prime number p, a generator of Z mod p b, and b raised to the private key's value mod p as its public key. The private key is a random number between 2 and p - 2. This system is based on the Diffie-Hellman key exchange model, and its strength also relies on the difficulty of computing the discrete logarithm. | ||||
Answer: El Gamal Encryption | ||||
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One variation of this device uses a Nipkow disk for faster scanning, and unlike wide-field microscopes these devices uses a point source of light and a raster pattern. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this type of microscope commonly used for live-cell fluorescence imaging. | ||||
Answer: Confocal microscope | ||||
[10] Confocal microscope images have high values of this property, which is defined as the difference in luminance of objects of interest with the background. | ||||
Answer: Contrast | ||||
[10] Confocal microscopes are beholden to this rule, which states that the quantum yield of fluorescence is independent of the exciting radiation's wavelength. | ||||
Answer: Kasha-Vavilov rule | ||||
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Identify these esterification reactions that are not the Steiglich esterification, FTPE:, | ||||
[10] This reaction uses triphenylphosphine and DEAD in order to convert an alcohol into an ester stereospecifically, and is named for a Japanese chemist. | ||||
Answer: Mitsunobu Esterification | ||||
[10] This much more common reaction mixes and alcohol and a carboxylic acid under reflux and proceeds via elimination of water. Dean-Stark traps can be used for the reflux. | ||||
Answer: Fischer Esterification | ||||
[10] This reaction initially sees the addition of a carboxylate to 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride, forming an anhydride; this intermediate is converted into an ester via addition of an alcohol and DMAP. | ||||
Answer: Yamaguchi Esterification | ||||
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AWF Edwards used this construct to show changes in allele frequencies, and it relies on Vivanti's theorem. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name this triangular diagram used to map genotype frequencies in a diploid population, in which homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, and heterozygous genotypes are mapped to the vertices. | ||||
Answer: De Finetti diagrams | ||||
[10] A semicircle on the De Finetti diagram represents this state, which is most easily represented as p squared plus two p q plus q squared equals 1. It requires random mating, no migration, no selection, among other things. | ||||
Answer: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium | ||||
[10] This effect occurs when two populations are internally in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but geographic barriers between them cause an overall loss in heterozygosity in the overall population. | ||||
Answer: Wahlund effect | ||||
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Name some things related to surface tension, FTPE:, | ||||
[10] This phenomenon results because liquids with higher surface tension pull more strongly on its surrounding liquid. As a result, liquids flow away from areas of low concentration. It is the underlying cause of the appearance of "tears of wine." | ||||
Answer: Gibbs-Marangoni effect | ||||
[10] This equation relates the surface tension of a liquid at a given temperature to its critical temperature and its molar volume to the two-thirds power. Its namesake constant has value 2.1 times 10 to the negative seventh joules per kelvin mol to the two-thirds. | ||||
Answer: Eotvos rule or equation | ||||
[10] This relation gives the surface tension of a liquid drop given its planar surface tension. It utilizes an expansion based on one over the radius of the liquid drop. | ||||
Answer: Tolman length or Tolman's delta | ||||
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Electrons in these structures travel as massless particles that obey the Dirac equation. FTPE:, | ||||
[10] Name these structures that have two hundred times the strength of steel and stack together to form graphite. These one atom thick sheets of sp2 hybridized carbon are composed of repeating units of six member rings. | ||||
Answer: graphene | ||||
[10] These other long, thin carbon structures can be made by slicing carbon nanotubes or graphene. They are miniature graphenes with edge conformations consisting of armchair, zigzag, or a mixture of both | ||||
Answer: carbon nanoribbons (prompt on ribbon) | ||||
[10] This device can be used to analyze atomic level structure of graphenes. It utilizes piezoelectricity to move the tip and its inventors, Binnig and Rohrer, received the Nobel Physics Prize in 1981. | ||||
Answer: scanning tunneling microscope | ||||