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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 July Crisis Tossups by Round 8
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This period may have ended because of threats made by Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw. During this period, government forces fired on protesters at the Turkman gate and destroyed nearby slums. This period also saw the government, which had originally come to power on the anti-poverty slogan "Garibi Hatao", announce the Twenty Point Program on agriculture. The ruler's son led a forced vasectomy program targeting the poor during this period, which began when the Allahabad High Court attempted to remove the government for corruption. It led to the election of the Janata Party under Morarji Desai, though the ruler who initiated this period returned to power in 1980. For ten points, name this 1975-1977 period where Indira Gandhi was the virtual dictator of India, named for the type of powers she exercised.
Answer: The Emergency [accept: Indian Emergency; Indira Gandhi Emergency; accept reasonable equivalents; prompt on Indira Gandhi before mentioned]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One Duke of this place was victorious at the Battle of Bisamberg, while a Prince of this place stretched his lines out over five miles to prevent an outflanking at the Battle of Leuthen, but was still defeated by an oblique attack led by Frederick the Great. That man, Prince Charles, was the son of Duke Leopold Joseph the Good, who regained control of this place under the Treaty of Ryswick. Under Duke Charles V, it merged with the Duchy of Bar. At the end of the War of the Polish Succession, the losing claimant to the Polish throne became Duke of this place, and it later merged with the Bishoprics of Toul, Metz, and Verdun. Holy Roman Emperor Francis III was a Duke of this place who married Maria Theresa, merging its dynasty with the Habsburgs. For ten points, name this partially German region of France with historical capital at Nancy, often grouped with Alsace.
Answer: Lorraine [under no circumstances accept Alsace-Lorraine]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Zarbienus was a king of these people who was killed by Tigranes of Armenia, and Rozeguite was one of these who built an independent state centered on Akhlat. According to Xenophon, these peoples lived in the Niphates region and once killed every member of a 120,000 man Persian army, and they are recorded fighting for the Seleucid Empire in the Battle of Rhaphia. They fought the battle of DimDim against the Safavid Turks, and Bedr Khan led a rebellion of these in the 19th century. They were targeted by the Dersim Persecution in the 1930's and were later attacked at Halabja. For ten points, name this ethnic group that founded the Ayyubid Dynasty and the PKK, who Saddam Hussein liked to spray with chemical weapons.
Answer: Kurds [accept: Cardaces; Cardacians; Carduchi; Saspirians; Alarodians]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This event saw a skirmish on the property of Camillo Ynitia called the Battle of Olompali, a defeat for Joaquin de la Torre and his superior, Jose Castro. Earlier, General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo was captured during the taking of a fort known as the Presidio. A fleet led by the USS Savannah under Admiral Sloat ended this event, demoting William B. Ide, whose position would be taken by Commodore Stockton. William Todd created the object this event was named for, and it was encouraged by Major John C. Fremont. For ten points, name this 1846 rebellion in Sonoma that led to the brief independence of California.
Answer: Bear Flag Revolt
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This period was followed by the Nanboku-cho era, which included the Siege of Kuromaru. One achievement of this event was the creation of the Musha-Dokoro guard station. This era is recounted in the historical epic Taiheiki. One battle during this event saw an army at the Chihaya Fortress led by Nitta Yoshisada make a low tide attack against a fortified government base. With the help of Buddhist monks from the Kinai area, this event saw Prince Morinaga take the title of regent. One figure in this event, who was exiled to Oki Island, took advantage of the end of the insei system of cloistered rule to seize full power. For ten points, name this movement led by Emperor Go-Daigo that destroyed the first bakufu, preceded the Muromachi shogunate of Ashikaga Takauji, overthrew the Kamakura Shogunate, and briefly restored imperial rule to Japan.
Answer: Kemmu Restoration [accept: Kemmu no Shinsei]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In one country, these institutions were created by the Duris Laws and were known as JZD's. In another country, these were created under a plan known as the July Theses and overseen by Louis Feher, and one country's resistance to the creation of these institutions led to the March Deportations. Their use in their country of origin, where they received MTS loans, was defended by Joseph E. Medley but criticized by Hedrick Smith, who came up with a famous statistic about their inefficiency, and these institutions that led to the holodomor were also opposed by a group whose name means "fist". Including PGRs in Poland and sovkhozes and kolkhozes in the USSR, this is, for ten points, what type of agricultural institutions where most land is held in common?
Answer: collective farms [do not accept kolkhoz or sovkhoz, these are too specific; prompt on commune]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Prior to this battle, the heads of some emissaries from the attacking side were displayed on the Bab Zuweila. An alliance between the attackers and a neighboring polity was thwarted by the perfidious Julian Grenier, Count of Sidon, who prior to this battle attacked Kitbuqa, the eventual losing commander, who was captured and executed after this battle; an attempt to avenge him failed at the subsequent Battle of Homs. The winning side's ruler, Sultan Qutuz, was soon toppled in a coup by the winning commander, a Kipchak, and this battle ended the expansion of the Ilkhanate under Hulagu Khan. For ten points, name this 1260 victory for Baibars the Mamluk that kept the Mongols out of Egypt.
Answer: Battle of the Springs of Goliath [accept: Battle of Ayn Jalut]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
David L. Coon wrote a revisionist account of this crop's introduction to Colonial America. A man from Montserrat named Cromwell attempted to sabotage the growing of this crop by killing it with excessive lime. Growing this crop required a "making season" in which slaves had to work on Sundays. Because American growers of this crop faced discrimination in British markets in favor of their Guatemalan or Haitian competitors, it would frequently be shipped to Jamaica, passed off as French, and then shipped to England, while Henry Laurens simply began exporting it to France. It was first grown in the modern United States after the War of Jenkins's Ear at Snee Farm by Eliza Lucas Pinckney in order to diversify the rice-based economy of South Carolina. For ten points, name this Colonial cash crop used to make blue dye.
Answer: Indigo
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Prior to this battle, both sides had wintered at Dyrrhachium. The losing commander set up his forces on the slopes of Mt. Dogan north of the Enipeus River, an excellent defensive position which he hoped his opponent would assault directly. Early in this battle, Titus Labienus, who had earlier betrayed the opposing commander, led a cavalry charge that routed the enemy cavalry, but Labienus was stopped by an infantry force that had come up with a new way of using javelins against mounted opponents. This force was then able to outflank the enemy's main body, which had been thrown into confusion by a fake charge led by Crastinus, a centurion of Julius Caesar. The losing commander fled from Thessaly to Egypt, where he was assassinated. For ten points, name this 48 BC battle that ended the career of Pompey.
Answer: Battle of Pharsalus [accept: Battle of Pharsala; Battle of Pharsalia]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Wang Cong'er was a female leader of this event. Huang Yupian helped suppress this event, and wrote a "Detailed Refutation" of the views of its instigators, who claimed to see the fulfillment of a prophecy that the Five Grains would not grow and thus expected action from the Unbegotten Eternal Mother. One part of this uprising was led by the Eight Trigrams Society and captured Linqing; that was led by Wang Lun, while the main part was led by Qi Lin and began as a tax revolt in Sichuan province. The corrupt eunuch Ho-Shen, whose excesses partly sparked this revolt, was unable to put it down, so he was deposed by the Qianlong Emperor, who was never stopped by the Maitreya Buddha as expected. For ten points, name this late 18th century Chinese rebellion led by an organization with a namesake flower.
Answer: White Lotus Rebellion
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One result of this war was a revolution led by the MNR Party, and it ended with a mediation led by Carlos Lamas. This war saw a massive siege of Fort Boqueron. It began with the Battle of Pitiantuta, and one decisive battle saw the defeat of General Penaranda. The defending country was led by Jose Estigarriba and advised by numerous Russian emigres such as General Belaieff. The attacking country, led by President Salamanca and General Hans von Kundt, had warplanes and tanks, but these proved ineffective against the guerilla tactics of Paraguay. For ten points, name this 20th century war where Bolivia failed to conquer the namesake region.
Answer: Gran Chaco War
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One factor leading to this document was an attempt to make Prince Edmund the King of Sicily, which sparked a threatened excommunication by Pope Alxander IV. At the Mise of Amiens, King Louis IX of France agreed not to recognize this document, which Pope Boniface VIII condemned in two papal bulls. This document was passed during an Eastertime meeting of the so-called "Mad Parliament". After the Battle of Evesham, the dictum of Kenilworth repealed this act, whose terms required Parliament to meet three times a year and created a Great Council of fifteen members with power over the King. For ten points, name this 1258 document that Simon de Montfort and the Barons forced upon Henry III.
Answer: Provisions of Oxford
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One community of these created the village of Accompong, while another developed into the Ndyuka peoples. In one country, this category of people developed a war dance known as the capoeira and, under the leadership of Gana Zumba and Zumbi, established a state called Palmares. Francois Mackandal was this type of person and led a rebellion against French colonial rule. Cudjoe, a dwarf, and his sister Queen Nanny led a group of these in a war against British colonial rule in Jamaica, while another community of these composed the song "Follow the Drinkin' Gourd", a reference to using the Big Dipper to navigate north, and many of them mixed with the Seminoles in Florida. For ten points, name this type of person, which you might find traveling on the underground railroad.
Answer: Escaped Slaves [accept clear equivalent (e.g., runaway or fugitive slave), as well as maroons, cimarrones. Prompt on slaves or black people]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
During this battle on the shores of the Saale River, the attacker's First Corps stayed at Dornburg within earshot of this battle, but failed to join it, leading to a reprimand for their commander, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte. General Augereau led the left flank at this battle, while General Lannes led a strong attack from the right. An unplanned foolish attack in the center by Marshal Ney nearly lost this battle, but unable to wait for the reinforcements of General von Ruchel and under harassment by Joachim Murat's cavalry, General Hohenloe's army soon broke into a chaotic retreat through the Thuringian woods. Nearby, the Duke of Brunswick and the main body of the losing army were being defeated by Marshal Davout without Napoleon knowing it. For ten points, name this 1806 battle that happened concurrently with Auerstadt and knocked Prussia out of the European Balance of Power.
Answer: Battle of Jena [grudgingly accept "Battle of Jena-Auerstadt" or "Battles of Jena and Auerstadt" before Auerstadt is mentioned]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This man was the first Eli J. Segal Memorial Speaker at Brandeis University. Treaties that this President submitted to the Senate included the Flank Agreement, and while he was Governor he was criticized for allegedly allowing international criminals escape from Fort Chaffee. One bill signed by this President instituted capital punishment for large-scale drug trafficking, and he ordered the aptly-named Operation Deliberate Force, a strategic bombing campaign in response to the Markale massacres, and the similar Operation Allied Force some years later. This man reversed the ban on Sinn Fein members entering the United States and controversies during his administration include Troopergate and the Vince Foster suicide. For ten points, name this US President, a Democrat who bombed Kosovo and had sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky.
Answer: William Jefferson Clinton [accept: William Jefferson Blythe III]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Rulers who converted to this faith included Kulin, who was forced to renounce it in a meeting at the White Plain. Adherents to this faith fought on the Muslim side at the Battle of Usora. The cleric Cosmas wrote a polemic against this group, and its founder may have been a student of St. Clement of Ohrid. One of their texts called The Secret Book claimed that the Virgin Mary was born from a goose and that Jesus emerged from her ear. Emerging during the reign of Peter I, it may have been inspired by an earlier heresy whose members had been exiled by John Tzimisces to Thrace from Anatolia, the Manichean-like Paulicians, and today they are mostly remembered for inspiring the Albigensians. For ten points, name this Christian heresy from Bulgaria.
Answer: Bogomils
2008 July Crisis Bonuses by Round 8
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
He was the son of King John the Blind of Bohemia and as a young man nearly died fighting for France at the Battle of Crecy. FTPE.,
[10] Name this Holy Roman Emperor most famous for promulgating the Golden Bull of 1356
Answer: Charles IV
[10] Charles IV was a member of this royal dynasty whose other Holy Roman Emperors included Henry VII, Wenceslaus the Drunkard, and Sigismund the Great. Although they ruled Bohemia, they originally came from a namesake Duchy much further west.
Answer: House of Luxembourg
[10] Charles IV probably felt the need to standardize Holy Roman Emperor elections because he came to power after a disputed election where both he and this other guy from the House of Wittelsbach claimed the title.
Answer: Louis IV [accept: Louis the Bavarian]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about the people responsible for the Hanging Gardens FTPE.,
[10] Also called the Neo-Babylonian empire, this state ruled Mesopotamia after helping the Medes destroy Nineveh.
Answer: Chaldean Empire
[10] This greatest Chaldean ruler, the son of King Nabopolassar, built the hanging gardens and conquered Judah.
Answer: Nebuchadnezzar II [do not require II, but do not accept Nebuchadnezzar I; accept Nebuchadrezzar II; Nabu-kudurri-usur II]
[10] Nebuchadnezzar also won this 605 BC battle against King Necho II of Egypt, who was attempting to restore the Assyrian empire. Here, the Chaldeans vanquished the Assyrians once and for all.
Answer: Battle of Carchemish
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about Sino-Russian relations FTPE.,
[10] In this 1689 treaty, Russia was forced to give up any claims to the Amur Basin, but did obtain a number of commercial privileges within China.
Answer: Treaty of Nerchinsk [Accept: Treaty of Nibuchu]
[10] Russia finally obtained part of the Amur Valley and its Maritime Province as part of the Treaty of Tianjing, which ended this war that Russia notably did not take part in.
Answer: Arrow War or Second Opium War [prompt on Opium War]
[10] The western border of the Russian Maritime Province was set along this tributary of the Amur, which, in 1969, became the site of several border clashes between the USSR and Red China.
Answer: Ussuri River
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify the following bills passed by the US Congress in the 1920s and 30s FTPE.,
[10] President Harding signed this tariff hike into law in 1922, claiming it would help US trade return to normalcy.
Answer: Fordney-McCumber Tariff [accept either order]
[10] This 1932 act signed by Herbert Hoover made yellow dog contracts unenforceable, allowing more workers to join labor unions.
Answer: Norris-LaGuardia Act
[10] In 1924, Calvin Coolidge signed this bill, also known as the Indian Citizenship Act, that lived up to its name by gaving US citizenship to Native Americans.
Answer: Snyder Act
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The Fourth Crusade didn't just sack Constantinople - they also ruled it for a while. Answer some stuff about that FTPE.,
[10] This Count of Flanders became the first ruler of the Latin Empire, the state the Crusaders created from the remains of the Byzantine Empire.
Answer: Baldwin I
[10] Baldwin I ascended the throne with help from this blind doge of Venice, who had been instrumental in organizing the Fourth Crusade
Answer: Enrico Dandolo
[10] Baldwin I did not rule long, because in 1205 he was killed by the Bulgars after losing this battle.
Answer: Seventh Battle of Adrianople
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Admiral Enomoto Takeaki was elected President of this entity under a constitution it shamelessly stole from the United States, but his admiral skills failed to prevent its defeat at the Battke of Hakodate. FTPE,,
[10] Name this short-lived republic founded on Hokkaido Island by Tokugawa loyalists opposed to the Meiji government.
Answer: Ezo Republic [accept: Ezo Kyowakoku]
[10] Enomoto and his followers from the Tokugawa forces had to flee to Hokkaido because they were defeated in this 1868 Japanese civil war.
Answer: Boshin War
[10] The Tokugawa Shogunate had been weakened in the 1850's, as seen by the growing popularity of this anti-Shogun slogan, translated as "revere the emperor, expel the barbarians".
Answer: Sonno Joi
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify the following members of the Confederate government FTPE.,
[10] This Fire-Eater from South Carolina controlled the pro-secessionist newspaper the Charleston Mercury and dominated the convention that drafted the Confederate Constitution.
Answer: Robert Rhett
[10] This Jewish Senator from Louisiana served as the Confederacy's first Attorney General.
Answer: Judah Phillip Benjamin
[10] This Confederate Navy Secretary showed a keen talent for innovation with ironclads and submarines.
Answer: Stephen Russell Mallory
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify the following from early Egyptian history.,
[10] In predynastic times, Upper Egypt was dominated by this city, which lends its name to several prehistoric Egyptian culture.
Answer: Naqada [accept: Ombos]
[10] North of Naqada was this other important predynastic city. The tomb of one of its rulers contains the earliest known hieroglyphs and in dynastic times it was home to an important temple to Seth whose inscriptions contain a list of Pharaohs.
Answer: Abydos
[10] Egypt was traditionally unified by this King, whose name translates as "Catfish-Chisel", but the mysterious King Scorpion may have done it a generation earlier.
Answer: Narmer [accept Menes, even though it does not mean Catfish Chisel]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
He stabilized the Catholic Church after the disastrous reign of Pope Liberius, who supported the Arian heresy. FTPE,,
[10] Name this first Portuguese pope who reigned from 366 to 384. He was one of the first popes to claim that the Bishop of Rome was superior to all other bishops, but is less famous than his secretary, some guy named St. Jerome.
Answer: Damasus I [accept: Damaso I]
[10] Damaso I ordered St. Jerome to write this Latin translation of the Bible.
Answer: Vulgate
[10] Due to a feud with the Archbishop of Antioch, Pope Damaso was not invited to this 381 church council that addressed the nature of the Holy Spirit, concluding that it was of the same essence as God.
Answer: First Council of Constantinople
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Like cats, Latin American dictators have multiple lives. Answer stuff about one FTPE.,
[10] This man was elected President of Nicaragua in 2006, after leading a left-win junta during the 1980's.
Answer: Daniel Ortega
[10] Ortega overthrew this long-time dynasty of conservative Nicaraguan Presidents, who had ruled since 1937 under Anastasio and Luis.
Answer: Samoza
[10] During his first term, Ortega was bedeviled by Contras and their mysterious source of weapons, which partially turned out to be this American naval officer and National Security Advisor to Ronald Reagan.
Answer: Rear Admiral John Poindexter
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Later in his career, Edmond-Charles Genet appointed this man "Commander-in-chief of the French Revolutionary Legion on the Mississippi River" to drive the Spanish out of the Mississippi Valley. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this commander who was blamed for the defeat at Blue Licks, Kentucky and whose plans to take British-held Detroit never materialized into action.
Answer: George Rogers Clark
[10] Clark may be best-known for his capture of Fort Sackville at this French outpost on the Wabash River where a winter march in February 1778 surprised and captured British Lieutenant Governor Hamilton.
Answer: Vincennes
[10] Earlier in his Northwest Campaign, Clark captured the British proxy Rocheblave at this settlement on its namesake river, just south of Cahokia.
Answer: Kaskaskia
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about a building in India FTPE.,
[10] This landmark of Agra is a miniature walled city that became prominent during the Mughal era.
Answer: Red Fort
[10] The Red Fort was not actually built by the Mughals, but by this earlier dynasty, whose final ruler Ibrahim was defeated by Babur.
Answer: Lodhi Dynasty
[10] The Lodhi dynasty was founded by this man, who overthrew the earlier Sayyid Dynasty in 1451.
Answer: Bahul Khan Lodhi
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify the following about Napoleon's invasion of Russia FTPE.,
[10] Napoleon defeated Kutuzov at this September 1812 battle that allowed him to capture Moscow, but the Russian retreat made it an empty victory.
Answer: Battle of Borodino
[10] One of the Russian casualties at Borodino was this Georgian general. A Soviet offensive of World War Two is named for him.
Answer: Pyotr Bagration [accept: Pyotr Bagrantioni]
[10] To retreat from Russia, Napoleon had to cross this tributary of the Dnieper. Thousands of French soldiers died as the Russians found and attacked the pontoon bridges they built overnight.
Answer: Berezina River
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify the following Canadian Prime Ministers from the 20th century FTPE.,
[10] This Liberal introduced Canada's current healthcare system, as well as its current flag. He also won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957.
Answer: Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson
[10] This Conservative PM of the late 1950's enjoyed a close relationship with Dwight D. Eisenhower, and caused controversy when he cancelled Canada's domestic fighter jet program to buy US fighters. He also gave Native Americans the right to vote.
Answer: John Diefenbaker
[10] This PM from 1930-1935 tried numerous ways of responding to the Great Depression, including the Imperial Preference policy and the Canadian New Deal.
Answer: Richard Bedford Bennett
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One of the most famous residents of this town was Philopoemen, who spent a good portion of his life defending the city from Spartan encroachments. It was formed out a series of smaller communities in 371 BC, and for this reason was given a clever name meaning "Great City". FTP:,
[10] Name this Arcadian city.
Answer: Megalopolis
[10] Perhaps the most important hand guiding the foundation of Megalopolis was this Theban, the victor of such battles as Leuctra and Mantinea.
Answer: Epaminondas
[10] Arguably the best-known resident of Megalopolis was this man, a cavalry officer who was captured in the battle of Pydna, deported to Rome, who wrote history books about the Punic Wars to explain to his fellow Greeks how the Romans came to rule the world.
Answer: Polybius
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify the following things done, said, or named for 20th century British politicians FTPE.,
[10] In 1960, Harold Macmillan gave this speech, where he indicated that the United Kingdom would grant independence to its African colonies.
Answer: Winds of Change [accept: Wind of Change]
[10] In 1994, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown allegedly made this deal, where Blair promised to eventually make Brown the Prime Minister if elected. It's named for the restaurant where it happened.
Answer: Granita Pact
[10] This British Foreign Minister may have been the most prolific diplomat of his day, but he's best remembered as the namesake of the border between Poland and Russia, which he drew in 1920.
Answer: Lord Curzon [accept: George Curzon; 1st Marquees Curzon of Kedleston]

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