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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Illinois Open Tossups by Rutgers + UNC
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In one work by this writer, the speaker claims not to have the "tenderer-than-thou/Political collectivistic love", but spares a mite's life, noting "how glad" he is "to find/On any sheet the least display of mind" in "A Considerable Speck". A dialogue written by this author sees one figure become distressed after the other wonders aloud about the conditions necessary for wood to rot, claiming "I saw you from the window there" after the latter figure sets his spade in the kitchen. That work ends with the furious line (*) "I'll follow and bring you back by force" and is an autobiographical depiction of a couple's fight following the death of their infant son, while, while in another work, the arguments over Latin and education between Harold and the title figure are described in a conversation by Mary and Warren, before the latter comes to the titular realization regarding Silas. In addition to "Home Burial" and "Death of a Hired Man", this poet described the effects of ice storms and young boys' swinging on the titular trees in "Birches" and thought of joking about Elves with his fence-loving neighbor in another work. FTP, identify this poet from New England, best-known for works like "The Road Not Taken" and "Mending Wall."
Answer: Robert Frost
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The apocryphal Kerygma of this figure details the superiority of Christian monotheism to Greek polytheism while the Gospel of this figure tells of a giant Jesus emerging from his tomb helped by two giant angels and followed by the talking cross. According to one dubiously legitimate scripture named for this figure, lesbians will spend eternity being thrown and re-thrown off of a cliff in Hell. A catalog of sin punishments and some helpful necromancy tips appear in that Apocalypse named for this figure, whose ignorance is derided by Bertrand Russell in Why I am Not a Christian over his reaction to a withered (*) fig tree. In the Gospel of Mary, this figure asks if "He preferred her to us," questioning Mary's revelation, and in the Gospel of Thomas, Jesus declares that he will make Mary male, after this man says that "women do not deserve to live". The second chapter of Galatians concludes with Paul's description of an argument with this man about Gentile and Jewish Christians, an event called the "Incident at Antioch", though he is more famous for his appearance in Matthew 16:18-19, wherein he is is given power to loose and bind. The crowing of a cock made this man realize that he had in fact broken a promise, and denied Christ three times. FTP, name this apostle, regarded as the source of papal authority as the first bishop of Rome, a fisherman who may or may not have been part rabbit.
Answer: St. Peter [or Simon Peter or Petros]
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The abnormal creation of these objects in animal cells due to ineffectiveness of an enzyme in a related structure is a major cytological symptom of mannosidosis. A series of HRP membrane flow studies have placed good bounds on the rate at which these organelles can be created. HLA class II specialization occurs in these organelles after HLA class II is injected into one (*) containing a degraded antigen. Cytoplasmic tail anchors can be used to target substances to these organelles by vesicular transport to create plant bioreactors. In plants these cells are bounded by a membrane known as a tonoplast, while in animal cells they are usually created by pinocytosis or phagocytosis. Used in plants to generally store metabolytes and to maintain turgor pressure, FTP, name these organelles which consist of large, water-filled sacs used to store cellular materials.
Answer: vaculoes
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One of these provisions was reaffirmed by a legal code of Louis I, which extended many of its provisions to the iobagiones, or "castle-warriors," and included an Article Twenty-Four preventing Jews and Muslims from holding official positions. That provision recognized the "King's Servants" as members of the nobility, and could not be repealed by Bela IV due to the chaos ensuing from a Mongol invasion. That document issued by Andrew II to the Hungarian Nobility shares a name with a provision confirmed by the Treaty of Kruschwitz, which directed Konrad I of Masovia to ensure the Prussian claims of the (*) Teutonic Knights. Sicily and Rimini became namesakes of these documents issued by Frederick II, while the most famous one was issued after a promise to secure one man's position against Visconti machinations, and included a ban on the formation of stadtebunde communities. That document also selected Frankfurt as the location for a certain process, and was promulgated at the Diet of Nuremberg and authorized by Innocent VI. With the most famous 1356 example issued by Charles IV and establishing the rules for the election of the Holy Roman Emperor, FTP, identify these medieval documents, named for the precious metal used to adorn their seals.
Answer: Golden Bulls
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Dholavira is unique among the sites of this culture for the appearance of polished stone pillars and a large stone outer wall with a dressed stone facade and the earliest pottery remains for this culture are found in Level IIA at Mehrgarh. The cultivation of common millet and the use of canal irrigation have been evidenced at this culture's northernmost outpost at Shortugai, and irrigation may also have been the reason for the large basin found at this culture's site of Lothal, though this has more commonly been identified as a dock. Eight small (*) bathrooms complete with drainage systems are found to the north of a large water-tight basin known as the "Great Bath" in one of this civilization's most famous cities, a site which had been excavated by R.D. Banerji and Mortimer Wheeler. Another major city for this culture is found on the banks of the Ravi river and was the first to be excavated, Harappa. Also noted for the city of Mohenjo-Daro, this is, FTP, what early South Asian culture named for a river in Pakistan?
Answer: Indus Valley Civilization [or Indus Ghaggar-Hakra Civilization or Indus-Sarasvati Civilization; accept "Harappan Civilization" before Harappa is mentioned; prompt on "IVC"]
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Early in this work, one character compares his chief desire to a hankering for pea soup, and later defends that desire by declaring that his mind is his castle and that others should defend their own. This work perhaps mockingly praises the enlightenment of its viewers shortly after the protagonist stares at the audience after being told to "use [his] eyes," after having earlier been warned about encountering someone who "had a pretty boy and forgot to pay him." In another episode in this work, a corpse being carried out on a bier is asked to carry a pack, but demands too much money. A character loses a (*) contest over a lost oilcan due to the formulaic nature of his meter in this work, and this work's protagonist of is forced to keep time with the chanting of the chorus, who are particularly fond of "Berkekekex koax koax." Xanthias complains throughout this play, in which Herakles advises the protagonist on how to bring back his favored poet, and it ends with a victory for Aeschylus, who defeats Euripides and is resurrected. FTP, name this Aristophanes play in which Dionysus descends into Hades and encounters the titular amphibians, who begin croaking at him.
Answer: The Frogs or Batrachoi
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One account about a member of this dynasty recounts how King Judicael refused to dine with him because of his irreligiousness, electing instead to eat with Dado, the future St. Audoin. One of this dynasty's kings was shaved bald and sent to a monastery by the usurper Grimoald, who installed his son, inexplicably known as "the Adopted," at the helm of this dynasty. The defeat of Berchar, the son-in-law of Waratto, and one of its kings at Tertry is often said to mark the de facto end of this dynasty, which rose to prominence following victories at Tolbiac, Soissons, and Vouillle over the Alemanni, the warlord Syagrius, and another warlord. Brunhilda variously ruled or advised the rulers of this dynasty, whose best contemporary sources are Fredegar and (*) Gregory of Tours. This dynasty was subjugated by the Arnulfings, and it endured a period of "do-nothing kings" or "rois faineants" following the reign of Dagobert. Theuderic II was unable to reincorporate Burgundy and Neustria together under the united control of this dynasty, which was originally founded by a son of Childeric. Ended by Pepin the Short, FTP, identify this French ruling dynasty, legendarily founded by the son of a Quinotaur but historically founded by Clovis I.
Answer: Merovingians
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These compounds are the major product in a reaction in which carbon dioxide is liberated by the hydrolysis of an isocyanate intermediate; that reaction produces one of these from a primary nitro-acyl with one more carbon. Another reaction that produces these compounds fails for secondary alkyl halides, but succeeds in reacting primary alkyl halides with potassium pthalimide. Under acid catalysis, these compounds will nucleophilically attack carbonyls to form (*) imines. Compounds with this functional group are the major products in the aforementioned Hoffman degradation and Gabriel synthesis. The simplest one can be made more directly through the Haber processes. For 10 points, name these organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom with a lone electron pair, the simplest of which is ammonia.
Answer: primary amines [accept permutations of NH2 before "nitrogen"]
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A nine-part test for determining the appropriateness of this action was established by the New Jersey Grady case, which has been accepted in other states as the "Best Interests" test. Harry Laughlin authored a "model law" based on ten classes of individuals for enacting this procedure, whose adoption by California inspired a book about this action's connection to "Social Betterment." Skinner v. Oklahoma declared that variations in this procedure's use against embezzlers and petty larcenists made it unconstitutional as a punitive measure. More famously, the constitutionality of this practice was upheld by Oliver Wendell Holmes's majority opinion in (*) Buck v. Bell, which referenced "three generations of imbeciles." Only slightly less nefarious instances of this action where conducted by such methods as using a hidden X-Ray machine activated during a dummy interview, and later via injections or simply barbaric surgery conducted by men like Josef Mengele. FTP, what is this procedure used by the Nazis as an alternative to execution, in which an undesirable person's ability to conceive is prevented without their consent?
Answer: Forced Sterilization [or Compulsory Sterilization or Involuntary Sterilization; accept common-sense equivalents; prompt on partial answers]
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One of the works of this composer begins with a syncopated chromatic scale from the strings, ending on the remote chord of A flat minor, before launching into the C major Allegro ma non troppo exposition, which is partly based on Symphony No. 7 of Sibelius. One of his choral works, themed around a radical leap of faith, begins in Gregorian chant, while in the second section an oboe solo accompanies the chorus in their now polyphonic chant, "Thou Art Unchanging." In addition to Symphony in One Movement and Prayers of Kierkegaard, he wrote a concerto for flute, oboe, and trumpet named for the zodiacal month when he could see the aurora from home, (*) Capricorn Concerto. Better-known works are a series of 10 choral pieces including "Promiscuity," "A Monk and His Cat," and "Longings of an Eremite," the Hermit Songs, a work inspired by Prometheus Unbound, this composer's Setting for a Scene from Shelley, and an opera where David, Geraldine, Bill, and Sally play the title game, A Hand of Bridge. FTP name this American composer of Revenge of Medea, Vanessa, and a piece in B Flat later recast as an Agnus Dei, his Adagio for Strings.
Answer: Samuel Barber
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In this work one character makes the claim that no one would poorly influence his neighbors knowing that making his neighbors worse would ultimately hurt himself. The first chapter of Nietzsche's Ecce Homo describes it as a book in the tradition established by this work, whose central figure gives an account of himself as a gadfly, and goes on to discuss how Caerepon came to the Delphic oracle and discovered that the wisest of all men was that speaker. This work proceeds with a discussion of its speaker's systematic (*) questioning of all the seemingly intelligent men around him, and is based on an answer to the arguments of Anytus. The speaker of this work asserts that he only knows that he knows nothing, and is able to show that Meletus has made a contradictory account of his irreligion by claiming both that Socrates both invents new gods and is an atheist, he still ends up getting sentenced to death, having rejected the chance to flee in the earlier dialogue, Creto. FTP, identify this Platonic dialogue in which Socrates is tried for corrupting the youth of Athens, whose title reflects the presented logical defense rather than an expression of regret and culpability.
Answer: Apology
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This person is the namesake of an iterative scheme wherein the Schrodinger equation is converted to an integral equation with the potential volume integral considered as an inhomogeneous term. The free-particle wave function is then the zeroth approximate wave function named for this man; the nth is given by inserting the n minus first into the potential integral and solving. This scientist is the first namesake of another scheme that is valid when the nth adiabatic surface is well bounded by the n plus first. The nth adiabatic surface is the energy of the nth (*) electronic state with the nuclear position as parameter; namely, it is the electronic eigenenergy calculated by the aforementioned scheme. FTP, name this quantum physicist who interpreted the square modulus of the wavefunction as a probability density for finding a particle and who names a cycle for calculating lattice energy along with Haber and an approximation with J. Robert Oppenheimer, the grandfather of Olivia Newton John.
Answer: Max Born [accept Born approximation or Born-Oppenheimer approximation or Born interpretation]
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This dynasty's northern border was threatened by Khitan raiders descended from the Xienbe, and Liphat Tu led Annam to revolt against this dynasty, requiring a restoration by Liu Fang. The gongshi civil service exam system replaced the Nine Ranks system under this dynasty, which also institutionalized the fubing recruiting system throughout all of China. This dynasty threw ludicrous amounts of money at a series of four military campaigns, only to consistently end up on the receiving end up an ass kicking by Eulji Mundeok, the greatest (*) Goguryeo general. Fifty-nine princes of the Northern Zhou were killed when a general under Xianbei, Yang Jian, founded this dynasty, taking the name Wendi and proceeding to conquer the Chen to end the Southern and Northern Dynasties period. This dynasty decayed under the incompetence of Yangdi, though Yangdi was able to unite Yangzhou in the south with the great capital Changan via the Grand Canal. FTP, identify this short-lived dynasty which re-unified China and set the stage for the rise of its successor state, the Tang.
Answer: Sui Dynasty [or Sui Chao]
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Life in this city is described as "prey to hallucinations (not visions)" and "against the very grain of American civilization as we know it" in the essay "My City My Wilderness" by Andrei Codrescu. Philadelphian Joseph Frowenfield is received by a resident of this city, prompting that character to consider the murder of Aurora's husband by his uncle Agricola. Along with Chicago, this city is the primary setting for the wanderings of Binx Bolling in Walker Percy's The Moviegoer, while a bus trip that ends with the theft of a beloved jacket from a bathroom stall is the only adventure that (*) one character has outside of this city, whose literary residents include a family descended from the slave Bras Coupe. This setting for George Washington Cable's The Grandissimes is also home to Ignatius Reilly in John Kennedy Toole's A Confederacy of Dunces. After Allan Grey kills himself over his homosexuality, Stella Kowalski is sought out in this city by her cousin, Blanche DuBois. FTP, identify this Southern city, the setting for A Streetcar Named Desire, Old Creole Days, and numerous dirty limericks scribbled on walls during Mardi Gras.
Answer: New Orleans
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This artist's studio was redesigned to resemble a kiva for one work in which he depicted the central figure holding a war mace in his right hand, while contemplating another object in his left, a portrait of Frank Hamilton Cushing. Three nude youths lounge in the grass, two playing syrinxes in this artist's Arcadia, and a youth carries a bloody sponge in a bucket as he stands behind an illuminated figure, wearing only white briefs and waving to the crowd in this artist's Salutat. In another work, a nude (*) youth stands with his back to the viewer, watching as a friend dives into the titular location, while another work features the artist rowing alone in a boat to the right of the title figure. This artist of The Swimming Hole and Max Schmitt in a Single Scull also painted a man with a bloody hand and scalpel staring away from the surgery being performed to his left. FTP, name this naked young boy enthusiast who painted The Gross Clinic.
Answer: Thomas Eakins
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A Vasily Radlov work about shamanic seance describes how a Teleut shaman performed this action to ascend to Heaven and commune with Ulgen, and it has been attributed in post-Soviet Russia to worship of Kugu Iumo or to mark the death of a man among the Finno-Ugric Maris and the Udmerts. An interpretation of the Parilia holds that remnants of this ritual were mixed in the suffimen which benefited the herds; a Roman festival in October witnessed this ritual, after which the Regia received one division and two teams fought over another fragment of the central figure. In another example of this ritual, the central figure was symbolically divided by three wives of the king, though the (*) head was foremost and was associated with worship of the Asvins. This ritual, known as the ashvamedha in one tradition, is cited as a prominent commonality between Indian and European religions. Often performed after its subject had won a chariot race, FTP, identify this religious rite characterized by the hacking apart of a certain animal, whose famous representatives include Incitatus, Bucephalus, Seabiscuit, and Mr Ed.
Answer: Horse Sacrifice [accept obvious equivalents; prompt on "sacrifice" before it is said]
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The width of this approximately two-dimensional region varies with the Madden-Julian Oscillation, in which also vary the strength of convection and the rate of cyclogenesis here. The INDOEX experiment found that aerosol optical depth was minimized above this region. This region tends to be "hemmed in" by subtropical highs at the descending branches of Hadley cells, which block it from reaching cool deserts along western coastlines such as the Atacama and Sonoran. The axis of this region is generally found between three and ten degrees north latitude because this region is formed by the (*) confluence of the trade winds. FTP, name this region known for strong convection and unpredictable rainfall, an area originally known by sailors for its frequent absence of strong winds.
Answer: intertropical convergence zone [or equatorial convergence zone or equatorial trough or intertropical front or doldrums]
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While attempting to vote for himself in one election, this man was surrounded by an angry mob and forced to take a "Regency" oath before being allowed to approach the ballot box. While President, he declined to intervene regarding the extermination order issued by Lilburn Boggs, citing his fear that it would cost him a key state in the upcoming election. This Bucktail ended up carrying Missouri by 3,000 votes over Hugh White in that election, but still lost and wasn't able to save any Mormons. A speech directed against this man contained references to his mammary-themed gardening habits and was packed with increasingly irresponsible lies in several reprintings following its delivery by Charles Ogle. The cabinet of this subject of the (*) Golden Spoon Oration, whose last bid for high office came on a Free Soil ticket, included Amos Kendall, Benjamin Butler, John Forsyth, and Levi Woodbury. This man's presidency saw the murder of Amos Durfee trigger the Caroline Affair, and was won over a divided Whig coalition on a ticket with Richard Mentor Johnson. This New Yorker had earlier succeeded Henry Clay as Secretary of State, and later John C. Calhoun in a higher-ranking position. FTP, identify this "Little Magician" who served as Andrew Jackson's second Vice President, a Democrat who won in 1836 but lost in 1840 to William Henry Harrison.
Answer: Martin Van Buren
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In a Japanese myth, Urashima caught one of these creatures, who transformed into one of the Pleiades and took him to heaven, and in a Mayan myth, Chaac accidentally killed Tactani's daughter when the Sun took the form of one of these creatures. In a Sumerian myth, one of these creatures was placed as a guardian before the Apsu and, after quickly digging a pit, pushed Ninurta into it after that god tried to reacquire the Tablets of Destiny from Enki. In an Iroquois myth, one of these creatures is smeared in mud in order to give a heavenly woman a place to (*) live, thus creating the earth. One of these creatures morphs into a beautiful girl named Mohini in a Hindu story in which this creature facilitated an effort to obtain divine nectar from Mt. Mandara. Vishnu's second avatar, Kurma, took the form of this creature during the churning of the ocean, in which it bore the Mountain on its back across the sea. Shang dynasty oracle divinations and the original lyre created by Hermes relied on, FTP, the shell of what kind of animal, which races against a hare in a famous Aesop fable?
Answer: Turtle [or Tortoise or Terrapin]
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One of this author's notable poems ends, "He does not know you, Lord"; that poem is titled after its first line, "Who never ate with tears his bread," but better-known collections of his poetry include The Passion Trilogies and Venetian Epigrams. This author's novel collection of drama criticism - written in verse - is entitled Maxims and Reflections, while he appended more traditional prose criticism to his West-Ostlicher Divan. In one work by this author, Euphorion becomes an Icarus figure but draws sympathy only from a Homunculus, and that work also sees the central female character's name abruptly changed in the notation. This man's dramatic subjects include the author of Jerusalem Delivered, an intrepid mercenary Knight in the service of Charles V, and a (*) Flemish general opposing the Duke of Alba; those characters appear respectively in Torquato Tasso, Gotz von Berlichingen, and Egmont, while this man's most famous work inspired a "sequel" by Thomas Mann subtitled The Beloved Returns, Lotte in Weimar. Known for creating the characters of Margaret, also known as Gretchen, and Mephistopheles, FTP, identify this German sturm und drang author of Faust, who penned the suicide-inducing epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werther.
Answer: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
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TB A syndicate of investors in this colony was organized by Samuel Bloomaert to provide the capital for this colony's founder, Willem Usselinx. Transfer of land to this colony was conducted by Native American chiefs representing the Mante, Armewamex, and the Minqua, including Mattahorn, who was later convinced by a rival colony to claim to have sold that land previously for Ft. Beversreede. This colony acquired its southernmost settlement, Ft. Trinity, after its last governor, Johan (*) Risingh captured Ft. Casimir, and the longest-serving governor of this colony, Johan Printz founded a settlement on Tinicum Island, where his manor, Printzhof, is now a Historic Landmark. This colony was initially led by Peter Minuit, who founded its first settlement, Ft. Christina, which was captured in 1655 by the governor of New Netherland, Pieter Stuyvesant. FTP, name this early colony along the Delaware River, named for the Scandinavian country which founded it.
Answer: New Sweden [or Nya Sverige]
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TB Four attendees voted against every measure on the grounds that it never should have existed. American attendees included Elmer Ritter, Stephen Leven and Fulton Sheen, as well as Francis X. Murphy, who wrote about it under the pseudonym Xavier Rynne. CELAM was formed by a group of attendees at this meeting from (*) Latin America, while the International Group of Fathers included the conservative Alfredo Ottaviani, who approved of Giovanni Montini's decision to postpone discussion of a document on religious liberty. That decision came on "Black Thursday," November 19, 1964, at the end of the third session; the fourth session approved Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. FTP, identify this Catholic ecclesiastical council held in Rome from 1962 until 1965.
Answer: Vatican II
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TB Mike Daisey wrote a play about "the last" one of these, and a computer programming anti-pattern is named for this practice. Richard Feynman applied this term to certain kinds of science. The Tuka movement was documented in 1885, and in 1919 G.M. Murray and F.E. Williams observed one variety of it associated with iki haveve and the Ghost Steamer, which they called Vailala Madness. One group of this variety opposed the independence of (*) Vanuatu; that group emerged in the 1940s and gathers every February 15 to await the return of John Frum, who may be an American GI. FTP, name this religious practice that arises after a tribal society makes contact with a technologically-advanced culture, in which the tribe often constructs look-alike versions of foreign equipment in hopes of acquiring goods like guns and airplanes.
Answer: cargo cult
 
2009 Illinois Open Bonuses by Rutgers + UNC
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This D minor piece concludes with the singer's exhortation that the "Rochegoetter" hear the speaker's curse. FTPE:,
[10] Name this coloratura aria, noted for its high Fs, which also sees the singer threaten to disown her daughter.
Answer: "Der Hoelle Rache kocht in Meinem Herzen" or "Hell's Vengeance Boils my Heart" [DO NOT SAY THIS OUT LOUD, but accept the "Queen of the Night aria" if given]
[10] "Der Hoelle Rache kocht in Meinem Herzen" appears in this Mozart opera, named for the instrument which Tamino must use to rescue his beloved.
Answer: The Magic Flute [or Die Zauberfloete]
[10] In "Der Hoelle Rache," this character calls for revenge and the murder of Sarostro by her daughter Pamina. Her only other aria in the opera is the first act "O zittre nicht, mein lieber Sohn".
Answer: The Queen of the Night [or Koenigin der Nacht]
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In this work, Tiny is duped into thinking he has married a prostitute named Blondie before being imprisoned in a dog pound after being registered as a Labrador by the government. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this surreal 1959 play, most of which consists of a dream in which Tiny is renamed Sunny and purchased by an illusionist, and Blondie becomes the angelic figure Angela, written by the author of Elizabeth: Almost By Chance a Woman.
Answer: Archangels Don't Play Pinball or Gli arcangeli non giacono al flipper
[10] Archangels Don't Play Pinball is a work by this Italian playwright and 1997 Nobel laureate, whose other works include Trumpets and Raspberries and We Can't Pay? We Won't Pay! He wrote of Bertozzo's interrogation of The Maniac and Giuseppe Pinelli's fall from a police station window in his seminal Accidental Death of an Anarchist.
Answer: Dario Fo
[10] Poop humor ensues when Barlocco's plan to possess Alfonso Tristano goes awry when he instead possesses his maid in a Fo work entitled for this figure "with boobs." Literary figures of this type include Wormwood in The Screwtape Letters and the protagonist of Paradise Lost, who notes a preference for reigning in hell over ruling in heaven.
Answer: A Devil or a Demon
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A six-mile forced-march of prisoners erupted into violence in this city, after the poorly trained pro-Union Home Guards militia opened fire on a hostile crowd. FTPE:,
[10] Name this city, which saw the violence of the Camp Jackson Affair erupt after Nathaniel Lyon and Francis Blair caught a pro-Confederate militia outside of it, just prior to their attempt to take an armory in May, 1861.
Answer: St. Louis, Missouri
[10] Railroad bridges to the north were burned down in this city after the Pratt Street Riot saw fifteen killed when a pro-Confederate crowd contested a Union militia from Massachusetts as the unit attempted to reach Washington from this city's Bolton Street rail station.
Answer: Baltimore, Maryland
[10] Concern over the animosity toward the Union cause expressed by the aforementioned incidents contributed to Abraham Lincoln's decision to exclude outright Missouri and Maryland, along with other "border states" Kentucky and Delaware, from this 1862 executive order, which freed all slaves in Confederate states.
Answer: The Emancipation Proclamation
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The final stages of World Cup qualifying kick off today. In honor of the occasion, answer the following questions about the qualification process, FTPE:,
[10] Under this manager, Argentina came close to missing the tournament entirely before pulling off an improbable win in Uruguay. During the ensuing victory parade, cameras recorded this man pumping an open fist back and forth toward his mouth, a reference to the post-game press conference in which this man urged journalists everywhere to "suck it, and carry on sucking it."
Answer: Diego Maradona
[10] Although he later made an outstanding play to win the 1986 quarter final game against England, Maradona will always be remembered for this goal, scored less than two minutes into that game's second half, which saw him use the namesake divine appendage to illegally usher the ball into the net.
Answer: The Hand of God Goal or la Mano de Dios
[10] FIFA President Joseph Blatter's curious decision to seed European playoffs sure is working great for the most prominent teams, but shafted less marketable squads like this team, who must now defeat Portugal to qualify. Wolfsburg's Edin Dzeko is the leading scorer for this Balkan country.
Answer: Bosnia-Herzegovina
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This dangerously hygroscopic compound consists of a methylene chloride solution of the Sarrett reagent, itself a metal trioxide coordinated to the nitrogen of two pyroles. FTPE:,
[10] Name this reagent that can be used instead of the Jones reagent in Jones-type oxidations.
Answer: Collins reagent
[10] Collins' reagent, like Jones' reagent, has this metal in its +6 oxidiation state, whose extreme toxicity and has posed numerous environmental challenges. This element is less toxic in oxidation state three, and notably forms quintuple covalent bonds.
Answer: chromium
[10] Jones-type reactions produce carbonyl compounds from the oxidation of primary form of these compounds, designated such when the single hydroxyl carbon is bonded to a single other carbon. Types of these compounds include methanol and ethanol.
Answer: alcohols [prompt on alcohols or hydroxyls]
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Two of the foremost of these entities are the "Black-Cloaked" Mahakala and his consort, the "Self-Arisen Queen", Mahakali. FTPE:,
[10] Name these "protectors of the law", who along with the Dakinis protect the yogin by guarding his development on the path to Buddhahood.
Answer: Dharmapalas
[10] Another important Dharmapala is this Hindu deity, who was prevented from taking Makradevya by Shiva in one myth, and fathered Yudhishthira, a Pandava with a very consequential gambling problem. This Vedic figure is the lord of death and ruler of the underworld, and was appropriated into Chinese, Tibetan, and Japanese myth.
Answer: Yama
[10] Another Dharmapala, Palden Lhamo, shares the Sanskrit title Shri Devi with the goddess Lakshmi, the consort of this god. This god acts as the Preserver in the Trimurti and took on avatars like Krishna and Rama.
Answer: Vishnu
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Answer the following about the history of trans-Saharan trade routes, FTPE.,
[10] Ibn Battuta recounted in his Rihla, or Voyage, an overland route from Sijilmasa to Walata in this West African empire, whose wealth was greatly enhanced by the salt mines at Taghaza. This empire founded by Sundiata was ruled by Mansa Musa from Timbuktu.
Answer: Mali or Manding or Manden Kurufa
[10] This caravan route in Egypt passed through the Farafra, Dakhla, and Kharga Oases, the latter of which is a major Old Kingdom archaeological site. This route connected Egypt with Upper Nubia and is sometimes named for duration required to complete a full traversal.
Answer: Darb el-Ardein [or Forty Days Route; prompt on "Oasis Route"]
[10] This hyphenated empire, centered on Lake Chad and the trade routes in the area, was founded by the Kanuri around 800 CE. Mai Ali built its capital at Birni Gazargamo, and its most famous leader was probably Idris Uluma.
Answer: Kanem-Bornu
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This work traces a path from locations like Ecbatana and Baghdad, through Palmyra and finally across the Mediterranean towards Spain, and begins "here upon Earth's noonward height." FTPE:,
[10] Identify this poem whose speaker lies "face down beneath the sun" and is distressed to feel "the always rising of the night," written by the author of Frescoes for Mr. Rockefeller's Guy, Conquistador, and The Happy Marriage.
Answer: "You, Andrew Marvell
[10] This American author wrote the short poem "You, Andrew Marvell," and declared that "a poem should not mean, but be" in "Ars Poetica." He's also known for his dramatic retelling of the Job story, J.B.
Answer: Archibald MacLeish
[10] Macleish's "You, Andrew Marvell" shares prominent solar imagery with this famous Marvell poem, which sees the speaker declare his "vegetable love." The speaker warns the title figure that, as they lack "world enough and time," failure to have sex with him will result in her virginity being devoured by worms.
Answer: "To His Coy Mistress"
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about some mostly unrelated paintings, FTPE.,
[10] This artist's The Portrait is a still-life of his breakfast, including a bottle of wine and either a pancake or piece of ham with an eye staring at the viewer. His other works include The Difficult Crossing and Elective Affinities.
Answer: Rene Magritte
[10] The Maison Fournaise is the location of this Renoir painting, which depicts the titular group as they enjoy a meal on the Seine. Figures in this work include a woman sitting at a table and holding a small black dog and a man in a striped shirt leaning against the railing behind her.
Answer: Luncheon of the Boating Party
[10] A woman delivers mashed potatoes to a group of men sitting around a table in a cutaway house in this artist's Dinner of the Threshers. His other works include Daughters of the American Revolution and Parson Weems' Fable, as well as a work depicting his dentist and sister Nan.
Answer: Grant Wood
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This battle facilitated the brutal "Year of the Sheep" and a forced relocation policy, the Highland Clearances, 50 years after it was won by William, Duke of Cumberland. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this 1746 defeat for the Jacobites, fought on the namesake marshland Southeast of Inverness, which saw Lord George Murray's retreat cut off by Frederick of Hesse after a night assault on Nairn, crushing the ambitions of Charles Edward Stuart, or "Bonnie Prince Charlie."
Answer: Battle of Culloden Moor [or Blar Cuil Lodair]
[10] Culloden was preceded by the bloody murder of many members of the MacDonald clan at this valley, after they had quartered and entertained the troops who slaughtered them for nearly two weeks. The massacre was prompted by the late oath of loyalty taken by the head of the MacDonald clan to William and Mary.
Answer: Massacre of Glencoe [or Mort Ghlinne Comhann; accept any similar answer with "Glencoe"]
[10] Quick-thinking and a general moral bankruptcy helped Simon Fraser turn the disastrous loss at Culloden into a personal boon when he ordered his unit to defect and start shooting at Jacobite forces, enabling him to launch a successful military career that would see him serve under James Wolfe at the Plains of Abraham in this Canadian Province during the French and Indian War.
Answer: Quebec
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about the namesake god of the Assyrians, Assur, FTPE:,
[10] In an Assyrian version of the Enuma Elish, Assur replaces this Babylonian chief god as the slayer of Tiamat.
Answer: Marduk [or Meridug or Amarutu]
[10] Assur was associated much later with this goddess, who is better known for becoming the mother of Sin after being raped by her usual consort, and for being tricked by that same figure in the guise of a gatekeeper into mothering Ninazu, Enbilulu, and Nergal.
Answer: Ninlil
[10] Though it describes an early Sumerian sky deity and husband of Kishar who was identified by the Assyrians with Assur, the term Ansar is probably better-known for denoting a group who assisted the muhajirun led by this non-Mesopotamian figure. Members of both the Ansar and Muhajirun comprised the Sahaba, or companions, of this man.
Answer: Muhammad ibn Abdullah
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify each of the following about experiments critical to understanding the genetic action of bacteria, FTPE:,
[10] This experiment established bacterial transformation by extra-bacterial material. In it, virulent pneumococcus bacteria were killed by heat, but were still able to transform previously non-virulent bacteria, enabling them to kill mice.
Answer: Griffith's experiment
[10] T2 bacteriophages labeled with the radioactive 32- isotope of this element were allowed to infect E. coli in the Hershey-Chase experiment, replacing a stable atom of this element which is normally paired with four oxygens to form the DNA backbone. It's also known for its bright-burning white allotrope.
Answer: phosphorous
[10] This experiment grew E. Coli in mediums consisting of both the 14- and 15-isotopes of Nitrogen, and charted the weight distribution of the new cells to prove semi-conservative DNA replication. The much cooler namesake of this doubly-eponymous experiment went on to conduct groundbreaking research into asexual reproduction, infectious propagation, and RNA stability.
Answer: Meselson-Stahl Experiment
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
According to Karniol, the change of these phonemes caused by on-line changes of statements during speech is responsible for stuttering. FTPE:,
[10] Name this phoneme or prosodic feature class, which is said to occur at a "higher" level of utterance and whose effects extend beyond its own immediate phonemic environment, such as tonality and pitch.
Answer: Suprasegmentals [prompt on "Prosodic Phonemes"]
[10] Another example of a suprasegmental is the "harmony" of these phonemes in languages like Turkish and Finnish, where the backness or frontness of one of these non-consonantal phonemes influences the same feature in subsequent phonemes. These sounds are produced by an open vocal tract, and underwent a "Great Shift" in English.
Answer: Vowels
[10] A rule from Panini describes the suprasegmental force of this class of consonants in Sanskrit. These coronal consonants are produced by articulating the tongue with the roof of the mouth behind the alveolar ridge, and are common in dialects of Chinese.
Answer: Retroflexive Consonants [accept word forms]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The title of this work is a reference to an incident of clumsiness while the protagonist was transporting goods to a deacon's wife. FTPE:,
[10] Name this short story about a dim-witted, hard-working servant of a merchant's family, who dies shortly after his father forbids him to wed the orphaned cook Ustinia.
Answer: Alyosha the Pot [or Alyosha Gorshok]
[10] This author of Alyosha the Pot told of some rather pessimistic events that follow the title character's fall from a ladder in The Death of Ivan Ilyich. This Russian is also known for penning War and Peace.
Answer: Leo Tolstoy
[10] This preachy, but darkly amusing, Tolstoy novella centers on train ride enthusiast Pozdnyshev, who rails against all the bad things sex does to society and begins to go insane after his wife discovers birth control. This work culminates with Pozdnyshev's brutal stabbing of his wife for hooking up with the musician who plays the titular piece.
Answer: The Kreutzer Sonata or Kreitzerova Sonata
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify the following concerning heat capacities, FTPE:,
[10] Formulated in 1819, this law states that the heat capacity for any material is given by 3 times the number of particles times the Boltzmann constant or about 25 joules per mole-kelvin. Though now incorrect, it is a good approximation for higher temperatures.
Answer: Dulong-Petit Law
[10] The more modern theories of heat capacity by Debye evoke these entities; quantized vibrational modes of a crystal lattice.
Answer: phonons
[10] Before Debye's model for heat capacity, this scientist gave it a shot. Unlike Debye's use of density of frequency states, this man's model incorrectly assumed that each atom in the lattice acted as a harmonic oscillator with the same frequency.
Answer: Albert Einstein
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Name the following musical works with idiosyncratic titles, FTPE.,
[10] This Bruckner work was so ill-received that the composer declared it 'gilt nicht.' It is thusly known by a numerical designation indicating its lack of quality, though it was not composed chronologically before his Symphony No. 1.
Answer: Symphony No. in D minor
[10] One performance of the work Organ2 is projected to end in 2640, thanks to this man not specifying a specific meter, leaving the organ designers leeway to go as close to the spirit of the title as possible. That rendition, performed by an automated organ in a church in Germany, is better known as this man's As Slow As Possible.
Answer: John Cage
[10] After being shot at a lot, Iannis Xenakis turned that frown upside down with this composition incorporating his experience with bullets and views on relativity. It assigns a set glissando to every performer to create a group of sounds whose recognition is independent of linear time, and features a section based on the golden ratio.
Answer: Metastasis or Metastaseis
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One of the figures described by this character is abandoned in a valley lined with giant diamonds but guarded by giant snakes and huge eagles called Rocs, while another frees the slave girl Morgiana after she assists him in several schemes. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this literary figure, who delivers frame stories about Sinbad and Ali Baba to Sharyar in work of Arabic literature.
Answer: Scheherazadea or Sahzard or Sharazard (do not accept Charizard)
[10] This author was inspired by Scheherazade's tales in The Thousand and One Nights to write his novel, Arabian Nights and Days. This Egyptian Nobel Laureate is better-known for collecting Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, and Sugar Street into his Cairo Trilogy.
Answer: Naguib Mahfouz
[10] This American author penned "The Thousand and Second Tale of Scheherazade", in which that woman tells of Sinbad's final voyage aboard a mechanical "beast." This author also wrote "The Imp of the Perverse", "Hop-Frog", and "Descent into the Maelstrom."
Answer: Edgar Allan Poe
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify these important figures in the Cuban Independence, FTPE:,
[10] This poet, philosopher and journalist was killed in 1895 at the Battle of Dos Rios. His works include Ismaelillo, Our America, and Versos Sencillos, which included a poem adapted into "Guantanamera"
Answer: Jose Marti
[10] This man replaced Arsenio Martinez Campos as leader of the Spanish forces in Cuba and enacted the brutal reconcentracion strategy, in which 300,000 Cuban peasants were placed in internment camps, contributing to eventual US intervention in 1898.
Answer: Valeriano Weyler
[10] Though this First Secretary of Cuba's Communist Party wasn't even born during the War of Independence, he has said that his 1959 overthrow of Fulgencio Batista continued the 1895 war. This longtime Cuban ruler was succeeded by his brother, Raul, in 2008.
Answer: Fidel Castro
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Given a function f from topological space X and to topological space Y and a point p in X, this operation on f evaluated at p yields a result q in Y if and only if for every neighborhood of p there exists a neighborhood of q containing the f image of the first neighborhood. FTPE:,
[10] Name this operation, which along with differentiation and integration forms the central tenets of calculus. It can be used to describe the behavior of a function as a variable x a specified value.
Answer: the limit
[10] Limits that yield results of this type, including zero over zero and infinity over infinity, are potentially susceptible to l'Hospital's rule.
Answer: indeterminate forms
[10] L'Hopital's rule can be proved with this theorem, which states that the difference quotient of two real, differentiable function at two points a and b is equal to the ratio of their derivatives at some point between a and b.
Answer: the mean value thoerem [prompt on Rolle's theorem]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about the Baltic states during their brief independence between the world wars, FTPE.,
[10] Frequently led by Konstantin Pats, this country endured an abortive 1924 communist putsch, but moved right with the rise of the Kaitseliit, which nonetheless fought against the proto-fascist Freedom Fighters.
Answer: Estonia
[10] The staged mutiny of Lucjan Zeligowski's forces resulted in the capture of this city and the creation of a puppet regime. A state of war resulted between Lithuania and Poland until 1927 over possession of this city, the capital of Lithuania.
Answer: Vilnius [or Wilno or Vilna or Vilnia]
[10] This agreement between the Nazi and Soviet foreign ministers in 1939 allowed for the Soviet re-conquest of the Baltic states.
Answer: Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Name these reagents from organic chemistry, FTPE.,
[10] This reagent acts as a nucleophile and is synthesized by reaction of alkyl- or aryl halides with magnesium. It is used to create carbon-carbon bonds.
Answer: Grignard reagent
[10] This reagent is used to test for the presence of aldehydes. A positive result is known as a "silver mirror" due to the deposition of silver caused by the aldehyde reducing the reagent. The most common formulation is diamminesilver(I) nitrate.
Answer: Tollens' reagent
[10] This reagent is used to selectively oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes. It is made of a 2:1 mixture of CrO3 and pyridine in methylene chloride.
Answer: Collins reagent

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