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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Illinois Open Tossups by Penn
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In one of this man's papers, he looked at a specific custom in one society in which a boy has a special relationship with his maternal uncle that is distinct from any other relationship with a paternal figure. In addition to that paper, "The Mother's Brother in South Africa," he gave in-laws as an example of a relationship whose participants are expected to engage in the titular action in "On (*) Joking Relationships." This posited two different explanations for totemism, one in an eponymous essay published in Structure and Function in Primitive Society and another in "The Comparative Method in Social Anthropology." His belief that social institutions should be studied as scientific objects differed from that of Bronislaw Malinowski, and this man also famously conducted studies in Western Australia and in an island group in the Indian Ocean. FTP, identify this British anthropologist whose landmark studies include "Social Organization of Australian Tribes" and "The Andaman Islanders," the developer of structural functionalism.
Answer: Alfred Radcliffe-Brown
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"Down, down, born pioneers in time's despite" exclaims the speaker of its 2nd section. Its 5th section, which includes "Southern Cross," is entitled "Three Songs"; its 7th alludes to "a burnt match skating in a urinal," an invitation to homosexual trysts, and is called "The Tunnel" because the speaker meets the tortured ghost of Edgar Allan Poe in the subway. The 4th section combines a history of early aviation and paean to Walt Whitman, entitled (*) "Cape Hatteras." Usually its 2nd part, "Powhatan's Daughter, is most highly acclaimed, particularly the subsections "The River" and "The Dance," in which the speaker, Maquokeeta, cries "And, buzzard-circleted, screamed from the stake/ I could not pick the arrows from my side." FTP identify this poem of 8 parts, a famous proem apostrophizing a titular Roebling construction in which Columbus speaks the 1st part, "Ave Maria," and the last is "Atlantis," the magnum opus of Hart Crane.
Answer: The Bridge
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In the first ending exposition repeat of the first movement of this piece a soaring new theme is introduced in the oboe and then the violins which later settles down in the development section to feature the strings being supported by a staccato punctuation in the woodwinds. The trumpets in this work are not introduced until the third movement's trio section which is dominated by a static fanfare of the horns and bassoons. In the second movement andante section, the D-minor theme is first introduced by the violas, bassoons and oboes and this somber, procession-like movement is sometimes called the (*) "Pilgrim's March". The final movement of this work borrows the ninth of Paganini's Caprices La Chasse and is greatly based on Neapolitan folk dances. Ending with a presto saltarello movement, FTP, identify this A major piece that finishes with a tarantella and comes between its composer's Scottish and Reformation symphonies.
Answer: Mendelssohn's Symphony No. 4 in A major, Op. 90 or The Italian Symphony
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This man led forces alongside Pedro the Cruel and the Duke of Lancaster against Pedro's brother, Henry of Trastamara, at the Battle of Najera during the Castilian Civil War. This man had earlier embarked on a marauding expedition from Bergerac into France until he reached the Loire River, at which point he was turned away by King John of France. He led forces at the Battle of Winchelsea and the siege of (*) Calais, which followed a battle in which he "won his spurs" by commanding a section of his father's vanguard against Philip VI of France. A decorated military commander who led forces at Crecy under his father, Edward III, FTP, identify this member of the House of Plantagenet whose son Richard II eventually became king and whose epithet came from the color of armor he wore on military campaigns.
Answer: Edward the Black Prince (prompt on "Edward")
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In one story surrounding this figure, he was swallowed by a large fish after falling into a river, and his six sons banded together to rescue him from the situation. His mother's other two sons included the river deities Bea and Tano, and she herself was the goddess of fertility. In one story, this character is able to score himself a full meal by telling a tortoise to go to a distant creek to wash his hands. This deity is perhaps better known for (*) capturing his rival, Osebo, a and a large snake to his father, the sky god Nyame. Another story involves this character capturing a fairy by having her get mad at and stuck to a `mannerless' Tar Baby. Once rewarded with all of the stories in the world, FTP, identify this trickster god who appears in the mythology of the Caribbean and West Africa and is generally depicted as a spider.
Answer: Anansi
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In one story by this author, Charles suffers from a mental breakdown and opens the titular item that was originally given by Ursula Polkinghom while another story by this author sees the Whalleys spend a day at the titular location to avoid a funeral taking place on the street. Those stories, "The Letter" and "Down at the Dump" take place in this author's fictional town of Sarsaparilla and they are contained in the collection The Burnt Ones. One novel by this author sees the Standish family reside in London during the time of the Spanish Civil War, while Elizabeth (*) Hunter realizes she's driving away her family, then realizes she doesn't care, in another work by this man. This author of The Living and the Dead and The Eye of the Storm created Mordecai Himmelfarb, a holocaust survivor who encounters Miss Hare in her decaying estate of Xanadu in Rides in the Charioti. Best-known for a work in which Laura Trevelyan and the titular German explorer set out across the continent, FTP, identify this author of Voss, a Nobel Laureate from Australia.
Answer: Patrick White
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Senator Benjamin Tillman led the initial charge in promoting the main platform for one party in this election. Minor candidates in this election included Joshua Levering and Charles Horatio Matchett, and it was the first presidential election in which the state of Utah participated. One candidate ran with two running mates and was vague as to which he would choose as vice president if elected, Thomas (*) Watson or Arthur Sewall. The Republicans published fake dollars that said "In God We Trust? For the Other 53 Cents," an attack on the opposition's support of the silver standard. Seeing Mark Hanna push the Republican candidate to pursue a "front porch" campaign, FTP, name this presidential election in which William Jennings Bryan lost to William McKinley despite Bryan's "Cross of Gold" speech.
Answer: Presidential Election of 1896
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The Lanczos method provides a good approximation of this construct due to the convergence of one of its terms and zero value of its error as n approaches infinity in certain limiting cases. That property distinguishes that method from the Spouge and Stirling methods for approximating this function. The Legendre duplication formula allows its argument for 2x to be calculated in terms of smaller arguments of x, while its argument on half-integers is proportional to the square root of pi. (*) Integration by parts allows one to see this function of x plus 1 is equal to x times this function on x. It is commonly given as the integral over t from 0 to infinity of t to the quantity z minus 1 times e to the minus t. Legendre set it equal to n minus 1 factorial for positive integers n. FTP, identify this mathematical function that generalizes the factorial to complex numbers, named for a greek letter..
Answer: gamma function
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This ruler established the School of Languages in his country for the express purpose of training translators for the state educational institutions, and he also opened the first schools of medicine, veterinary medicine, engineering, and chemistry. During the first ten years of his rule, he confiscated the iltizam ulama and introduced the concept of private ownership of land through the taxation of (*) waqf. This man, who grew up in the Greek city of Kavalla, was an ethnic Albanian who assumed his most important position after gaining the support of Ottoman sultan Selim III in the wake of the decisive defeat of Mamluk forces at the Battle of the Pyramids. FTP, name this Egyptian ruler who built the first sustained program in the Middle East of state-sponsored Europeanization of military and education.
Answer: Mehmet Ali or Muhammad Ali Pasha
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In the first act of Cyrano de Bergerac, the title character's friend Cuigy calls Cyrano by this name when he congratulates him for his victorious duel against the Vicomte de Valvert. He notoriously fails to kill the Comte de Wardes despite running him through three times at Calais. At the start of the first novel in which he appears this character is given a yellow nag for his journey, and en route is beaten unconscious by a group of men who. This (*) Gascon arrives in Paris to meet Monseiur de Treville, where he instead meets a certain man whose servant Bazin has convinced him to retire and; become a Jesuit, and who finds the hero his own servant, Planchet. His beloved, Constance, is forced to hide in a nunnery, but is discovered and poisoned. FTP, name this savior of the Duke of Buckingham, whose part in thwarting the treacherous Lady de Winter entitles him to a place among the title companions of a novel by Alexandre Dumas-pere : Porthos, Athos, and Aramis of The Three Musketeers.
Answer: D'artagnan
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Project XL is currently sponsoring several pilots of these entities aiming for increased energy capture and quicker stabilization as opposed to conventional examples. The aformentioned bioreactor form of these sites may be aerobic or anaerobic depending on whether air is injected. These entities' namesake gas, also known as biogas, is mostly comprised of methane produced from anaerobic digestion, and they are lined with impermeable geomembranes to prevent groundwater-contaminating leachate runoff. The first modern (*) "sanitary" one of these, which pioneered the conventional "dry tomb" form, was constructed on the outskirts of Fresno, California in 1930, and a famous former one of these, currently planned to be transformed into a park, was notably reopened to receive debris from 9/11 and is found on Staten Island. Fresh Kills was an example of, FTP, these repositories of municipal solid waste, colloquially known as "dumps".
Answer: landfills (I guess you could prompt on "dump" before it's mentioned; accept "bioreactors" before mention)
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1 In one work by this author, a woman uses Biblical allusions to describe a scene of her love to a blind man whom she formerly rejected. That work by this author also tells of Lady Waldemar, who attempts to separate Marian Erle from Romney. In another work, this author describes Pan using reeds by the river to create "A Musical Instrument." In one poem, this author wrote that a mystic shape informed her that she is held by (*) "Not Death, but Love." Another poem by this author of Aurora Leigh lists "freely," "purely," and "with passion put to use" as answers to the titular question in "How do I love thee? Let me count the ways." For 10 points, name this British poet of Sonnets from the Portuguese who married the author of My Last Duchess.
Answer: Elizabeth Barrett Browning
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The general form of this rule can be derived by imagining a nodal hypercube in which each gridline represents one of the coefficients and the associated node contains the products of the coefficients corresponding to the gridlines it intersects, then realizing that such product is simply a multinomial expansion with exponent equal to the homology number. An analogue of Simpson's paradox to systems obeying this statement is a sub-population-structure-caused reduction in the hybridization frequency called the Wahlund effect. A graphical representation of the two-dimensional case of this law can be obtained by invoking Vivian's theorem on an equilateral triangle whose corners represent the possible configurations; such a plot is called a (*) De Finetti triangle. One minus the ratio of the observed hybridization frequency over the value predicted by this model gives the inbreeding coefficient. For 10 points, name this principle, according to which genotypic and allelic frequencies remain constant in a large population.
Answer: the Hardy-Weinberg principle [accept Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium]
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A Henry Newbolt poem that shares its name with this painting notes that a "phantom voice is singing \ Of the great days done". When it was first displayed, it was accompanied by lines written by Thomas Campbell and it was referred to by its painter as "my darling". One inaccuracy in this painting is that the title object is (*) traveling east, away from the sunset seen on the right side of this painting, although Rotherhithe, the location of Beatson's, is west of Sheerness. That title object had previously been under the command of Eliab Harvey, where it had captured the Fougeux and served alongside the Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. For 10 points, name this painting by J.MW. Turner that shows an antiquated British naval vessel being tugged away.
Answer: The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last Berth to be broken up
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In one legend, Setna, the son of Ramses the Great, asked his brother Anheru to help him retrieve an object belonging to this god which was buried with Nefrekeptah in a tomb at Memphis. The god was given dominion over the Land of the Caves and created a Light-Soul in the Duat where he also ruled. This god has a consort named Astennu who is an underworld dwelling (*) baboon. In some tales, this god is thought to have given birth to both Nefertum and Khepri by laying an egg. This god, the husband of Seshat, won a game of senet against Khonsu, winning five extra days of light which allowed Nut to give birth to her many children. This god encouraged Tefnut to come home from Nubia after she got into a fight with Ra and mediated the conflicts between both Ra and Apep and Horus and Set in his role as the god of mediation. For 10 points, name this Egyptian god of magic, science and writing who is known for having the head of an ibis.
Answer: Thoth
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This man collaborated with Richard Foster on a modern art museum in Washington, D.C. and with John Burgee to design two buildings that each have an inclination of 15 degrees. This designer of such works as the Gate of Europe in Madrid and the Kreeger museum continued such collaborations by working with Foster to design the David H. Koch theater in Lincoln and working with Burgee to design a complex inspired by Charles Klauder's Cathedral of Learning, a building complex noted for its (*) 231 spires. Other works by this man include a glass mega-church in Garden Grove, California, a personal residence in New Canaan, Connecticut and a Park Avenue skyscraper built in the international style. For 10 points, name this American architect known for such works as the PPG Place, the Glass House and his collaboration with Mies van der Rohe, the Seagram Building.
Answer: Philip Johnson
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One battle in this conflict saw a skirmish at Horice end in decisive victory because of one side's inability to fire uphill. The opening battles of the first phase of this conflict were fought near a fortress at Vysehrad, which was captured by insurgents. The termination of this conflict was linked to the signing of the "Compacts" at Iglau, which were basically modifications of the "Four Articles". Those agreements were completed by George of (*) Podebrad, while another major general in these conflicts, Prokopius the Elder, was killed at the Battle of Lipany, bringing an end to one major phase. One side in these conflicts was led by a general known for his Wagenberg tactics, in which he formed a circle of wagons on a hill used for defense. That man, Jan Ziska, let the Taborites in these conflicts, but they eventually lost out to the more moderate Utraquists. Initially fought following the ascension of Sigismund to the thrown of Bohemia, FTP, name these 15th century religious wars, named for a group whose namesake was burned at the Council of Constance in 1415.
Answer: Hussite civil wars (or Bohemian wars before mentioned)
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For the class of functions to which these statements apply in n independent variables, there exist n squared minus n all over two generalized ones of these. The generalized form of these equations may be found by invoking Clairaut's theorem to equate mixed partial derivatives of a potential with respect to its natural variables. The ones of these derived from the internal energy, enthalpy, Helmholtz function and Gibbs function are respectively (*) volume partial of temperature equals minus pressure partial of entropy, pressure partial of temperature equals entropy partial of volume, volume partial of entropy equals pressure partial of temperature and pressure partial of entropy equals minus temperature partial of volume. For 10 points, name this set of four PDE's that give the relationships among different thermodynamic variables, named for a Scottish scientist known for his four laws of electromagnetism.
Answer: the Maxwell relations
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Davidson's doctrine of "radical interpretation" counsels for using the "principle of charity" to increase the assumed incidence of this, the value of which is determined by minimalists such as Paul Horwich using a certain logician's biconditionals. Deflationary theories attach no metaphysical significance to this concept. Alfred Tarski claimed that a definition of this needed to include the condition of being "materially adequate" in a work on The Concept of [this] in Formalized Languages, while Pierce called this "the (*) end of inquiry". Tarski's "semantic conception" of this idea has been influential in the development of modern correspondence theories of this, which are contrasted with its "coherence" system. That system claims beliefs are this when they are in coherence with a set of propositions, as opposed to corresponding to objective facts. FTP, identify this quality paired with language and logic in a work by A.J. Ayer, the opposite of falsehood.
Answer: truth [accept truthiness from anyone with a Texan accent, prompt otherwise]
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This behavior can be induced in magnetized semi-conductors by polaron binding to impurities, in which case it is proportional to the deviation from the equilibrium of the first-order admittance tensor. Materials with this property can be used to create quasi-phase-matching filters by application of an electric field in the technique of periodic poling. Plasmas and some other fluids can acquire a value for this effect proportional to the square of an applied magnetic field in forms of the (*) Cotton-Mouton and Voight effects. Applying an electric field to an anisotropic material induces this property due to the difference in Pockels effects along different axes. For 10 points, name this optical property of materials, the existence of different indices of indices of refraction in different directions, which cases incident light rays to be split.
Answer: birefringence
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TB According to the book of Genesis, one of this man's sons was killed because he was "wicked in the sight of the Lord," and another was killed for ejaculating on the ground instead of producing an heir for his dead brother; they were Er and Onan respectively. Those events led this man to promise his son Shelah as a husband for his daughter-in-law Tamar, but Tamar deceived this man into thinking she was a roadside harlot, and thus he fathered Perez and Zerah by her. In another story, this man, a son of (*) Leah, suggested to his brothers that instead of leaving Joseph to die in a pit, he should be sold into slavery for silver pieces. The eventual tribe of this name occupied the territory to the west of the Dead Sea, and its border with the tribe of Benjamin was the location of Jerusalem. King David was a member of the tribe of this name, and Revelation describes Jesus as "the Lion of the tribe of" it. For 10 points, identify this fourth son of Jacob and namesake of a pretty popular Hebrew religion.
Answer: Judah [or Yehudah]
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TB The background of the painting is predominantly gray and filled with clouds. The woman on the left in this painting is holding a pair of scissors with blood dripping from the blades. Another woman on the right wears a traditional Tehuana skirt and blouse while holding an egg-shaped portrait of a former husband, as the artist's own divorce greatly influenced the painting. The link between the artist and the artist's childhood (*) imaginary friend is symbolized by the two main figures holding hands and being connected at the necks by a vein. Both women's hearts are exposed, but the heart of the woman in the white dress is deteriorating. This 1939 painting features the artist's dual persona before and after her separation from a famous Mexican muralist. FTP, name this self-portrait featuring two identical women representing the ex-wife of artist Diego Rivera.
Answer: "The Two Fridas" or "Las Dos Fridas"
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TB He valiantly fights in two battles in efforts to gain independence for his compatriots, but he is distraught when he believes that he had killed an innocent stable boy during one battle and noting that he forgot he was wearing iron shoes. In the second battle, this character sustains serious injuries, which would be worsened by his attempt to pull stone to rebuild a (*) windmill. He is noted for being the least intelligent one amongst his friends, as he couldn't get past the letter D while trying to remember the alphabet. However, his work ethic inspires other like Clover and Benjamin to remain faithful to the cause until his death, the details of which are greatly misreported. His motivational mottoes of "I will work harder" and "Napoleon is always right" come to no avail as he is sent to glue factory by Squealer and slaughtered. FTP, who is this arduous cart-horse, the allegorical representation of the Russian working class in the George Orwell book Animal Farm whose name may refer to a early 20th century rebellion in China?
Answer: Boxer
 
2009 Illinois Open Bonuses by Penn
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In this sculpture, the main figure can be seen with his sons Antiphantes and Thymbraeus. FTPE:,
[10] Name this sculpture group showing a Trojan priest being killed by serpents.
Answer: Laocoon Group [or Laocoon and His Sons]
[10] This English artist painted the Laocoon Group surrounded by graffiti, although he is better known for his poetry like Songs of Innocence and Experience.
Answer: William Blake
[10] This author criticized art historian Johann Winckelmann's treatment of the sculpture in his own book of art criticism, Laocoon: or, On the Limits of Painting and Poetry.
Answer: Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
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This work opens by describing how religion is the essential difference between man and animal, while another section discusses the contradiction between faith and love. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this work that describes "God as Being of Understanding" in its first part, The True or Anthropological Essence of Religion.
Answer: The Essence of Christianity
[10] This German philosopher wrote The Essence of Christianity, as well as some less interesting stuff on Death and Immortality and Principles of the Philosophy of the Future.
Answer: Ludwig Andres Feuerbach
[10] Feuerbach was a young follower of this German idealist philosopher who wrote such works as Phenomenology of Spirit and Science of Logic. He is best known for his tripartite dialectic.
Answer: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
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Identify the following related to ecological succession for 10 points each.,
[10] Including such exemplars as cyanobacteria for barren rock environs and grasses for sandy ones, these types of organisms are the first to inhabit a previously unoccupied habitat.
Answer: pioneer species
[10] The catastrophic variety of this entity is regularly destroyed by fire or similar disaster, but quickly replenished by middling-sized flora. This term generally refers to a final state of the succession process and usually is dominated by tree-sized flora and a permanent animal population.
Answer: a climax community
[10] Intermediate phases between initial colonization and the climax communities are known as these types of communities which can be called xero in dry, desert-like environments or halo in saline or marshy areas.
Answer: seral communities [or seres]
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The first one occurred between 1894 and 1895 and the second one occurred from 1937-1945. FTPE:,
[10] Name these two conflicts with the same name, which occurred between two Asian countries.
Answer: Sino-Japanese War
[10] During the second Sino-Japanese War, explosives placed in the swimming pool of a Japanese officers' club in the namesake town damaged railroad tracks in this event. Though responsibility for this event was questionable, the Japanese Imperial Army used it as a pretext to invade Manchuria.
Answer: Mukden Incident
[10] Including fighting in Luodian and Dachang, this three month long series of battles over a namesake city saw the Chinese under Chiang Kai-shek lose about a quarter of a million troops while using urban warfare strategies and handguns.
Answer: Battle of Shanghai (DO NOT ACCEPT OR PROMPT ON "Shanghai Incident;" accept Second Shanghai Incident)
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In the beginning of this story, the narrator mourns the death of Beatriz Viterbo, after which he is able to meet her cousin, the poet Carlos Daneri. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this short story in which that poet, Carlos Daneri describes the titular item as "one of the points in space that contains all other points."
Answer: "The Aleph" [also accept "El Aleph"]
[10] "The Aleph" is a short story written by this Argentinean author whose other stories include "The Garden of Forking Paths" and "The Library of Babel."
Answer: Jorge Luis Borges
[10] "The Garden of Forking Paths" and "The Library of Babel" are both contained in this Borges short story collection published in 1944.
Answer: Ficciones
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These objects emit radiative jets along their axis in a process thought to reduce angular momentum while minimizing mass loss in nascent stars. FTPE:,
[10] Identify these disks of gas formed from diffuse material around young stars and black holes.
Answer: accretion disks
[10] These highly luminous sources are formed when matter in the center of supermassive black holes within a galaxy is compacted due to accretion. One of the first to be found was in Seyfert galaxies.
Answer: active galactic nucleus (or AGN)
[10] Active galactic nuclei display relativistic polar jets much this like class of young stars that seem to undergo a lithium burning process and whose jets illuminate far-off Herbig-Haro objects.
Answer: T-Tauri stars
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Answer some questions about related to the military career of Nathaniel Lyon FTPE.,
[10] Lyon's first major military experience may have been in the second of this series of conflicts fought in Florida between 1817 and 1858 against a certain group of Native Americans led by Osceola.
Answer: Seminole Wars
[10] Lyon gained notoriety as a Union general in this first major Civil War battle west of the Mississippi. It saw the death of Lyon on Blood Hill, where Sam Sturgis ultimately led a retreat of Union forces following three Confederate charges.
Answer: Battle of Wilson's Creek (or Oak Hills)
[10] Wilson's Creek was fought in this state, which also saw civil war battles at Fredericktown and Springfield. It also saw raids by various bushwackers among homes in the Ozarks in its south.
Answer: Missouri
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Answer these questions about guys named Chris Brown, FTPE:,
[10] R&B singer Chris Brown and Jay-Z collaborated with Rihanna on her remix of this 2007 song that notes, "Now that it's raining more than ever/ Know that we'll still have each other." As you may already know, life did not imitate art in this case.
Answer: "Umbrella"
[10] A running back out of the University of Colorado named Chris Brown currently backs up Steve Slaton and plays alongside quarterback Matt Schaub and wide receiver Andre Johnson on this NFL team.
Answer: Houston Texans
[10] Cartoonist Chris Browne, spelled B-R-O-W-N-E, worked with his father Dik Browne creating this comic strip. After his father's death in 1989, Chris continues to illustrate this Danish Viking and his raids of England.
Answer: "Hagar the Horrible"
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Identify some treaties and correspondences that dealt with the Middle East after World War I FTPE.,
[10] Addressed after World War I by the Churchill White Paper, this set of letters saw the British High Comissioner of Egypt assure the Sharif of Mecca that the British would support Arab land claims if the Arabs rebelled against the Ottomans.
Answer: McMahon-Hussein Correspondence or Hussein-McMahon Correspondences
[10] This agreement between the British and French was one of the most controversial documents of the war. It recognized French claims to Syria and a British position in Iraq, as well as the placement of an international administration in Palestine.
Answer: Sykes-Picot agreement
[10] After the Sykes-Picot agreement, Lord Rothschild, a prominent British Zionist received this declaration with would establish a Jewish national home in Palestine.
Answer: Balfour Declaration
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It started after an invasion of Corcyra by Corinth. Answer some questions regarding the Peloponnesian War, for ten points each:,
[10] This battle saw the deaths of the Athenian general Cleon and the Spartan Brasidas, allowing for the two sides to negotiate the Peace of Nicias in its wake.
Answer: Battle of Amphipolis
[10] Athens suffered disastrous losses after launching an expedition to capture this Italian island, which saw the Siege of Syracuse. One leader, Alcibiades, left the campaign after being called on trial for the destruction of the Athenian hermai statues.
Answer: Sicilian Expedition
[10] After this battle, during which Lysander destroyed all but 12 ships of the Athenian's 180 ship fleet in the Hellespont, Sparta placed the Thirty Tyrants in control of Athens.
Answer: Battle of Aegospotami
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Name some works of Mark Twain that don't involve the Mississippi River, FTPE:,
[10] This first book of Twain's contains numerous short stories including the short story of the same title involving a story about a compulsive gambler named Jim Smiley that bets on the titular animal.
Answer: The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County
[10] Hank Morgan is saved from burning at the stake by the arrival of a solar eclipse and convinces everyone that he is "The Boss" responsible for blocking out the sun in this 1889 Twain novel.
Answer: A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
[10] This last attempted novel of Twain's was unfinished until Twain's biographer Albert Paine completed the novel. The work followed boys in an Austrian village who encounter a mystical teenager named Satan.
Answer: The Mysterious Stranger
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This portrait features a young woman in a blue and yellow turban wearing the titular piece of jewelry, FTPE:,
[10] Name this 17th century painting located in the Royal Picture Gallery in the Hague and is considered by many to be the Dutch equivalent to the Mona Lisa.
Answer: "Girl with a Pearl Earring"
[10] "Girl with a Pearl Earring" was the masterpiece of this Dutch Baroque artist whose other works include "The Milkmaid" and "View of Delft".
Answer: Johannes Vermeer (accept Johan or Jan Vermeer)
[10] This other Vermeer painting features a cello laying on the ground as a woman sits in front of a harpsichord. The man at the right gives the young woman instruction on how to play in this painting.
Answer: "The Music Lesson" or "A Lady at the Virginals with a Gentleman"
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The stability of tertiary carbocations is one instance of this rule. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this rule of organic chemistry that states that, in the addition of a halide acid to an alkene, the proton will add to the most substituted carbon whereas the halide will add to the least substituted carbon.
Answer: Markovnikov's rule
[10] One mechanism underlying Markovnikov's rule is this interaction in which, for example, a sigma bond in an adjacent carbon stabilizes the empty p-orbital of a carbocation.
Answer: hyperconjugation
[10] A lake of hyperconjugation partly explains the instability of this rotamer of ethane. In this rotamer, the substituents lie on top of one another in the plane normal to the carbon-carbon bond.
Answer: eclipsed configuration
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One of the title characters in this poem swims across the Hellespont to have a tryst the other title character, a devotee of the Roman goddess of beauty. FTPE:,
[10] Name this Elizabethan poem based on a myth involving two lovers in the present-day Dardanelles.
Answer: "Hero and Leander"
[10] Also writing such plays as Edward II and The Jew of Malta, this English author wrote such poetry as "The Passionate Shepard to His Love" and the unfinished poem "Hero and Leander."
Answer: Christopher Marlowe
[10]This author and translator from the classics finished “Hero and Leander” in 1598. He was rumored to belong to a (probably mythical) literary secret society called the School of Night, and his own famous works include the poem “Tears of Peace,” two tragedies on Bussy d’Ambois, and heptameter translations of Hesiod and Anacreon.
Answer: George Chapman
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Some religious holidays and festivals last for more than a week. Identify some of them FTPE.,
[10] This Jewish festival of lights commemorates the Holy Temple in Jerusalem during the time of the Maccabean Revolt. Oh yeah, it also sees the giving of one really good gift and seven crappy ones as well as the lighting of the menorah.
Answer:
[10] After an entire month of fasting during Ramadan, Muslims get to go wild and crazy during this holiday, which literally means the festival of breaking fast.
Answer: George Chapman Hanukkah or Chanukah
[10] This Hindu holiday lasts for nine nights and ten days and sees goddesses such as Lakshmi and Saraswati worshipped. In south India, some families set up golus or arrangements of idols on steps, in their houses to honor the deities.
Answer: Eid ul-Fitr [prompt on "Eid"]
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The title character of this poem has a "snowy beard" and despite crying for help did not receive the aid of any dolphin or Nereid. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this poem about a feline named Selima who "tumbled headlong in" and who "mewed to every watery god".
Answer: Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat-Drowned in a Tub of Goldfishes
[10] This poet, who wrote about "some mute inglorious Milton" in Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, wrote Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat.
Answer: Thomas Gray
[10] This earlier Gray poem originated the phrase "Ignorance is bliss" and describes "distant spires" and "antique towers" of the title structure.
Answer: Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College [do not accept "Ode on a Distant Prospect of Jeremy Eaton getting into Grad School"]
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A Parisian performance of his comic opera La Serva Padrona sparked the "Querelle des Boufoons" between Rameau and Lully. FTPE:,
[10] Name this Baroque Italian composer of Salve Regina and a notable Stabat Mater who may be most famous for living to the ripe old age of twenty-six.
Answer: Giovanni Batista Pergolesi
[10] A number of melodies spuriously attributed to Pergolesi were adapted for this 1919 ballet with scenery by Picasso. Featuring the "Gavotta con due variazioni", its plot is taken from the Neapolitan commedia dell'arte.
Answer: Pulcinella
[10] Pulcinella was one of the first "neo-classical" works of this mercurial composer, whose other ballets include Apollon Musagete, Petrushka and a work that is subtitled "Scenes from Pagan Russia"
Answer: Igor Stravinsky
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In an illusion named for this man, two straight lines appear bent due to crooked lines in the background. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this German "father of experimental psychology," who relied upon the technique of introspection and published his notes as Principles of Physiological Psychology.
Answer: Wilhelm Wundt
[10] One of Wundt's more prominent students was this child psychologist who described as adolescence as a period of "storm and stress" and wrote Aspects of Child Life and Education.
Answer: Granville Stanley Hall
[10] Hall also studied under this American psychologist who shifted towards philosophy in an 1897 work which asked "Is this a moral world?", titled The Will to Believe. Before that work, he wrote The Principles of Psychology, but this American may be best known for his Pragmatism.
Answer: William James
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This law explains why it takes Neptune nearly 700 times longer to orbit the Sun than it takes Mercury. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this law that states that the square of an orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of its semi-major axis.
Answer: Kepler's third law of planetary motion [prompt on Kepler's laws]
[10] According to Kepler's first law, the average distance from between an orbiting body and the body it orbits is proportional to this quantity, the vertical distance one of the foci to the orbital elipse.
Answer: the semi-latus rectum
[10] In a Keplerian orbit, this quantity is defined as the angle between the pericenter of orbit and the orbiting object's current position along the ellipse.
Answer: true anomaly
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For 10 points each, answer these questions about that lovable divine drunkard, Dionysus.,
[10] Since Dionysus was the child of one of Zeus's many affairs, Zeus put this god in charge of taking care of Dionysus. In a Praxiteles work, this god can be seen holding an infant Dionysus and he also possessed a staff called the caduceus and some winged sandals.
Answer: Hermes
[10] This woman is the mother of Dionysus who she bore with Zeus in the form of an eagle. A jealous Hera befriended this woman and convinced her to ask Zeus to reveal his true form. However, this lead to this figure's demise as that form was so awesome it caused her to explode.
Answer: Semele
[10] After the worship of Dionysus was forbid in the kingdom of this ruler, Dionysus got pissed and sent his posse of reveling maenads to deal with him. This king was torn to pieces by these crazy women whose ranks included his own mother, Agave.
Answer: Pentheus

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