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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Illinois Open Tossups by Michigan
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This man painted eight panels, including The Cajoler and The Faun, to decorate the dining hall of the Marquis de Nointel. A lion and a nude boy flank the title figure, who is enthroned on clouds and holds a scythe, in his Ceres (Summer), the only surviving work in a series on the seasons this artist created for his patron Pierre Crozat. A man realizes too late that he has touched the back of a noblewoman in one painting, while an ugly, hag-like face is reflected in a mirror as the title figure hands an apple to a disrobing Venus in another. This painter of The Misstep - better known as Le Faux pas - and The (*) Judgment of Paris painted several depictions of a very sad clown in a baggy white costume in his Pierrot works, and showed a man in a pink headdress playing a guitar in Mezzetin. Toward the end of his life, this artist speculated on a lack of future popularity by showing his works being packed away in the titular locale, Gersaint's Shop-Sign. A child crouches by a seated couple at the right edge of his best-known work, which includes cherubs floating up to the sky in the background as numerous figures pass by a statue of Venus to take the titular expedition. Famous for popularizing "fete galante" paintings, FTP, identify this Rococo artist of Embarkation for Cythera.
Answer: (Jean-)Antoine Watteau
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This person synthesized the galloyl glycoside tanning compounds long after discovering phenylhydrazine, the first hydrazine base. This scientist proposed the "lock and key" model to describe enzymes. One reaction named for this chemist uses high temperatures and an acidic environment to convert an aryl hydrazone to an indole. Another reaction that he discovered combines a carboxylic acid with an alcohol under reflux acid catalysis. (*) For 10 point, name this organic chemist whose method for ester production was just described and who discovered a projection used to show the chirality of sugars.
Answer: Hermann Emil Fischer
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The protagonist sits alone on the Pnyx and has his lunch stolen by Odomantians. Two eunuchs in this play are later revealed to be Athenian citizens, and first come on stage along with the Persian ambassador and Pseudabartas, the King's Eye. A Megarian preoccupied with his own cleverness masquerades identifies himself as a Pig Merchant before being duped receiving garlic and salt in exchange for his two daughters by the main character in this play's secret (*) market scene. That main character later borrows a Telephus costume from Euripides, disguises himself as a beggar, and makes a speech against a certain conflict before noting his anger over the events that followed the performance of The Babylonians the previous year. A private peace treaty with Sparta ends the Peloponnesian War in this play, which was mainly constructed as a response to the author's persecution by Cleon. FTP, identify this play in which Dikaiopolis is forced to take a basket of coal hostage after being chased by a chorus of denizens from the titular region, one of the least-structured comedies by Aristophanes.
Answer: The Acharnians
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James Pindall, Philemon Beecher, and Richard Anderson nearly murdered each other after being directed to form a congressional committee to create this legislation. Rufus King unsuccessfully attempted to attach a rider establishing this legislation to a 1784 ordinance, while another example of this legislation was the subject of Prigg v. Pennsylvania. A Wisonsin court's response to the one authored by James M. Mason was the impetus for Ableman v. Booth, which prevented state courts from claiming authority over federal (*) arrests. The 1842 Prigg decision overruled laws passed in reaction to an earlier 1793 version of this legislation, the and helped prompt ire that led to the passage of a the best-known legislation of this type, which outlined a series of $1000 fines, sparked the Personal Liberty Laws, and established a substantial $10 standard finder's fee. That law was created to offset the admission of California as a state and the banning of a certain activity in the District of Columbia as part of the Compromise of 1850. FTP, identify these contentious legislations which provided for the capture and return of runaway blacks who had escaped to Northern states.
Answer: Fugitive Slave Laws (or Acts)
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This man wrote a Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion and a Divertimento for Strings for Paul Sacher, composing Contrasts, for clarinet, violin, and piano, in between. He celebrated the unification of three cities joining to form a national capital in his Dance Suite, and used a folk story about nine boys transformed into stags while hunting as the basis for a choral work based on the traditional colinda Christmas carol. Another work featuring a "Dance of the Trees" and "Dance of the Waves" was debuted by a frequent conductor of this man's work, Egisto Tango, and features a 6/8 passage of minor seconds like his most famous ballet. This composer of The (*) Wooden Prince and Cantata Profana composed a work whose "interrupted intermezzo" features a parody of the invasion theme from Shostakovich's Leningrad Symphony and the aforementioned ballet based on a play by Menyhert Lengyel in which the title character begins glowing and expires after embracing a girl dancing a lockspiel, having earlier been beaten and stabbed by angry hobos. This composer of a Concerto for Orchestra arranged a set of 153 pieces for piano in his Mikrokosmos. Also depicting Judith's discovery of the titular figures checkered marital past in his sole opera, FTP, identify this creator of The Miraculous Mandarin, the Hungarian composer of Duke Bluebeard's Castle.
Answer: Bela Bartok
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Insect species can have up to nineteen different recognition proteins for this substance; those receptors are divided into hard and soft transcripts. Monomers of this molecule are assembled in the cytosol where they are attached to a carrier known as bactoprenol. A pseudo- version of this compound can render ineffective a cell's lysozyme; the lysozyme degrades the normal variety. Its structure consists of alternating units of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid liked by beta one four glycosidic bonds. This substance is dehydrated by alcohol, then traps insoluble (*) crystal violet-iodine complexes in the usual assay for detecting it; it is surrounded by a lipopolysaccharide coat in organisms negative for that technique. FTP, name this substance that makes up the majority of the cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria.
Answer: peptidoglycan [or murein]
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One document important to this religion distinguishes between animal, vegatable, mineral, and human, and was written as a letter to Auguste-Henri Forel, while another relates an account of how a man indebted to two brothers organized their religious persecution, the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. Realms of "Search," "Love," and "True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness" are described in a document in this faith written for a Qadiriyyih judge, and it teaches that the 100th name of god derives from the word for "splendor." Symbols prominent in this faith, which posits two covenants between mankind and the divine, include a ringstone symbol, the (*) haykal, and the nine-pointed star. Its advocates a "rational soul" and its main texts include the aforementioned Seven Valleys and one laying out a Nineteen Day Fast during the month of ala and written in the "black pit" dungeon, the the Kitab-i-Aqdas and Kitab-i-Iqan or Book of Certitude, respectively. Based out of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, this faith venerates figures like Buddha, Mohammed, and other prophets to emphasize the unity of all religions and of mankind. FTP, name this religion based on Shia Islam, which was founded by Baha-u-llah in nineteenth-century Persia.
Answer: Baha'i faith
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In one poem, this author wrote that "the widest prairies have electric fences" whose "muscles-shredding violence gives no quarter," before concluding that "young steers become old cattle from that day." This poet of Wires," wrote of a "wild white face that overtops / Red stretcher-blankets momently / As it is carried in and stowed," as well as another poem about an earl and countess that "lie in stone / Their proper habits vaguely shows." This author of "Ambulances" may be better known for a poem in which the speaker wonders "if anyone looked at me, forty years back / And thought, That'll be the life," before suddenly thinks of the title objects. This author of "An (*) Arundel Tomb" compiled collections like The Less Decieved and The Whitsun Weddings and included "Annus Mirabilis" and his most famous work in High Windows. That best-known work is titled from a line in Robert Louis Stevenson's "Requiem" and references "fools in old style hats and coats" before advising "Get out as early as you can, / And don't have any kids yourself." FTP, identify this English poet who declared "They fuck you up, your mum and dad" in "This Be the Verse."
Answer: Philip Arthur Larkin
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One of this dynasty's rulers built a desert castle with a famous fresco showing a curiously Chinese king, as well as the Spanish Roderick and four others, at Qasr Amra. Another ruler of this empire was embarrassed when a female seer named Dihya led a berber rebellion and ended the practice of iconography in coinage, instituting a standard minting system that precipitated a conflict that this dynasty won when 20,000 of the appropriately-named Neboulos's slavs defected from Leontios's forces at the Battle of Sebastopolis. A less successful son of that ruler sacked Balanjar after breaking through the Gate of the Alans, but earlier had a pivotal siege broken by the Bulgarian Tervel. This dynasty fought against (*) Justinian II and Leo III the Isaurian as part of the Byzantine-Arab wars, and ended after a disastrous cavalry charge was ordered into Abu Muslim's spear wall at the Battle of the Zab River by Marwan II. Walid I's rule of this dynasty marked a move toward toleration for the followers of Ali, a century after its forces had slain Hussayn at the Battle of Karbala. Ruled by Abd al-Malik and founded by Muawiya, FTP, identify this Sunni state based out of Damascus, a Muslim Caliphate succeeded by the Abbasids.
Answer: Umayyad Caliphate or Banu Umayyah
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One formulator of an argument supporting this concept was accused of blasphemy by two theologians from Leiden University, and had to ask William II, Prince of Orange, to intervene so as to avoid being condemned. Timon of Phlius argued for this concept in attacking the deductive basis for the Aristotelian worldview, a stronger argument for this position than that put forth by his tutor. One thinker's body part-referencing counter to this basic philosophical position sparked an entire summer of metaphysical debate with Norman Malcolm and was first discussed in A Defence of Common Sense. That thinker was inspired by Philip Gosse's Omphalos to formulate a variation of the five-minute world argument concerning this concept in his (*) Proof of an External World. G.E. Moore referenced the advocacy of Pyrrho of Elis - as related by Sextus Empiricus - to argue against this concept, also challenged by Hilary Putnam dude to the inherenit incoherence reflected by the "brain in a vat" experiment. Famously put forth by Descartes in his "evil demon" thought experiment, FTP, identify this philosophical position contrasted with "animal faith" by George Santayana, characterized by the essential tenet that human knowledge is impossible.
Answer: philosophical skepticism (prompt on "evil demon" until mentioned)
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One theory due to this person explains a characteristic minus-five-thirds wave number energy spectrum by positing the accumulation of Fourier modes in turbulent flows. This scientist's name is on that theory along with that of the man who discovered the phase space structures that explain it, which are bifrucations corresponding to period doubling. This physicist discovered that, at a value of the renormalized rest energy times e to the six pi squared over flavor number times renormalized coupling constant squared, the (*) coupling constant for an interaction becomes singular. This man's work with liquid helium II earned him a Nobel for his research into superfluidity, and he lends his name to the slowing of Langmuir waves over time in a plasma, his namesake "damping." FTP, name this physicist who minimized the superconductor free energy in an order parameter to obtain a phenomenological theory of superconductivity named for him and Ginzberg.
Answer: Lev Davidovich Landau
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This man's disastrous expedition against Antonio Gutierrez, conducted at the behest of John Jervins, failed primarily due to his use of sailor instead of soldiers to fight through San Cristobal Castle. This figure signed an armistice with the future Frederick VI after one victory, leading to the dissolution of an alliance between Prussia, Sweden, Denmark, and Russia made to protect trade interest, the League of Armed Neutrality. This victor at Santa Cruz de Tenerife defeated Olfert Fischer despite heavy fire from the Tre Kroner forts, ignoring Hyde Parker's order to (*) retreat. In the wake of another victory for this figure, he was unable to organize sufficient ship support for a failed seige of Acre. Togo Heihachiro modeled himself after this victor at the Battle of Copenhagen, who sent the L'Orient to the bottom of Aboukir Bay, killing Admiral Brueys. Cuthbert Collingwood finished this man's triumph of Pierre de Villenueve after he was killed by a sniper's bullet. FTP, identify this man who ruined Napoleon's naval ambitions with victories at the Battle of the Nile and the Battle of Trafalgar, a British admiral.
Answer: Horatio Nelson, or theoretically the Duke of Bronte
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This mythological figure can be linked to Taranis through his epithet "Pendaran," and one text claims that lies told by this man and a younger relative led to the eternal imprisonment of Gweir. This ruler of the palace Narberth used a magic bag to overcome a son of Clud after a pivotal encounter with another figure at Gorsedd Aberth. This individual wronged a figure who fought the Battle of the Trees against the sons of Don when his own dogs overtook that king's ethereal hunting hounds, leading to a deal that involved some sexless bed-sharing and culminated in his slaying of Hafgan. This figure's son was initially named Gwri in reference to his golden hair and feuded over some missing pigs with Gwydion; that son (*) reappeared at the court of Terynon years after this man was deceived into thinking his wife had killed the child after her handmaidens smeared puppy blood on his wife's mouth. This figure, who switched places with a lord of Annwn named Arawn, first saw that wife riding a white horse and won her from the boorish Gwawl. The subject of the first branch of the Mabinogion, FTP, identify this figure from Welsh myth who fathered Pryderi with his wife, Rhiannon.
Answer: Pwyll
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First round picks of this franchise have included Chester McGlockton, Napoleon Kaufmann, and Rickey Dudley, and it temporarily disabled ESPN computers after causing a player evaluation program to crash when it calculated the difference between the expected draft position of Ohio's Michael Mitchell and the spot at which this team actually took him. One of this organization's employee's had his title altered three times in a two-week period before being derided for "confusing the players" after a defensive backs meeting, and identifies himself ad nauseam as a lifelong fan of this team. A spontaneous team chant of "bomoye" broke out on the Monday morning after an incident involving that coach, who joined this team after the departures of such first-round flops as Fabian Washington, Philip (*) Buchanon, and Napoleon Harris. This team also wasted first-round picks on Robert Gallery and Sebastian Janikowski before again making a mockery of itself by drafting Darrius Heyward-Bey 7th overall in 2009. Known for the mid-season dismissal of Lane Kiffin and the mid-season breaking of Randy Hanson's jaw by head coach Tom Cable, this franchise continues to experimentally verify whether or not the McDonald's dollar menu can chisel a starting quarterback by employing Jamarcus Russell. Owned by leather jacket enthusiast and disaster of humanity Al Davis, FTP, identify this NFL team known for its silver and black colors, being located across the bay from San Francisco, and sucking.
Answer: Oakland Raiders (accept either name)
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In one work by this author, Rick Vigorous provides an ancillary account after the protagonist is repeatedly derided by her cockatiel over her management of her relative's escape from a nursing home. Another work by this man notes that authors of fiction "like to ogle" in a predatory style, but laments the decline in properly-employed literary irony created by the prevalence of television in modern culture. This creator of the switchboard operator Lenore Beadsmen considered the title figure's "beautification" of athletics in a work referencing his own junior (*) tennis career, "Roger Federer as Religious Experience," and included the aforementioned "E Unibus Pluram" in a collection title for his highly critical account of a Caribbean cruise. This author of Consider the Lobster, The Broome of the System, and A Supposedly Fun Thing I'll Never Do Again will have his last novel, The Pale King, published posthumously in 2010, two years after this man committed suicide. Best known for a novel about the Incandenza family, FTP, name this American author of Infinite Jest.
Answer: David Foster Wallace
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One effect posited to explain the motion of these objects is the generation of an effective force by anisotropic emission of thermal photons named for Yarkovsky. These objects are the subject of the Tholen and SMASS classification systems, in the latter of which X is the classification of the usual metal types of these. One of these objects with an abnormally low eccentricity and no companions is 279 (*) Thule. Yesterday, the Dawn mission aimed at studying these bodies entered the region with the highest density of these objects, which are absent in the Kirkwood gaps. Toutatis is part of the Atens class of these objects, one of three subsets classified as NEOs, while groups of these bodies collected around Jupiter's Lagrange points are known as Trojans. FTP, name this type of astronomic body that includes Ceres, many of which are found in a namesake "belt" between Mars and Jupiter.
Answer: asteroids
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The Revenue Equivalence Theorem states that any type of this satisfying risk neutrality and other assumptions are equal in terms of revenue produced. Arrow and Debreu showed that if agents' utility functions display convex preferences, then the Walrasian type of this will result in general equilibrium. Martin Shubik described one of these leading to a paradox in rational choice theory, named for a unit of currency. The combinatorial type of these involves arbitrary baskets rather than individual goods. The (*) Vickrey, or second-price, one of these forces rational participants to reveal their true value of the good. They are not often used for small purchases, probably because of their high transaction costs. Commonly used to sell art, FTP, identify this method of exchange in which buyers bid for goods.
Answer: auctions
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The author's forward to this novel explains its origins in his reading of a recently-deceased man's diaries, and notes an expectation that the intense greed and immorality of his countrymen will prevent them from identifying with the characters. A memorable scene in this novel sees the protagonist aimlessly wandering around a battlefield in a dead man's uniform before being shot in the leg by his own superior as the man rides away in utter panic. The protagonist of this novel watches a character who tends to caged birds, with whom he eventually communicates by a series of letters printed on pages torn from a book. That correspondence leads to a pivotal acquisition of three long ropes but also to a tragic (*) vow to never again see the main character after he escapes from a tower. Earlier, while that protagonist attends seminary in Naples, his aunt marries an ambassador to facilitate her affair with Count Mosca, but is later unsuccessful in in extracting him from the fallout when he kills an unstable actress's manager. After becoming a renowned preacher in the hopes of reconnecting with his belove, the protagonist of this work begins a lengthy affair under the cover of darkness, but is devestated by the deaths of his child and its mother, Clelia Conti. Fabrice del Dongo retires to the titular building at the end of, FTP, what novel by Stendahl?
Answer: The Charterhouse of Parma or La Chartreuse de Parme
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One work about this figure contrasts his desire to defile his sister's friend Ammonaria with his anger towards his nefarious former student Hilarion, who eventually transforms into the spirit of science. Heieronymus Bosch's depiction of this figure centrally shows him sitting on a small ledge between a man with a gigantic nose and a nun with a Krang-like head emerging from her stomach. Vasari claimed that a Martin Schongauer engraving of this figure inspired one of the few panel paintings by Michaelangelo, which uniquely depicted this figure in mid-air. The title character of one opera dresses up like this figure before being offered a Faustian deal by Ursula and Countess Helfenstein after he lulls Regina to sleep in (*) Odenwald forest. That opera centers around the creation of panels depicting this figure, set into wooden frames created by Nicholas Hagenau, and was written by Paul Hindemith. A golden temple sits atop the back of an elephant and a massive white horse rears up as this a nude rendition of this figure thrusts a crucifex at a column of very long-legged animals in a Salvador Dali painting. He is often shown getting the living hell pounded out of him by various demons, most famous in the Isenheim Altarpiece. FTP, identify this Christian saint, whose desert "temptation" was a frequent artistic subject in art.
Answer: Saint Anthony the Great
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One reaction to this event was allegedly the subject of a harsh debate between Admiral Hollmann and Chlodowig Hohenlohe. Charles Leonard and Lionel Phillips signed a document contributing to this event that rails against the dangers to "our race" posed by a "foreign corporation" and claims to have gathered 40,000 signatures, labeling it an "official report" of the Reform committee. This event contributed to the end of an agreement negotiated by a former administrator of Hong Kong, Hercules Robinson, who had succeeded Henry Loch despite being 71 before earning the ire of Joseph Chamberlain over the fallout from this event. That agreement, the London Convention, predated a revelation that prompted the Raleigh Grey to organize a group initially based out of (*) Pitsani in the lead-up to this event, which marked the high point of the Drifts Crisis. The man most associated with this event had previously served as administrator of Mashonaland and Matabeleland, and drew from the latter's police force after gold was discovered at Witwatersrand to constitute the perpetrating force of this event. Defeated by Piet Cronje, this action prompted a document praising the "energetic" self-defense efforts of the defenders to be sent by Kaiser Wilhelm II, the Kruger Telegram. FTP, name this attempt by British Uitlanders backed by Cecil Rhodes to take over the Transvaal in the namesake commander's military action.
Answer: Jameson Raid
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TB The Franz Kafka short story "A New Advocate" imagines this figure's career as a lawyer during his afterlife. A city named after him is described as being inland from the city of Barigaza, though his final resting place is probably closer to the town of Jalapur Sharif. Shortly after this figure's death, a mutiny at Hyphasis ended an Eastward campaign that saw him slain in battle against (*) Porus. Plutarch tells of how he originally belonged to Philonicus the Thessalian, but no one would accept Philonicus's selling price of thirteen talents; instead, a young boy wagered that amount that, even though many attendants had previously failed, he could tame this creature. He then turned him towards the sun so that he could not see his own shadow, which had been the cause of his distress. That boy would go on to become his master during the battles of the Granicus and Hydaspes Rivers. FTP, name this steed, the horse of Alexander the Great.
Answer: Bucephalus
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TB J. M. Barrie wrote a "Memoir of James Anon" named after the Greenwood one of these, and a yellow one lies in the lower right corner of Renoir's The Nymphs. In Yoruban myth, Edshu used one that had red, white, green, and black sides to cause a fight between two farmers. The symmetry of the Higgs field is broken when it is distorted into a potential named after a Mexican one, and stories such as "Man in the Drawer" and "Notes from a Lady at a Dinner Party" appear in a Malamud collection named after (*) Rembrandt's one of these objects. In Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 2: Portrait of Thomas Carlyle, a black one rests on the man's lap, and the miller's wife is pursued by the Corregidor in a ballet by de Falla named after a Three Cornered one. Also giving its name to a "Red" Linux operating system, FTP, name this piece of clothing of which 500 were worn by Bartholomew Cubbins in a Dr. Seuss story.
Answer: Hat
 
2009 Illinois Open Bonuses by Michigan
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Answer some questions about early medieval kingdoms, FTPE:,
[10] This is the combined name for the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that would later form England. It is derived from the numerical division of the island between Northumbria, Kent, Sussex, and four other kingdoms, and ended when Egbert of Wessex unified most of the territories following the Battle of Ellendun.
Answer: The Heptarchy
[10] Kings of this group included Reccared I, who converted the kingdom to Catholicism, and Sisebut, who sponsored a bishop named Isidore to write the Etymologiae. Alaric sacked Rome with this group, one of two major branches of an East Germanic tribe known for establishing kingdoms in Western Europe and especially Spain.
Answer: Visigoth (prompt on "Goths")
[10] The first member of this office, Perthemius, was installed by Theudebert I to oversee Austrasia. Its holders include hilariously-named Wandawenus and Gogo, and this office became hereditary under Pippinids like Drogo.
Answer: Mayor of the Palace or Majordomo
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2These cells possess an unusually large central Golgi body and are composed mainly of type I collagen. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify these cells that play a role in the mineralization of the bone matrix and generally act to rebuild bone tissues.
Answer: osteoblasts
[10] These are the spaces in bone tissue through which a bone's blood vessels and nerves pass. They are created by concentric osteoblast rings known as lamellae.
Answer: Haversian canals
[10] In contrast with the compact or cortical bone, this type of osseous tissue is softer and spongier. It generally contains many blood vessels and is thus the site of red blood cell production.
Answer: cancellous bone [or trabecular bone]
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The author of this work described it as "a study of human effort on tropical soil," and it includes sections such as "The Magic of Palms" and "Fruits of the Wood and of the Wild." FTPE:,
[10] Name this work that describes kamkokola, geometrical erections at the corners of the titular agricultural arrangements, a study of agricultural practices of the Trobriand islanders.
Answer: Coral Gardens and their Magic
[10] Coral Gardens and their Magic is the third book by this Polish anthropologist describing life in the Trobriand islands. It follows The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia and Argonauts of the Western Pacific.
Answer: Bronislaw Malinowski
[10] Malinowksi's observations of the Trobrian islanders are cited by this nutball to assert that Western Patriarchy is uniquely responsible for the progression of sex norms in his Sexuality and the Culture Struggle. He also wrote the Trobriand-heavy Invasion of Cumpulsory Sex Morality before being ripped apart for blaming cancer on sexual frustration by Mildred Brady.
Answer: Wilhelm Reich
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Name the authors responsible for creating these worlds, FTPE:,
[10] The Three-Cornered World is a novel by this author, who wrote of a student's narrative about his master and his parents in Kokoro. His autobiographical allegory Botchan draws on his own experiences as a Tokyo teacher.
Answer: Natsume Soseki
[10] The Kingdom of this World, set during the Haitian Revolution, is a work by this Cuban magical realist whose Concierto Barroco envisioned characters who contribute to the composition of Vivaldi's opera Montezuma. He also wrote The Lost Steps and Explosion in a Cathedral.
Answer: Alejo Carpentier
[10] This author wrote of Graff and Siggy's ambitions to unleash animals from the Vienna Zoo, Setting Free the Bears. He's better known for The World According to Garp.
Answer: John Irving
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One ruler from this dynasty sent Zheng He on seven voyages and usurped the throne from his nephew, the Jianwen Emperor. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this dynasty founded when Zhu Yuanzhang's Red Turban revolt overthrew the Yuan and began rule as the Hongwu Emperor.
Answer: Ming Dynasty
[10] Despite the intense corruption of the Jiajing Emperor's minister Yan Song, the great Ming commander Qi Jiguang was able to mostly defeat the threat posed by these Japanese pirates who plagued Asian waters until beaten back by Qi and Yu Dayou. Japan and Korea targeted these groups in the Treaty of Gyehae.
Answer: Wokou
[10] This peasant founded the alleged Shun dynasty, and was a major cause of the final collapse of Ming China. This "roaming king" sacked Beijing and provoked the Chongzhen Emperor's suicide before wandering all around China repeatedly losing to the Manchus, most famously due to Wu Sangui's betrayal at the Battle of Shanhai Pass.
Answer: Li Zicheng
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Answer some questions about sculptures composed of a certain metal, FTPE:,
[10] Based on August Nyet, this Rodin sculpture was originally titled The Vanquished, but the spear in the subject's left hand was removed. It shows a nude man resting his right fist on his head, and was the subject of rampant speculation that it was cast from a live model.
Answer: The Age of Bronze
[10] This baroque sculptor claimed that after re-casting his plaster Neapolitan Fisherman in bronze, he could no longer look at the original work. His other works include the scandalous The Dance, which adorns the Paris Opera House, the Observatory Fountain at Luxembourg Garden, and Ugolino and His Sons.
Answer: Jean-Baptise Carpeaux
[10] The Merchant's Guild commissioned Ghiberti to cast a bronze statue of this saint to put in the Or San Michelle, the first bronze of its size to be made since ancient times. Not to be outdone, the Banker's Guild soon had him make a statue of St. Matthew that was even bigger.
Answer: St. John the Baptist (do not accept "John")
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This function takes the form of minus a constant times the negative exponential of a constant times distance, all over distance. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this function that also appears in the case in which the Coulomb force is screened by charge.
Answer: the Yukawa potential [prompt on screened Coulomb potential]
[10] As can be deduced from a two-fermion Feynman diagram, the Yukawa potential and its accompanying interaction couple the field of a fermion to the field of this other type of particle, which consits of a quark/anti-quark in a bound state and along with baryons comprise the main divisions of hadrons.
Answer: a meson
[10] One of these quantities named for Hagedorn dictates the stability of mesons and other particles. When this thermodynamic variable approaches the value named for Hagedorn, the trace of e to the minus thermodynamic beta times Hamiltonian is singular.
Answer: temperature
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The title character of this work chooses to stay with her husband, the clergyman James Morell, rather running away with the poet Eugene Marchbanks. FTPE:,
[10] Name this play about the daughter of Mr. Burgess, who decides that she prefers a weaker, malleable husband to on who would actually appreciate her.
Answer: Candida
[10] This Irish playwright authored Candida and set his tale of Richard Dudgeon, The Devil's Disciple, during the American Revolution. He's better-known for works like Major Barbara and Pygmalion.
Answer: George Bernard Shaw
[10] Shaw's play about Harry Trench's affair with the daughter of the slumlord Sartorius, Widower's Houses, is known for containing the amazingly-named William Cokane, and for comprising this group of plays along with The Philanderer and Mrs. Warren's Profession. It was follwed by a counterpart collection including Arms and the Man.
Answer: "Plays Pleasant" [accept any answer with the adjective Pleasant; do not accept "Plays Unpleasant"]
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One supposed story related by this philosopher deals with a directive to a student that this man should be paid his fee only if the student won his first lawsuit, immediately before that student turned around and sued him to get back the fee. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this philosopher, whose disciples include Gorgias and Thrasymachus. This thinker, who made a code of laws for the city of Thurii, is perhaps best known for declaring that "man is the measure of all things."
Answer: Protagoras
[10] Protagoras was the most prominent member of this group, which drew the ire of Plato and others for accepting money in exchange for instruction. Their name comes from the Greek for "wisdom."
Answer: The Sophists
[10] This Platonic dialogue has the best descriptions of Protagoras's thought, and takes the form of a conversation between Euclides and Terpsion. It contains the idea that one opinion can be better, albeit not truer, than another, and imagines the mind as a birdcage, in which you might easily grab the wrong kind of bird.
Answer: Theaetetus
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They often contain water reservoirs that can provide a home for insects or small amphibians. Orchids, mosses, and bromeliads are examples of them. For 10 points each:,
[10] These are plants that grow on other plants but, unlike mistletoe, are not parasitic.
Answer: epiphytes
[10] Epiphytes have this type of relationship with their host plants, in which the guest benefits but the host is neither significantly harmed nor helped. Other examples include the clownfish using the sea anemone as a shelter and birds that follow tracks of grazing animals to eat stirred up insects.
Answer: commensalism
[10] Exemplified by the attachment of the remora to larger aquatic species or the attachment of millipedes and some mites to flying birds, this form of commensialism is a small organism's use of a larger for transportation, but not feeding.
Answer: phoresy
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In the Kalevala, blood from a wounded Vainamoinen caused one of these events, while Deucalion and his wife avoided perishing in one of these in Greek myth by hiding inside a chest for nine days. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this type of event, which Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh he survived after a warning from the gods and which Jormungundr will trigger at Ragnarok when he flops around an awful lot by rising from the ocean.
Answer: great flood or deluge (accept clear knowledge equivalents)
[10] In preparation for a great flood, Manu was instructed to take the seven sages, medicinal herbs, and seeds aboard a raft by this first avatar of Vishnu, a giant horned fish.
Answer: Matsya
[10] This deity, who created a flood called the Unu Pachakuti to wipe out the people around Lake Titicaca, is the Inca god of sun and storms.
Answer: Viracocha
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Answer these questions about Supreme Court cases that laid the groundwork for the landmark decision in Gideon v. Wainwright, FTPE:,
[10] Gideon directly overturned this 1942 case in which a six to three majority headed by Owen Roberts decided that having a defense council was not always necessary to the course of due process. Hugo Black's dissent attacked Roberts's position on the grounds that denying justice on the grounds of poverty is always irreconcilable.
Answer: Betts v. Brady (accept either answer)
[10] The 1932 decision in Powell v. [this state] established the need for council in capital cases, and arose out of this state's Scottsboro Boys incident. This Southern state was the site of several other Civil Rights landmarks, including a famous march across Edmund Pettus Bridge from Selma and a famous bus boycott.
Answer: Alabama
[10] Hugo Black wrote the majority opinion in this 1938 case that guaranteed the right to council for defendants in federal cases; the defendant in question had been forced to represent himself on charges of possessing counterfeit money.
Answer: Johnson v. Zerbst (accept either answer)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The earliest known algorithm to find them was proposed to create an efficient electrical network, since this object gives the least-cost set of edges reaching all nodes. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this construct that can be found by the parallelizable Boruvka algorithm or simple Kruskal algorithm.
Answer: minimum spanning tree
[10] This minimum spanning tree-finding algorithm is in some sense the dual of Dijkstra's algorithm in that it grows a tree starting with an arbitrary node and adding the remaining node with the minimum-weight edge until all nodes are added. On a Fibonacci heap, its time complexity is number of edges plus number of vertices log number of vertices.
Answer: Prim's algorithm (accept Jarnik's algorithm or DJP algorithm)
[10] Prim's algorithm is an example of this general class of algorithms that always take the locally optimal step.
Answer: greedy algorithms
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following questions about ecumenical councils, FTPE:,
[10] This fourth Catholic council at this site, convened by Pope Adrian II in 869, deposed Photios as Patriarch of the namesake city and restored Ignatius. The first ecumenical council in this city was called by Theodosius I to deal with Arianism, and appropriately took place in Hagia Irene in this capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Answer: Constantinople
[10] This council, the last one recognized by the Anglican Communion, established that Christ has a human and a divine nature, which are different but united in hypostasis. Marcian convened this 451 in a city in Bithynia at the behest of Leo I to deal with the fallout of Eutyches's reaffirmation by the so-called "robber synod" at Ephesus five years earlier.
Answer: Council of Chalcedon
[10] This religious community ceased recognizing church councils over antagonism with the Council of Chalcedon, only holding First Nicea, First Constantinople, and Ephesus as canonical. This geographically-named group includes the Armenian, Ethiopian, and Coptic churches, and is not to be confused with Eastern Orthodox.
Answer: Oriental Orthodox Church or Old-Oriental Orthodox Church (prompt on "Non-Chaldeonian Church")
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This poem's speaker expresses his outrage over his obsession's audacity to keep a small garden and offer a melon to the abbot, before wandering about tripping him or damning his soul by slipping an impious book into his coat. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this work found in Dramatic Lyrics, which sees the speaker rail against the many damnable offenses of Brother Lawrence without realizing that he's plotting murder and that murder is, generally, not very Christian.
Answer: Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister
[10] This poem opens by stating "The rain set in early tonight" and "The sullen wind... did its worst to vex the lake," and ends chillingly by noting that "and yet God has not said a word" after the title figure strangles his paramour with her own long, blond hair.
Answer: Porphyria's Lover
[10] Porphyria's Lover was written by this British poet, who again returned to theme of murder in My Last Duchess. He also received the Sonnets from the Portuguese from his wife, Elizabeth Barret.
Answer: Robert Browning
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Her strangely well-known death occurred in the death of the car of Benoit Falchetto and caused Gertrude Stein to remark, "affectations can be dangerous." FTPE,,
[10] Name this dancer whose likeness can be seen in many of the sculptures and reliefs at the Theare des Champs-Elysees, a figure known as the mother of modern dance.
Answer: Isadora Duncan
[10] Duncan's first dance school was located in this forest of Berlin named after a hunting lodge established by Joachim II of Brandenburg in 1543. This surname is shared by expressionist Swedish painter Isaac and German Renaissance leader Matthias, who painted The Mocking of Christ and the works that adorn the Isenheim Altarpiece.
Answer: Grunewald
[10] Isadora Duncan was a personal hero for this huge S&M perv, whose prolific pornographic photography output is thankfully eclipsed by his musical works. This Australian arrainged Cecil Sharpe's Country Gardens for paino and composed a group of works inspired by Kipling, and is responsible for Lincolnshire Posy and Molly on the Shore.
Answer: Percy Grainger
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify these clashes during World War II, FTPE:,
[10] This operation attempted to bypass the Siegfried line by crossing several key bridges in the low countries. It failed after the Germans defended themselves well at Arnhem, breaking Montgomery's momentum.
Answer: Operation Market Garden
[10] The failure of the Germans to win this battle was one of the factors in crippling Axis North Africa as it allowed the Allies to continue to cripple Axis shipping. Operation Herkules was another attempt to win this battle, but was continually stalled.
Answer: Siege of Malta (accept anything that involves attacking Malta)
[10] After this battle, the German offensive of 1943 against the Soviets collapsed. It saw Georgy Zhukov turn back forces under the command of von Manstein and was the culminating point of Operation Citadel. It famously included a rather incredible amount of tanks.
Answer: Battle of Kursk
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It flows from its source in western British Columbia through urban centers like Dawson City before reaching Alaska. FTPE:,
[10] Name this river which flows though central Alaska before reaching the Bering Sea and passes through Whitehorse, the capital of its namesake Canadian province.
Answer: Yukon River
[10] The western part of the Yukon flows between the Alaska Range and this range of mountains, the northernmost extension of the Rockies. Named after a geologist, they include the Kobuk Valley and Gates of the Arctic National Parks.
Answer: Brooks Range
[10] The Tagish Indian Keish, better known as Skookum Jim Mason, triggered the Klondike Gold Rush after leading William Ogilvie through a pass in the Coast Mountains named bearing this colorful name. This adjective also describes in inlet of the Barents Sea bounded by Dvina and Onega bays and the Kola Peninsula.
Answer: White (White Pass, White Sea, whatever)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The conduction form of this results from damage to the arcuate fasciculus, and is characterized by difficulty in repeating heard speech. FTPE,
[10] Identify this general class of disorder, in which language function is impaired. Other examples include anomic, where patients show deficits in object naming, and Broca's, with impairments in speech production.
Answer: Aphasia
[10] Lesions in this area of the brain may lead to `pseudo-foreign accent syndrome' or dysprosody which is part of this organ's receptive aphasia. It encircles the auditory fissure on the sylvan cortex at the posterior of the superior temportal gyrus.
Answer: Wernicke's area (also accept Brodmann's Area 22)
[10] The bane of quizbowlers everywhere, this term is the general condition of being unable to recall a piece of memory when needed. Symptoms include longer amounts of time being taken on mental tasks, struggles or pauses when retrieving names and an increased number of neg fives.
Answer: dysnomia (prompt on "Chris Syndrome")
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Name these Russian authors, FTPE:,
[10] His The Life of Arsenyev and Lika form two parts of a projected autobiographic trilogy. This winner of the 1933 Nobel Prize in Literature is better known for novellas like On the Farm and The Gentleman from San Francisco.
Answer: Ivan Bunin
[10] This author of The Duel wrote a stirring account of the lives of prostitutes, a naturalist novel with the title The Pit that is unrelated to the works of Frank Norris.
Answer: Aleksandr Kuprin
[10] A fistfight occurs between the oprichnik Kiribeevich and the titular character of this man's poem The Song of the Merchant Kalashnikov. He also wrote a novel containing the section Princess Mary in which Pechorin kills Grushnitsky in a duel.
Answer: Mikhail Lermontov
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This class of reactions is exemplified by the base-catalyzed reaction between a carbonyl and an ester to produce a beta-keto ester. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this class of reactions in which two molecules typically join to form a more complicated one, giving off a small byproduct, often water.
Answer: condensations
[10] In the aforementioned Claisen condensation, the enolizability of the hydrogen atom at this position controls stereoselectivity. This position is so named because it corresponds to attachment to the carbon closest to the major functional group.
Answer: alpha position [accept alpha hydrogen or alpha carbon]
[10] A condensation reaction named after this molecule forms alpha-hydroxyketones using two aromatic aldehydes and a cyanide ion catalyst.
Answer: benzoin

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