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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 Gaddis Tossups by Round 5
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It is available in two recensions, the Saunaka, which consists of 730 mostly metrical hymns, and the Paippalada. Because it contains both wholesome, auspicious "white magic" and the terrible "black magic" of the Angirgas, it is sometimes known as its eponymous avangirasah. It contains charms to counteract diseases and possession by evil spirits; prayers for health and longevity and happiness and prosperity, and spells pertaining to various kinds of relationships with women. Also known as the Veda of the Pancakalpins, because of its unique content it was the last of the Vedas to be recognized as authoritative. Less restricted and grammatically pure than the Rig Veda, for fifteen points, name this work, which along with the Sama and Yajur composes the four major Vedic samhitas.
Answer: Atharvaveda (4)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
A theorem which states an infinite set of points all at an integral distance from each other are collinear is named for Anning and this man. Along with Straus, he is the namesake of a conjecture which states that the sum of three distinct unit fractions is equal to four times another unit fraction always holds true. The generalization of Turan's theorem to non-complete graphs is a theorem named for him and Stone, and the sum of the inverses of the Mersenne primes is a constant named for Bordwein and this man. An inequality relating the distances of a point inside a triangle to the vertices and sides is named for this man and Mordell. Known to refer to a set of elegant proofs comprising "the book," he is better known for his solutions of Chebyshev's theorem and the Prime Number theorem. The subject of Paul Hoffman's The Man Who Loved Only Numbers, for 10 points, identify this prolific Hungarian mathematician, whose namesake metric describes the distance of collaboration between himself and another scientist.
Answer: Paul Erdos (2)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This author satirized the Yazoo River land speculation in his lost play The Georgia Speculator, or Land in the Moon. This one-time Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court was the model for Jaffrey Pyncheon in The House of the Seven Gables. Doctor Updike Underhill loses a debate with Mollah over the relative merits of Christianity and Islam after being seized by Algerians in his picaresque novel The Algerine Captive. In another of his plays, Van Rough allows his daughter Maria to marry Captain Manly after learning about the schemes of the foppish Billy Dimple. FTP, name this author of the first comedy performed in the United States of America, The Contrast.
Answer: Royall Tyler (5)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Early in his career he collected relics of St. Philip and stamped out mnogoglasie (silent "m") in a city in which Harold Hardraade had taken refuge. He once resigned after a mass at the Cathedral of Dormition and he was an important member of a group led by Stefan Vonifatiev. His actions led to the future establishment of groups such as the Chapellers and Pomorians, and his most famous action led to the exile of Login, Ivan Neronov, and Paul of Kolomna. An important member of the Zealots of Piety, he was opposed by Daniil and Avvakum, the latter of whom was exiled to Tobolsk, which became a center for dissidents against this man. Exiled to the Ferapontov monastery after causing a schism with the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch, he succeded Patriarch Joasaf and during the rule of Tsar Alexei, he attempted to update the Russian church with contemporary Greek practice. FTP, name this Metropolitan of Moscow who caused the schism with Old Believers, a man who shares his name with a camera company.
Answer: Nikon (4)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This mine worker rose to become the Secretary General of his country's Congress of Trade Unions, and coordinated the "stay-aways" of 1997 and 1998. In 1999, he founded a political party which has opposed the incumbent's land seizures, but cooperated in passing the controversial Constitutional Amendment 18. After the 2002 election, he was arrested and charged with treason, while his 2007 arrest and beating caused international outcry, though he claimed that "the scars have re-energized me." He declared that "democracy is an orphan" in The Guardian, in an article which promised amnesty to his opponent. FTP, name this politician, the leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, who faces a run-off against Robert Mugabe for the presidency of Zimbabwe.
Answer: Morgan Tsvangirai (4)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One of these creatures has "a fulgent cloak stark as a warlock's cape" and "roosts alone on a Scots pine" in a Geoffrey Hill poem about one at Alderton. They "flew from the boughs of the hemlocks down to the ground" in a poem whose speaker declares "I felt afraid. And I remembered the cry of" these animals, "Domination of Black." The speaker meets Berserk "In the moonlight / On the bushy plain" in Wallace Stevens' "Anecdote of the Prince of" these birds, and an author with this surname caricatured Lord Byron as Mr. Cypress, Coleridge as Mr. Losky, and Percy Shelley as Scythorp in Nightmare Abbey. FTP, identify this bird, which is identified with the strutting Jack Boyle in a Sean O'Casey play whose title pairs it with Juno.
Answer: peacocks (1)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The artist of this work later incorporated it into a mosaic on Huntington Beard Crouse Hall at Syracuse University. That artist wrote that this painting attempted to reveal "the acts and the persons involved with as rigorous a simplicity as [he] could command" in The Shape of Content. A single ornate gold column appears in the upper left corner of this painting, whose background features a set of steps leading up to two closed wooden doors flanked by large columns. In the foreground, two men wearing black suits and top hats hold white flowers next to a man dressed in a cap and gown, A. Lawrence Lowell. Those three men stand below Judge Webster Thayer, while the two title figures are depicted at the bottom in coffins. FTP, name this painting by Ben Shahn about the execution of two Italian anarchists.
Answer: The Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti (4)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Prominent beaks can be found on the pedicle valve of the Kutorginida order in this phylum, while a very small number of Thecideida are still alive today from this phylum. The Lingula genus is unusual amongst them because it consisted of burrowing species, and they have historically been divided into Articulata and Inarticulata classes. Like Bryozoa and Phoronida, they possess a feeding organ known as a lophophore, and their abundance in the Paleozoic era make them the most common extant fossils. Although they look similar to clams because they all possess two shells, they are evolutionary divergent and are predominantly found in trenches or polar regions. FTP, identify this phylum, sometimes known as lamp shells.
Answer: Brachiopods [or Brachiopoda; prompt on "brachs" or "lamp shells"] (4)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In this modern-day state, troops under Lieutenants W. C. Brown and Edward Farrow defeated the Turakina in the Sheepeater Indian War. A warning by Zachias Van Ornum led troops under Colonel Patrick Connor to perpetuate the Bear River Massacre in this modern-day state. In 1915, this state elected America's first Jewish governor, Moses Alexander. In 1907, Big Bill Haywood was acquitted of assassinating the governor of this state, Frank Steunenberg. Senators from this state include the leader of the Irreconcilables, William Borah. In 1992, U.S. Marshals opened fire on Vicki and Randy Weaver in an incident in this state known as Ruby Ridge. FTP, name this Northwest state recently represented by Larry Craig, whose largest cities include America's Neo-Nazi capital of Coeur d'Alene, Pocatello, and Boise.
Answer: Idaho (1)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The tide of this battle turned when forces under the command of Lieutenant Colonel John Mackintosh surprised a squadron led by Colonel Valdez. Before this battle, the winning commander tried to provoke attacks at Turubamba and Chillogallo. It began with a surprise attack on the Cazadores del Paya Battalion, and went poorly for the defenders when the Yaguachi Battalion of Colonel Morales and the Alto Magdalena Battalion of Colonel Cordova failed to outflank the attackers. However, the reserve Albion Battalion caused heavy casualties for the Aragon Battalion of Melchor Aymerich. Fought on a namesake volcano, this May 24, 1822 battle enabled a country later led by Gabriel Garcia Moreno to join Gran Colombia. FTP, name this victory for Antonio Jose de Sucre which led to Ecuador's independence from Spain.
Answer: Battle of Pichincha (5)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The cart-pole problem and the Tsetlin automaton model this behavior, whose problems include the credit structuring and partial observability problems. The Rescorla-Wagner equations attempt to model this behavior computationally, and Barto applied actor-critic architecture to the basal ganglia to suggest that it causes this behavior. According to the Premack Principle, optimizing this process requires creating a hierarchy of probable behaviors. This process can be accelerated by shaping, and schedules of this behavior include fixed-interval and variable-ratio. Thorndike's Law of Effect describes this behavior, while Skinner argued that it occurs when a subject learns the association between a response and its outcome. The opposite of punishment, FTP, name this type of learning originally defined by Pavlov as the strengthening of the association between a conditioned and an unconditioned stimulus.
Answer: reinforcement [prompt on learning] (1)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This composer included a barcarolette with an 18/8 time signature and a piece titled "Odi profanum vulgus et arceo" in his suite beginning with "La vision," Esquisses. He composed "grand etudes" for the left hand, the right hand, and both hands reunited, as well as a massive Concerto for Solo Piano. Another of his works, a sonata containing movements subtitled "Prometheus Bound" and "Quasi-Faust," is titled The Four Ages. His piano works include "Funeral March on the Death of a Parrot," the programmatic etude The Railway, and Scherzo diabolique. This composer allegedly died by being crushed by a bookshelf after reaching for a volume of the Talmud. For twenty points, name this virtuosic 19th century French composer of etudes in every major and minor key.
Answer: Charles-Valentin Alkan (6)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Confirming Frank's Prediction it was discovered that this was statistically proportional to the diameters of micropipes in Silicon Carbide crystals for the super-screw type of a certain process. Experimental methods for determining them include defocus convergent-beam electron diffraction techniques, though they can often be computed using the gb criterion in hexagonal close-packed lattices. Graphically determined by constructing its namesake circuit and finding the difference between the path around a dislocation and the corresponding path in the perfect part of the lattice, for fifteen points, name this vector that describes the magnitude and direction of the distortion for a dislocation within a crystal lattice usually denoted by a lowercase b.
Answer: Burgers Vector (5)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This work's antagonist keeps the heads of nine slain kings in a room tapestried with human skin, and kidnaps Balla Fasseke after hearing him play the balafon. Sassouma Berete bribes Konkon to kill the protagonist by challenging him to a game of wori. The antagonist's downfall begins when he steals Keleya, the wife of Fakoli, leading to his defeat at the battles of Negueboria and Tabon. The title character is born when Nare Maghan impregnates the Buffalo Woman, and is unable to walk until the age of seven, when he pulls a baobab tree out of the ground. Later, the title character defeats the Sosso king Soumangouru at the Battle of Kirina. Traditionally told orally by griots, FTP, name this African epic about a leader of the Mali Empire.
Answer: The Epic of Sundiata [accept The Epic of Sogolon-Djata] (4)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Anita Brenner refers to the origins of this song as a "jiggling nonsense ballad," and the title character of this song names a type of "people" in an Oscar Zeta Acosta work about Buffalo Zeta Brown. In this song, a baker attends Mass and asks the Virgin Mary for an illegal substance, and Panfilo Natero is declared the pride of Durango. Maria Felix starred in a 1958 film with the same name, which is linked to soldadera culture. Its title possibly refers to Pancho Villa's car or the nickname of Venustiano Carranza, and is slang for "dried-up old maid." Advising one to go to Jalisco for women and Saltillo for sarapes, it talks about how the title character does not want to walk because it doesn't have any marijuana to smoke. FTP, name this Mexican song about an insect.
Answer: "La Cucaracha" [or "The Cockroach"] (2)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The probably fictitious poisoning of Rammius helped inflame public opinion against this king, and he won two early victories at an encampment near Sycurium and Oreus. During his most notable conflict, he fought campaigns against the Dolopians and Dardanians. His final battle was forced after Scipio Nasica forced this king to fall back on a certain town, and Posidonius was the most noted biographer of this king. After his final defeat, he escaped to Samothrace, and he formed marriage alliances with Seleucus IV Philopator and Prusias of Bithynia. Detested by Eumenes of Pergamum, he was defeated by Lucius Aemillus Paulus and eventually was sent into exile with his brother Philip after losing the Battle of Pydna. FTP, name this last Antigonid Macedonian king, who shares his name with a hero thrown out to sea by King Acrisius.
Answer: Perseus of Macedon (5)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This building features sea-colored "whirlpool" floor tiles representing marine life. It contains a weblike iron street entrance designed by the Badia brothers, as well as balconies covered with wrought-iron foliage sculpted by Josep Maria Jujol. This building's attic is dominated by catenary arches, and its roof contains surreal chimneys nicknamed espantabruxes. Its ground floor contains cavelike openings, and its biomorphic exterior features no straight lines, like its architect's previous Casa Battlo. Also known as La Pedrera, FTP, name this apartment building in Barcelona built by Antonio Gaudi.
Answer: Casa Mila [accept La Pedrera before mentioned] (3)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One of this deity's sons brought Etain to Midir out of gratitude, and fell in love with a woman in the form of a swan, Caer Ibormeith. This god killed Cridenbel by giving him food containing three gold coins, and assured his side's victory over the Fomorians in the Second Battle of Magh Turedh by sleeping with the Morrigan. This son of Danu and father of Angus mac Og owned a club which could kill nine men on one side and revive them with the other, a harp he used to control the seasons, and a magical cauldron that never ran out of food. FTP, identify this Celtic god of the earth, the leader of the Tuatha de Danann, whose name means "the good god."
Answer: the Dagda (4)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In this work, a discussion of vanity concludes that had Cleopatra's nose been shorter, "the whole aspect of the world would have been altered." Other sections of this work deal with prophecies and proofs, and its author defines reason, custom, and inspiration as the three sources of faith in his treatment of the means of belief. The author "cannot forgive Descartes" for being "useless and uncertain" in his philosophical works, and also muses that "I look on all sides, and I see only darkness everywhere." The author states that he is frightened by "The eternal silence of these infinite spaces," before arguing that "The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know." Its defense of God's existence includes a section describing a choice between infinite happiness and infinite misery, known as it's author's namesake wager. FTP, name this unfinished collection of ideas by Blaise Pascal.
Answer: Pensees (3)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Much like many noted quizbowl hobos, a lawyer in this work starts emitting body odors after agreeing to represent the protagonist as a defense attorney. Other characters include Konrad Beiters, whose pistol is used at this work's climax, and Alois Straubleder, who is known to be a "gentleman visitor." The protagonist hooks up with a character at Else Woltersheim's party, and allows him to escape from her Elegant Riverside apartment. Towards this novel's end, Werner Totges asks the title character for a "bang," and she responds by shooting him, possibly in revenge for the scandalous articles published about her involvement in Ludwig Gotten's case. FTP, name this novel whose title character is disgraced by the German tabloid Zeitung, a work by Heinrich Boll.
Answer: The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum or How Violence Can Develop and Where it Can Lead [or Die verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum oder Wie Gewalt entstehen und wohin sie fuhren kann] (5)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The Cox-Yates equation is an example of an "excess" type of these, and is a modification of the Burnett-Olsen function, which is itself is a more general form of one of these. One of these developed by Stevens, Yates, and Katrizky is based on primary amides, and experimental data on one developed by Stewart shows that the activity coefficient of the media used to measure the namesake property is based on the dielectric constant. The most commonly used one employs a set of nitroaniline references and was developed by Louis Hammett. They are measured using similar indicators of varying strengths and their development accounted for compounds with a stronger proton donating ability than H2SO4. FTP, name these functions which improve on the measures approximated in the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and the pH scale and encompass all functions measuring "basicity".
Answer: acidity functions (3) [prompt on "basicity functions" before mention since the term is uncommon]
 
2008 Gaddis Bonuses by Round 5

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