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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 FEUERBACH Tossups by Chicago B
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He claimed that less fertile land will try to be cultivated because more fertile land will cost more in rent that eats away at profits. Termed his differential theory of rent, that came in his "Essay on Profit." He also saw elevated rent as a result of a series of laws he strongly lobbied against while in Parliament, a post he took after making money in the stock market. Besides those attacks on the Corn Laws, his other lasting contributions to economics come mostly in his most famous tract: Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. For 10 points, identify this British economist, the formulator of the Iron Law of Wages and the notion of Comparative Advantage.
Answer: David Ricardo
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She declares that so many stones have been thrown at her that she is no longer frightened of them in her poem "Solitude" which is collected in White Flock. This author claims "My heart will never forget the one/ Who gave her life for a single glance" in her poem "Lot's Wife." In one poem, this writer mentions the unlocked door, the unlit candle, and the unused bed, while in another, she tells the reader "You're alone with the man you love." Besides "White Night" and "In the Evening," she wrote of the love affair of a young officer named Vasevolod Knyazev and a beautiful dancer named Olga Glebova-Sudeikina in the exordium of another work. For 10 points, name this author of Requiem and "Poem Without a Hero."
Answer: Anna Akhmatova
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Pliny the Elder states that this man received the Corona Graminea for outstanding service during the Social War; though, he goes on to cast some doubt on this accomplishment. Unlike many of his rivals, he died peacefully while retiring with his lover Metrobius. While quaestor, he journeyed to Numidia and with the help of a local king, Bocchus, performed the acutal capture of Jugurtha. His appointment as dictator in 88 BCE marked end of the anti-artistocratic reforms implemented by his former commander and rival. For 10 points, name this Roman who undid the work of Gaius Marius.
Answer: Lucius Cornelius Sulla
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She collected her short stories, such as the "Watcher for the Dead" in volumes such as The Soft Voice of the Serpent and Beethoven was One-sixteenth Black. Her newest novel deals with a man undergoing radiation therapy for thyroid cancer, Paul Banneman, and another work sees Ann Davis have an affair with Gideon Shibalo. Besides Get a Life and Occasion for Loving, as well as her first novel Lying Days, she wrote of a relationship between Julie Summers and the illegal immigrant Abdu in The Pickup. In a more famous work, one character plays with kittens with her friend Nyiko, but her mother drowns those kittens in a bucket of water and after helping shoot two boars Daniel steals Bamford's gun to fight in Johannesburg. Other creations include Rosa, Lionel, and the Smales. For 10 points, name this author of The Conservationist and July's People.
Answer: Nadine Gordimer
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The secondary type can have dilated rays which result from localized anticlinal divisions. In some organisms, it can utilize raffinose in the polymer trap mechanism. The plugging of pores with callose also occurs in these objects, distinguished by their possession of fiber caps. Specialized parenchyma cells such as albuminous or companion cells facilitate movements of particles into sieve cells, while apoplastic and symplastic loading allow translocation; a movement from sources to sinks via turgor pressure. For 10 points, name this tissue concerned with the transport of food, contrasted with xylem.
Answer: Phloem
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In an introduction to this work, its author describes its American debut alongside Beckett's "Krapp's Last Tape" and traveling to its premier in Berlin. Early dialog sees one character praising "Good old North" after learning he's walked from 64th to 75th. Another character has two daughters and two parakeets because "that's the way the cookie crumbles" while his inquisitor describes his unique relationship with his landlady's dog. The ultimate conflict in the play comes when one character keeps elbowing the other for more room, despite that man's protestations that the park bench is his. For 10 points, Jerry ultimately gets Peter to stab him after Jerry has just visited the titular place in what play by Edward Albee?
Answer: The Zoo Story
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This team's stadium was nicknamed the "Theatre of Dreams" by former player Bobby Charlton. Two of this teams players have been named European Club Football players of the year--one in 1998, the other in 2008. In 1998-1999, this team had one of the most successful years in European Club football history winning their domestic league, domestic cup, and the Champion's League. The season was so successful that their manager was knighted following it. One of the most well supported teams in the world, their stadium, Old Trafford, is the second largest stadium in England. For 10 points, name this English Premier league team which won the premiership and the Champions League last year, former home of David Beckham and current home, for the moment at least, of Christiano Ronaldo.
Answer: Manchester United
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One character in this work has a love for the number seventeen and fixes gambling tables for his friends; that character earlier bought a turqoise necklace for the protagonist. The title character of this work is serenaded with the bassoon solo "Lullaby to Floripedes" by a member of the Amateur Orchestra of the Sons of Orpheus. A model who is a votary of the god Oxossi summons one character back from the grave. One of the title figures died while dancing the samba dressed as a woman with a large cassava tuber in his skirt. This novel also features Dona Gisa, who has a terrible accent, and this work sees Dona Norma de Ze Sampaio help the title character establish her cooking school. Seeing the title character marry Dr. Teodoro Madureira after the death of Vadinho, for 10 points, name this Jorge Amado novel.
Answer: Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands
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This painter of the Vision of the Blessed Herman Joseph also depicted two cherubs playing in the top right even as an aquatic nymph holds out a piece of paper in his Rinaldo and Armida, while another painting depicts a monkey resting on the arm of the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson, who stands next to Henrietta Maria. Religious works of his include Christ with St. Dominic and The Vision of St. Augustine, while other famous subjects of his portraits include Cardinal Bentivoglio and Philip, Lord Wharton. Once hired by Thomas Howard at the court of the Earl of Arundel, one of his paintings depicts his subject three times over while another depicts that subject in a silver doublet. That patron, Charles I, was this man's primary benefactor. For 10 points, name this former student of Rubens.
Answer: Anthony van Dyck
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A Henry Sidgwick essay discusses the axioms of this, while a Derek Parfit essay compares the history of this discipline to the history of humanity. An "Appendix on Asceticism" concludes a Fichte work that connects the science of this to the "science of knowledge," arguing that it a priori determines our nature and duties. Peter Singer edited a collection of essays titled this in 1994, one year after his own original work titled Pracitcal this. The best-known work titled this includes sections like "Of God" and "Of Human Bondage" and orders its arguments like a mathematical proof. For 10 points, identify this word that titles that Baruch Spinoza work, a branch of philosophy that is the subject of a work by Aristotle edited by his son Nicomacheus.
Answer: Ethics
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Synchrotron radiation can generate the hydroxyl variety of these for ultrafast footprinting studies, although a more common technique involves Fenton's reagent. They are typically short-lived, but may be stabilized by either HOMO ("hoe-moe") or LUMO ("loo-moe") interactions, or by both, as in the "push-pull" case. The photocatalyzed production of chloroform is a classic example of their chain reactions, which may also be initiated by azo-bis-iso-butyro-nitrile or AIBN. Diatomic oxygen is a common variety, as are the reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide which have been implicated in aging. For 10 points, name these molecules with unpaired electrons.
Answer: radicals
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This country is home to some 4000 speakers of !Xoo ("tsk-Noo[high-pitched]-oo[low-pitched]") and one of the last populations of painted wolf. The Kalahari Desert is 70% of this country, which also boasts the world's largest inland delta, the second highest HIV infection rate after Swaziland, and consequently ties with Swaziland for the world's shortest average lifespan. Following attacks by Rhodesia and South Africa it formed a defense force which includes army and air force but no navy, as its borders with Zimbabwe, Namibia, Zambia and South Africa leave it landlocked. For 10 points, name the former British Protectorate of Bechuanland, with capital at Gaborone.
Answer: Republic of Botswana
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His 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force set forth a "spinning cell" model of electromagnetic induction, and that same year he accidentally showed the world's first color photograph at a Royal Institution lecture. Other accomplishments include producing a standard for electrical resistance and deducing the particulate nature of Saturn's rings. His demon tried to violate the second law of thermodynamics, his distribution is central to statistical mechanics, and his relations equate the second derivatives of thermodynamic potentials. For 10 points, name the Scottish physicist whose equations unified electricity and magnetism.
Answer: James Clerk Maxwell
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Their main technique of protest first occurred at Ansey and was defended in a speech to Parliament by Lord Byron. This group's first notable activity was a March 11, 1811 attack in Nottinghamshire. Taking their name from a man signing a "worker's manifesto" of the time, King Ned, this group was responsible for Machine Breaking becoming a capital offense in England. For 10 points, name this British group which feared lowered wages and less work due to new industrial practices and destroyed mechanized looms in protest.
Answer: Luddites
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In the 1950s he produced a series of ink drawings of shoe advertisements, while simultaneously drawing real advertisements as an employee of various magazines and later RCA Records. He drew a peeled pink banana under another, unpeeled yellow banana on the cover of the 1967 The Velvet Underground & Nico by the eponymous band which also played at his "Exploding Plastic Inevitable" roadshow. For 10 points, name this American artist who coined the phrase "fifteen minutes of fame" and in 1962 silkscreened 32 different cans of Campbell's condensed soups.
Answer: Andy Warhol
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In West Africa, Ebune and Ikanga are usually represented as these and represent the return of rain and strength. In Irish myth, Fionn sees one of these creatures representing the entire world while Celtic myth has Cernunnos accompanied by a serpent with this animal's head. In Egypt, Banebdjedet is this type of animal, as is Khnum. In the Book of Daniel, one of these is destroyed by a goat in a vision while one of the best-known representations of one of these creatures in myth is a gift from Zeus to Nephele to act as a guardian to her children before its was sacrificed by Phrixus. For 10 points, identify this animal that yielded the Golden Fleece.
Answer: ram
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He tried to reconcile theology with Aristotelian science through consideration of the ends of theology as knowledge that leads to deeds. In another work, he tried to reduce the arts back to philosophical reason used to confirm faith. Besides "On the Mystery of the Trinity" and "On Reducing the Arts to Theology", he is better-known for a summary of his work called the Breviloquium and his work settling a theological dispute among Franciscans for which he was named Bishop of Albano. His most famous work is a book where the titular route is from the external world to internal contemplation. For 10 points, identify this author of The Journey of the Mind to God.
Answer: St. Bonaventure
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One ruler of this country wrote the Hymns of Repentance, was known as "the Builder", and annexed the Ghishi-Kabala area after defeating Illghazi at the battle of Didgori. Another ruler was the son of Demeter the Self-Sacrificing and was known as the Great, and one of its ruling dynasties was founded by Ashot Kurapalati. That dynasty was at times headed by queens such as Rusudan and Tamar, and this country once fractured into kingdoms like Kartli and Imereti. Past leaders included interior secretary Eduard Shevardnadze, while under the government of Zviad Gamsakhurdia, it saw conflicts in the regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. For 10 points, name this country which underwent a Rose Revolution and which has its capital at Tbilisi.
Answer: Georgia
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In this work, fairies are demanded to dance in the aria "Sul fil d'un soffio etesio" whiel two characters are chastised in "Che dunque l'onore? Una parola!" The protagonist asks "E sogno o realta?" and this work ends with the title character singing the fugue "Tutto nel mondo e burla... Tutti gabbati!" The title character of this work is disguised as the Black Huntsman and spends some time in a dirty laundry basket. Doctor Caius captures Bardolph and Fenton marries Nannetta at the end of this work, and this work sees Mistress Quickly announce the coming of Ford. For 10 points, name this work about a certain fat knight, a Verdi opera adapted from The Merry Wives of Windsor.
Answer: Falstaff
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One of the minor characters in this novel is Amedee Chevalier, who dreams of a large family but has a seizure after the birth of his first child. Another character, Crazy Ivar, has a gift for working with animals but refuses to wear shoes. The novel opens with painfully obvious foreshadowing, when one character loses his cat on a telephone pole while his future love interest is admired by boys; the cat is rescued when the main character calls Carl Linstrum, who later becomes a love interest. The climax of the novel comes when Frank Shabata shoots his wife Marie and her lover Emil. For 10 points, identify this novel about Alexandra Bergson and life on the Nebraska prairie, a work by Willa Cather.
Answer: O Pioneers!
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Its chloride salt has been used to treat trypanosomiasis in livestock and in humans, and resistant strains of Trypanosoma congolense were reported as early as 1993. In molecular biology labs, however, users try to avoid exposure, as it is a powerful mutagen. An alternative is the cyanine-based SYBR ("SIGH-ber") family, which is not only chemically safer but also allows excitation with visible blue light rather than the near-UV source which this bromide salt requires. Many labs therefore reserve it for difficult detections, and even then only add it after the gel is run. For 10 points, name this orange-brown dye whose fluorescence increases twenty-fold after it intercalates with DNA.
Answer: Ethidium bromide or 3,8-Diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide (prompt on "Novidium", "Homidium", and "EtBr")
 
2008 FEUERBACH Bonuses by Chicago B
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For 10 points each, name some programming concepts.,
[10] This is a standard expression of some commonly recurring task. An example to copy from one C string to another is while ( *s++ = *t++ ) ; ("while star S plus plus equals star T plus plus semicolon").
Answer: programming idiom
[10] Unlike programming idioms, these are general procedures for solving problems. Dijkstra ("DIKE-stra"), Kruskal, and Euclid all have some famous ones.
Answer: algorithm
[10] The subject of an eponymous book by Gamma et al. subtitled Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, these are general and templatized decisions like delaying expensive operations until the results are needed.
Answer: design patterns
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[Moderator: The team can get either 5 points for the correct artist, 10 points for the correct album, or 15 for both, depending on which parts they get right; i.e., one incorrect part does not make the whole answer wrong.],
[15] "You'd rather see me in the pen/ then me and Lorenzo rollin' in the Benzo/ beat the police outta shape/ and when i'm finished, bring the yellow tape."
Answer: performer N.W.A. and album Straight Outta Compton (song is "Fuck Tha Police")
[15] "Tonight I can't sleep, we living in hell/first they gave us the work then they throw us in jail/ road trip ya, I'm trafficking the white/ Please Lord, don't let me go to jail tonight."
Answer: performer Young Jeezy and album Let's Get It or Thug Motivation 101 (song is "Soul Survivor")
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Identify the following people who reproduced with Loki, for 10 points each.,
[10] This wife of Loki holds the bowl over his head that catches the poison that falls on him.
Answer: Sigyn
[10] Fenrir is the offspring of Loki and this giantess.
Answer: Angrboda
[10] Loki and this wall-building horse produced Odin's magical horse Sleipnir.
Answer: Svadilvari
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His last work was Given: 1. Water fall, 2. Illuminating Gas. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Dadaist, the creator of such works as Nude Descending a Staircase.
Answer: Marcel Duchamp
[10] This female alter ego of Duchamp was featured in Man Ray photographs and her name appears in a readymade consisting of an oral thermometer and marble cubes in a birdcage.
Answer: Rrose Selavy (sure, take either)
[10] The Green Box was a set of notes for this work, which includes a chocolate grinder, nine malic molds, and depicts a woman and her suitors.
Answer: La mariee mis a nu par ses celibataires, meme (or, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors Even; accept Le Grand Verre or The Large Glass or any reasonable translation of either French title)
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In one of his works, a patient's thoughts and memories are projected onto a TV while under the influence of the title substance. For 10 points each.,
[10] Identify this author of "Local Anesthetic," and, more recently, works like "Crabwalk" and the autobiographical "Peeling the Onion."
Answer: Gunter Grass
[10] "Crabwalk" incorporates characters from Cat and Mouse, the second novel in this trilogy.
Answer: the Danzig Trilogy
[10] Grass remains best-known for this first novel in the Danzig Trilogy about the hunchbacked dwarf Oskar Matzerath.
Answer: The Tin Drum
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His namesake prize has been won by Larry Burrows and Willy Ronis, for 10 points each:,
[10] Name this early French photographer who built a balloon called "The Giant."
Answer: Nadar or Gaspard-Felix Tournachon
[10] Nadar took pictures of this woman, also depicted by Alphonse Mucha, who starred in Gismonda and was known as "The Divine Sarah."
Answer: Sarah Bernhardt
[10] Nadar took a picture of this author of Bug-Jargal and Toilers of the Sea on his deathbed.
Answer: Victor Hugo
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A section called "Summary of Race Problems in the United States" follows an "Evolutionary Viewpoint" and a discussion of a certain type of cultures. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this 1911 collection of lectures that concludes by claiming all races are "capable of advancing the interests of mankind."
Answer: The Mind of Primitive Man
[10] The Mind of Primitive Man is this man's best-known work.
Answer: Franz Boas
[10] Boas student Alfred Kroeber studied at length the mind of this man, called the "last Indian."
Answer: Ishi
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His works include Hecyra and he wrote a play about the General Phormio, for 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Roman comedian best known for Adelphoe and Eunuchus.
Answer: Terence or Publius Terentius Afer
[10] A poem in this collection states that "Terence, this is stupid stuff" and also contains When I was one and twenty.
Answer: A Shropshire Lad
[10] A.E Housman stands over the River Styx in this Tom Stoppard play, which also explores his relationship with Moses Jackson.
Answer: The Invention of Love
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One of this man's works centers on a conversation with a dead Spanish painter. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author of Notes on Goya and The Damned Yard.
Answer: Ivo Andric
[10] This Andric work is named for a construction designed by Mehmet Pasha.
Answer: The Bridge on the Drina
[10] This novel focuses on the French consul Daville's time in Travnik.
Answer: The Bosnian Chronicle
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For 10 points each, name these theorems useful for calculation of moments of inertia.,
[10] The moment of inertia about an axis remains constant as an object is stretched along that axis.
Answer: stretch rule
[10] The moment of inertia about any axis can be calculated from the moment of inertia about a parallel axis passing through the center of mass.
Answer: parallel axis theorem
[10] Given three arbitrary but perpendicular axes passing through a point, the moment of inertia about any axis can be calculated from the moments of inertia about the other two.
Answer: perpendicular axis theorem
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It was preceded by a failed attack on the marsh Estero Bellaco, for 10 points each:,
[10] Name this battle in which Antonio Sampaio and Osorio gave a thorough beating to Paraguayan forces in the War of the Triple Alliance.
Answer: Battle of Tuyuti
[10] This Paraguayan president, noted for his relationship with Eliza Lynch and attempting to help Atanasio Aguirre against Flores, cemented his failure at the Battle of Tuyuti.
Answer: Francisco Solano Lopez
[10] This son of Maria Leopoldina was ruler of Brazil during the War of the Triple Alliance and was married to Teresa of the Two Sicilies. He notably learned Guarani and his daughter Isabel signed the Golden Edict in his absence.
Answer: Pedro II
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For 10 points each, answer these questions about new technologies arising during the American Civil War.,
[10] A response in part to General Winfield Scott's Anaconda Plan, this was the first successful submarine. It sank the USS Housatonic before it sank itself.
Answer: CSS H.L. Hunley
[10] This failed Confederate idea was intended to send out flying chains of death intended to clothesline Yankee soldiers. It could not be calibrated to work correctly and only ever injured a cow. One of these is proudly displayed in Athens, GA
Answer: Double-barreled cannon
[10] This gun, named for its inventor, was first used in the American Civil war. It was gradually replaced by Maxim guns. It was one of the earliest successful automatic weapons.
Answer: Gatling Gun
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For 10 points each, name the mechanism of these reactions. Say things like "S¬¬Ni" ("S-N-I"), not "anchimeric assistance".,
[10] Methyl iodide and hydroxide yield methanol and iodide. Repetition with chiral substrates shows a Walden inversion and the rate is dependent on both reagents' concentrations.
Answer: SN2 or bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (prompt on "interchange")
[10] Isobutyl bromide with potassium ethoxide yields isobutylene. Repetition with additional functional groups shows the antiperiplanar transition state is favored.
Answer: E2 or bimolecular elimination
[10] 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in basic solution yields 2,4-dinitrophenol faster than 2,4-difluorochlorobenzene yields 2,4-difluorophenol.
Answer: SNAr or nucleophilic aromatic substitution
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A small cross sits to the left of a small waterfall, all below the titular features and blue sky with grey clouds. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this painting inspired by a trip to Ecuador.
Answer: Heart of the Andes
[10] Heart of the Andes is a work of this painter.
Answer: Frederick Edwin Church
[10] Two Church paintings depict this feature. Title this 1855 and this 1862¸ one shows a brilliant red sunset while the other shows a villa below it.
Answer: Cotopaxi
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For 10 points each, answer these questions about Apartheid.,
[10] Starting over Afrikaans instruction in Black schools, 23 were killed in its first day. Estimates of the total number of people killed range from 200 - 600. Name this 1976 event, named for the town in which it began.
Answer: Soweto uprising, Soweto Rebellion (Anything including Soweto and something like rebellion or riot should be fine)
[10] The Spear of the Nation, a militant wing of this organization, was founded in 1961 and was led by Nelson Mandela. It is currently the majority party in the South African government.
Answer: African National Congress or ANC
[10] These laws initiated in South Africa in 1923 required Blacks to carry documents whenever outside the homelands to prove they were authorized to enter "White" South Africa.
Answer: Pass laws
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For 10 points each, answer these questions about something Japanese.,
[10] Capturing Japan's capital in 1568 , this daimyo had some success in uniting Japan until he was murdered in 1582 by Akechi.
Answer: Oda Nobunaga
[10] This successor of Nobunaga finished the work of uniting Japan in 1590 after defeating the Hojo family in Odawara.
Answer: Toyotomi Hideyoshi
[10] Held several times throughout Japanese history to help secure the position of a ruler, the most famous of these was conducted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1588. Toyotomi claimed that the items confiscated from the peasants were melted down and used to forge a statue of the Buddha.
Answer: Sword Hunt (other similar things should be acceptable)
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Dishes filled with water are revealed to party-goers with the line "Uncover, dogs, and lap!" For 10 points each.,
[10] This comes at the last party hosted by the formerly profligate title character of this work.
Answer: Timon of Athens
[10] Timon of Athens was written - at least mostly - by this playwright.
Answer: William Shakespeare
[10] After Timon's death, his epitaph is read by this historical figure, whose invasion of Athens Timon spitefully finances.
Answer: Alcibiades
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For 10 points each, name these sovereign states younger than Senator John McCain..,
[10] The setting of Camus's short story The Guest, this northern African nation saw a landslide vote for independence after de Gaulle's 4 June 1958 speech before a crowd of pied-noirs ("Pee-eh nwah"?)
Answer: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria or Republique Algerienne Democratique et Populaire)
[10] Home of the Merkava and the Weizmann Institute of Science, this nation was established by a UN resolution in 1947 and has since been to war at least once with every nation it borders.
Answer: State of Israel
[10] It is one of the world's last five Communist states and the fifth to independently launch a satellite. That satellite broadcast for 28 days the then-de facto anthem, The East is Red.
Answer: The People's Republic of China
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The Peng-Robinson equation performs similarly to the Soave modification to it, for 10 points each:,
[10] Name this equation of state which is ineffective when dealing with liquids.
Answer: Redlich-Kwong equation
[10] Redlich-Kwong was an improvement on this formulation, in turn an improvement on the ideal gas law.
Answer: Van der Waals equation
[10] This equation of state can be used to determine the Boyle temperature and shares its name with a theorem stating that twice the average kinetic energy is equal to n times the average potential energy.
Answer: Virial equation of state
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It refers to its target as the "Last Prophet of Tautology." For 10 points each.,
[10] Beginning "All human things are subject to decay", name this satirical poem attacking Thomas Shadwell.
Answer: "MacFlecknoe"
[10] MacFlecknoe was written by this author of Astraea Redux, All for Love, and Absalom and Achitophel.
Answer: John Dryden
[10] Revelations in this Dryden work include the fact that Palmyra is the child of Polydamas and it sees Hermogenes claim that Leonidas is his son.
Answer: Marriage A-la-Mode
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It was founded by Miki Maegwa Nakayama in the 1830s. For 10 points each:,
[10] Nakayama started this religion with its sacred text of the Ofudesaki. It has since been incorporated as a branch of Shinto.
Answer: Tenrikyo (accepting Teaching of Divine Reason or thereabouts)
[10] Tenrikyo teaches God is incarnated in everyday forms, for which it borrows this broad Shinto term for all divine spirits.
Answer: kami
[10] Though now repudiated by modern practicioners, Tenrikyo adopts this practice that is associated with Smith Wigglesworth, Peter Popoff and more generally Christian Science.
Answer: faith healing (accept obvious alternatives)
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Herman Muller's morphs are still used by Drosophila researchers. Name a few for 10 points each.,
[10] These mutations reduce gene function, and dominance can indicate haploinsufficiency. They are used when screening against a sensitized background.
Answer: hypomorph
[10] These mutations increase gene function, and are invariably dominant. Constitutively active proteins are an example.
Answer: hypermorph
[10] These mutations cause some random function unrelated to the gene's usual effect. Geneticists try not to talk about them.
Answer: neomorph
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For 10 points each, answer these questions about battles of World War II.,
[10] This battle taking place from August 1942 to February 1943 ended when Paulus surrendered his exhausted and starving army, ending the siege of the namesake city.
Answer: Battle of Stalingrad
[10] Named for a wedge driven by German forces into Allied lines, this late 1944 -early 1945 battle marked the last major offensive by the German army--an attempt to drive Allied forces away from the German homeland.
Answer: Battle of the Bulge
[10] An unsuccessful 1943 German assault on a Soviet salient around the namesake city, this battle was the largest tank battle in history and effectively marked the end of German offensive power on the Eastern front.
Answer: Battle of Kursk

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