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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Chicago Open Tossups by Rusk and Romanians
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One online essay interprets this song to be about a forthcoming communist revolution, with the slower first section being a warning and the upbeat second section showing the revolution itself as represented by the sounds of the "guibass" and "bassitar". This song's music video featured its band performing on a lawn before being stalked and attacked by ninjas. Originally appearing after "Boll Weevil" and before "Dune Buggy", the title (*) objects are compared to "sun-soaking bulges in the shade" before the singer describes "taking little naps where the roots all twist". The singer "poke[s his] finger down inside / make a little room for it to hide" in one of the title objects, a "rotten" one of which the singer squishes in his fist. For 10 points, name this Presidents of the United States of America song in which the singer expresses a desire to move into the country and eat a lot of the titular fruit.
Answer: "Peaches"
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One prominent figure of this conflict raided the lands around Ely from a base at Ramsey Abbey during it, and it featured Ranulf de Gernon in addition to the aforementioned Geoffrey de Mandeville. One important ecclesiastic in this conflict was Thurstan, Archbishop of York, who, with negotiations at Roxburgh and the organization of the force that won the (*) Battle of the Standard, staved off the invasion of David I, while another, Henry of Winchester, secured papal support for his brother in this conflict. One figure in this conflict was exchanged for Robert of Gloucester after the former had been captured at the Battle of Lincoln. It was ended by the Treaty of Wallingford, which established the succession in favor of Henry Curtmantle, and it began after the death of William Adelin in the wreck of the White Ship. For 10 points, name this English civil war that resulted in the creation of the House of Plantagenet, fought between Empress Matilda and Stephen of Blois.
Answer: The Anarchy [prompt on "civil war between Stephen and Matilda" or equivalent]
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The speaker of this poem asks, "Where are the mowers who?stood with suspended scythe" after finding a boat near the "Wytham flats," and he recalls traveling the track by Childsworth Farm. He talks of "Young Daphnis, with his silver voice" singing in "the hot cornfield of the Phrygian King," and he describes a "sweet city with her dreaming spires" as viewed from Boars Hill. The speaker describes the dissipation of fog as Eve lifting her veil, and his lengthy description of the passing of spring into summer culminates with the line, "The (*) bloom is gone, and with the bloom go I." He laments that "time, not Corydon, hath conquer'd" this poem's title character, whom he associates with the "signal-elm that looks on Ilsley Downs. The area surrounding Oxford provides this poem's setting, and the poet laments that the place he and Arthur Hugh Clough once often roamed is now only frequented by another of this poet's characters, the Scholar-Gypsy. For ten points name this elegy by Matthew Arnold.
Answer: "Thyrsis"
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The first one of these to be directly observed was obtained by the solution of TBF in an antimony-based superacid. That experiment was performed by the man who developed NMR solvents such as "magic acid" and sulfur dioxide for studying these compounds, George Olah. Reactions wherein these intermediates are formed can see the shift of the functional group at the beta position, which is named for (*) Wagner and Meerwein. "Bridged" versions of these contain hydride or alkyl groups which exhibit partial bonding with two other carbon atoms. They can be obtained by the decomposition of diazonium salts, or by the solvolysis of alkyl halides, and since they have a planar geometry, their occurrence at bridgehead positions is controversial. For 10 points, identify this type of compounds wherein a carbon atom has a positive charge, whose tertiary ones are usually the most stable.
Answer: carbocation [accept carbonium ion]
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Herbert Stein-Schneider has argued that this series is based on descriptions in Hendrick Niclaes's Terra Pacis, and is thus representative of a neo-Catharist worldview. This series was originally housed in the suburban villa of Niclaes Jonghelink, who was a major patron of this series' creator. One member of this series features a yawning cavern across a river from the main action, while a storm appears to be driving that main action. Another member of this series sees a man trimming a barren tree during the titular time period. In addition to The Return of the Herd and The Gloomy Day, this series is also includes two more cheerful events, Haymaking and The Corn Harvest, though it is more famous for a work which features a fire that the titular group passes, as they progress towards a town filled with (*) ice-skaters. Including The Hunters in the Snow, this is, For 10 points, what series depicting different periods of the year.
Answer: Labors of the Months [or The Months of the Year or The Series of the Months or The Seasons]
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The third stanza of this poem notes that "no mother suckled Jove" and asks if our blood, "comingling and virginal with heaven" will "fail, or shall it come to be the blood of paradise?" A figure in this poem notes that she is content when birds "test the misty reality of fields before they fly". This poem ends when pigeons sink "downward to darkness, (*) on extended wings," and it notes that "The tomb in Palestine is not the porch of spirits lingering." The seventh of its eight stanzas centers on a ring of sun-worshipers who "shall know well the heavenly fellowship/ Of men that perish," and this poem asks in another section "What is divinity if it can come/ Only in silent shadows and in dreams?" The female figure described in the work is told "Death is the mother of beauty," and is persuaded to prefer "Coffee and oranges in a sunny chair" to the "Dominion of the blood and sepulchre." Championing the "Complacencies of the peignoir," for 10 points, name this poem which appeared in Harmonium, a work by Wallace Stevens.
Answer: "Sunday Morning"
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This people had important religious sites at Chalcatongo and Achiutla. One state created by members of this people conquered several Chatino and Chontale cities and was centered at Tututepec. An art style is co-named for these people and the neighboring Puebla, and under their ruler Atonal, their city of Coixtlahuaca was conquered by Tlacaelel on behalf of (*) Moctezuma I. They created a standardized system of deerskin records which resulted in the creation of the Bourbon, Borgia, and Nuttall codices, the last of which records the exploits of their ruler Eight Deer, who ruled from Tilantongo. This people was conquered by Pedro de Alvarado, though they are more associated with their own incursions in a region to their south, which allowed them to take control of Mitla as well as the city of Monte Alban. For 10 points, name this Mesoamerican people of the Oaxaca Valley who overran the Zapotecs.
Answer: Mixtecs [or Mixtecatl; or Nusabi; or Nuu Dzavui]
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A Gregory Schufreider paper considers the Logic of this concept arguing it arises from a gap in rationality, while Westphal and Cherry quote Chagall to show the artistic life lacks this. They dismiss Thomas Nagel's endorsement of irony in the face of this concept, which he says arises because the thoughts that make our own projects meaningful vanish from the "external perspective." The most famous treatment of this concept argues that one must "say yes" and become "master of one's own days" in the face of it. (*) Also addressed in Letters to a German Friend, that essay considers the only "truly philosophical problem," rejecting suicide as a viable way to escape this. The "man" and "creation" of this type are considered in that work, the Myth of Sisyphus. Associated with Camus, for 10 points, identify this existentialist concept describing the ridiculousness of human life.
Answer: the Absurd [accept word forms, or things like the absurdity of life]
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On a recording of his "Folk Forms No. 1," this man is heard demanding no applause, no noise from sipping drinks and no cash register ringing. That session also featured this man's songs "What Love" and "All the Things You Could Be By Now If Sigmund Freud's Wife Were Your Mother." One of this artist's most praised albums features the song "Hora Decubitus" and a song describing "a madman in incandescent bloom" and refers to the artist as a mule "not from Moscow" on the album's final track "Freedom." One of his best-known songs was called (*) "Theme for Lester Young" on that quintuply eponymous album, though on the album called "this man Ah Um," it is called "Goodbye Porkpie Hat." For 10 points, identify this jazz artist, usually a bassist, perhaps best known for Pithecanthropus Erectus.
Answer: Charles Mingus
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Price et al. demonstrated the existence of this phenomenon using the specially designed R/V Flip, and Kenneth Hunkins was the first to report its observation during work on the AIDJEX project. The velocity given by this phenomenon is the product of boundary constant B, the exponential of negative gamma z, and the exponential of negative i gamma z, where z is (*) depth, though depth-independent geostrophic velocity is often added to its vector velocities due to a horizontal pressure gradient. Commonly measured under pack ice and plotted on a hodograph, it is produced by balancing wind stress with the depth-integrated Coriolis force, causing a left deflection in the southern hemisphere and a right deflection in the northern. For 10 points, name this flow pattern consisting of a downward cycling of successive current velocity vectors in the ocean, the key to its namesake transport, named for a Swedish physicist.
Answer: Ekman Spiral [prompt on "Ekman transport" or "Ekman motion" before it is said]
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He dedicated the Suite luciferique to the pianist Artur Schnabel who did not perform it, and the composer changed the name just to Suite since its name alludes to light than to darkness. He dedicated his solo violin work like Prelude, Theme and Variations to Emil Telmanyi, who first conducted his father-in-law's Clarinet Concerto. In 1927, he wrote a rhapsody overture about an imaginary trip to the (*) Faroe Islands. Out of his six symphonies, his fifth is nicknamed Sinfonia semplice and the second is named after a painting he saw at a country inn, the Four Temperaments. Having works designated by Fog-Schousboe numbers, for 10 points, name this Danish composer who wrote operas like Maskarade and Saul and David and orchestral works like the Aladdin suite and his Inextinguishable fourth symphony.
Answer: Carl Nielsen
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According to a hypothesis proposed in On the Nature of Grammatical Relations by Alec Marantz, this concept is found in the D-structure level in Government and Binding Theory. Based in large part on the work done by Uhlenbeck, this concept has been theorized to have originally been the basis for Proto-Indo-European, based on the suppletion in certain pronouns and based on a discrepancy between animate and inanimate nouns. Several Australian languages show a split, using this system for nouns, but a competing one for pronouns. In English, this property is found in a certain class of verbs concerned with statal changes, such as the verb "break", in which the agency of the subject, or lack thereof, reflects the transitivity of the verb. Most famously found in the Caucasian languages and Basque, this is, for 10 points, what syntactic system, which identifies the subject of an intransitive verb with the object of a transitive verb, a system in opposition to Nominative-Accusative languages?
Answer: Ergativity [or Ergative-Absolutive or Ergative-Nominative]
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One ruler of this nation repudiated the Constitution of 1840 and his death brought to power a figure known as "Whiskey Bill." One treaty was negotiated with this nation by Thomas ap Catesby Jones, and it saw gunpoint diplomacy by Cyrille Laplace to stop persecution of Catholics. A man posing as the High Priest of Melchizedek set himself up as leader of a (*) "Mormon kingdom" in this nation before being excommunicated; that man was Walter Murray Gibson. Some rebellions here were led by Robert Wilcox, and the Blount and Morgan Reports investigated American intervention in this nation in support of an 1887 document drafted by Lorrin Thurston. That document, known as the "bayonet" constitution, was forced on King David Kalakaua by people such as Sanford Dole. For 10 points, name this former Pacific island kingdom, whose last ruler was Queen Liliuokalani.
Answer: Hawaii
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In Hinduism, some devotees of the goddess Bahuchara perform this action, in imitation of the act which allowed for Bahuchara's deification, while the denial that the Prophet makes of a request by Hadrat Abu Hurrayrah are the grounds for prohibiting this action in Islam. In his De Cultu Feminarum, Tertullian goes on a lengthy excursus on this subject, even going so far as to claim that Jesus himself had undergone this action; this act was also prohibited in the first canon of the (*) First Council of Nicaea, though, having taken Matthew 19:12 literally, Montanus, Origen, and others were said to have done it out of religious zeal. March 24, sometimes known as the "Day of Blood" saw the creation of a group of priests known as the "galli" through this activity, which was done in imitation of Attis and in honor of Kybele. For 10 points, name this action, which was undergone unwillingly by men such as Peter Abelard.
Answer: Castration [accept clear knowledge equivalents, including Self-Castration and Auto-Castration]
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Both a study by D.J. Richards and a Mirra Ginsburg translation of this writer's essays name him as a "heretic" and his own essays include one which accuses the titular writers of falling short of their namesakes, "Scythians?" In one of his stories, Fita bans starvation and condemns cholera patients as criminals in a satirical work from his collection Fairy Tales for Grown-Up Children, and an elderly couple commits suicide after Martin steals wood so that they might celebrate by lighting their stove early in the morning in his (*) "The Cave." During the so-called "repertory crisis", this author prepared a stage version of Leskov's The Flea and adapted his own satirical novel about Jesmond's vicar Dewly and the death of the lawyer O'Kelley, The Islanders, into The Society of Honorary Bellringers. Also the author of a novel in which the Green Wall separates the chaotic organic world from the ordered world of the Only State, this is, for 10 points, what creator of the mathematician D-503 in the dystopian novel We?
Answer: Yevgeny Zamyatin
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Recent discoveries suggest that a nano anatase-titanium dioxide complex promotes the formation of this enzyme and its activating complex. That activating enzyme belongs to the AAA+ family of proteins and facilitates the removal of d-hamamelonic acid phosphate. The C-terminal domains of its large subunits exhibit a characteristic alpha/beta barrel, and its structure was resolved using its transition state analog (*) CABP. The epsilon-amino group of its Lys-334 residue co-ordinates with a magnesium ion stabilizes the transition state of its second partial reaction, wherein an ene-diolate reacts with either of its two common substrates. Organisms exhibiting Kranz anatomy use an analogous protein called PEP Carboxylase instead of this protein. For 10 points, identify this enzyme which facilitates the rate determining step of the Calvin cycle.
Answer: Rubisco [or Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase]
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This is the first name of a man from Smolensk in the retinue of Metropolitan Piman, who was the only eye-witness source for a Palaiologan coronation, that of Manuel II in 1392, and the primary source for the civil war between John V and John VII. Another man of this name authored two pseudo-science texts, Atlantis and Ragnarok: The Age of Fire and Gravel about the mythical continent and a cometic origin for many geological and religious phenomena, respectively. Joseph Jekyll collected the letters and authored a biography of another figure with this first name, a seventeenth century (*) freed British slave, surnamed Sancho. Another person by this name was the archbishop of Antioch, who, upon being taken to Rome for execution, wrote several letters, one of which, to the Smyrnaeans, was the first post-Biblical work to mention transubstantiation. Also shared by the author of the autobiography A Pilgrim's Journey and the devotionary work Spiritual Exercises, this is, for 10 points, what name, shared by a Populist named Donnelly and a saint from Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits?
Answer: Ignatius
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In one story he accompanies a gambler who incurs the wrath of the gods after marrying a sacred maiden. His depictions may have been influenced by the encounter with the Moor Estevanico. A similarly depicted female figure has been found among grave goods at Late (*) Mississipian sites. In one culture, his distinctive crest represents the legs of a katydid, while his hunched back may indicate a connection to Aztec traders, though the earliest known depictions are from the Colonial period of the Hohokam. His roles extended into agriculture, where he would drive out winter and usher in spring with his music. Also known as Neopkwai'i among the Pueblo, and Olowlowishkya among the Zuni, most post-Columbian images retain his suggestive musical instrument, but not his giant phallus. For 10 points name this flute-playing fertility god of the American Southwest.
Answer: Kokopelli [accept Neopkwai'i or Olowlowishkya until mentioned]
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The theatrical traditions of the natives of this nation produced such works as Baile de Tun and Rabinal Achi, the latter of which tells of a hero from the titular town's last dance with his princess and which inspired a similarly named work by Giron Cerna. This country's "Generation of 1920" included such writers as Cesar Branas and an author known for such works as La Tempestad and often called by the title of another of his works, El Tigre, Flavio Herrera, and other writers from this country include the poet behind (*) Luna Park and an essay named for his home country and "the lines of her hand", and the author of a play which focuses on the feudal-like relations and native myths of this country, Soluna. An autobiography which told how the author's "consciousness was born" publicized the plight of this country's native Mayas and earned a Nobel Peace Prize for its author, Rigoberta Menchu. For 10 points, name this Central American country, best known as the home to the author of Men of Maize and El Senor Presidente, Gabriel Asturias.
Answer: Guatemala
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Bertsekas extended this tenet to convex quadratic programming problems utilizing Newton's Method, while its generalized algebraic proof was first given by Haley. Its application to queuing theory is found in the Chandy-Herzog-Woo Theorem. The primary operation of the (*) Millman Equation is an unreduced form of this theorem. It may be used in conjunction with the Y-Delta or Pi-T transforms to solve 3-phase systems involving unbalanced bridges provided the central bridge element is known. The maximum power dissipation of a load is yielded if its resistance equals the resistance given by this tenet, which is equivalent to that of Norton's Theorem. For 10 points, name this useful theorem of complex circuit analysis, which states that a two-terminal network of passive elements and independent sources is reducible to a single resistor in series with a single voltage source.
Answer: Thevenin's Theorem [or Thevenin-Pollard Theorem; accept Norton's Theorem until mentioned]
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One dubious source suggests that a triumph of this man featured the stag-pulled chariot of the Goth king Cannabas, and like his immediate predecessor, this man is sometimes implicated in giving faulty information during the revolt of Aureolus, leading to another predecessor's assasination. Possibly tied to his changes in silver coinage, this figure was faced with the rebellion of minters in Rome on the Caelian Hill, led by Felicissimus. A defeat of the (*) Juthungi and Alemanni in northern Italy at the Battle of Fano prompted this man to construct his namesake fortifications at Rome, the first walls around the city since Augustus's rise, and this man defeated Septimius Zabdas by using a feigned rout against the clbanarii heavy cavalry, after which he established the cult of Sol Invictus. That victory at Immae was followed by one at Emesa after he took Antioch, which allowed him to capture Vallabathus, the son of Odaenathus. For 10 points, name this Roman Emperor who defeated Palmyra and its ruler Zenobia while ruling from 270 to 2
Answer: Aurelian [or Lucius Domitius Aurelianus]
 
2009 Chicago Open Bonuses by Rusk and Romanians
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The protagonist sees his mother's apron, a sesame field in bloom, a woman's foot, and Japanese cavalry in the sky as he lies in the mud. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Akutagawa story in which the protagonist survives a wound from the Sino-Japanese War only to die in a bar fight. It is based in part on Pu Songling's Strange Tales of Liaozhai.
Answer: The Story of a Head That Fell Off [or Kubi ga Ochita Hanashi]
[10] In this Akutagawa story, Hanazo's attempt to fool the people of Nara into believing that the titular mythical creature would rise from a nearby pond is foiled when that creature actually appears.
Answer: Ryu: The Old Potter's Tale [or Dragon: The Old Potter's Tale]
[10] Naigu Zenchi boils the titular facial feature of this story and has another monk step on it to change its size, but he eventually becomes comfortable with it longer rather than shorter.
Answer: The Nose [or Hana]
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Its white pulp is the site where B and T cells mature. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this organ that consists of the red pulp and the white pulp, which can notably be ruptured.
Answer: spleen
[10] Oxidative stress on erythrocytes or improper reduction of glutathione in erythrocytes can cause the formation of these inclusion bodies which basically contain denatured hemoglobin. Much like Holly-Jowell bodies, they are removed at the sinusoidal wall of the spleen.
Answer: Heinz-Ehrlich bodies[or HzB; or Shumach bodies; or erythrocyte refractile body]
[10] This region of the spleen is located between the red pulp and the white pulp. This region contains certain specialized B-cells which are morphologically similar to B1 B cells but lack the high levels of CD5, and those cells travel from this region to the PALS to present antigens to T-lymphocytes.
Answer: marginal zone [or marginal sinus]
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It inspired a similarly-named play by Shelagh Stephenson. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this British painting in which a crowd of people surround a table on which some sort of scientific device containing the titular creature sits. As in its artist's other works, its light stems entirely from a lamp at this work's center.
Answer: An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump
[10] An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump is a work by this dude whose other works include A Philosopher Lecturing in the Orrery and Three Gentlemen Observing the "Gladiator."
Answer: Joseph Wright of Derby
[10] Joseph Wright of Derby also created a series of works featuring this device, which mechanically illustrates the relative positions of the planets and moons in the solar system.
Answer: an orrery
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This man called perestroika a "right-wing deviation" in world communism and his nepotistic personality cult extended to his son Nicu, a supposedly world-renowned nuclear physicist. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Romanian Communist dictator who was summarily executed, along with his wife Elena, after a brief show trial in December, 1989.
Answer: Nicolae Ceausescu
[10] A major blow to Ceausescu's regime came with the massive protests in favor of this ethnic Hungarian pastor in Timisoara, who was being removed for supposed ethnic divisiveness. In the end, approximately 100 were killed in these protests.
Answer: Lazlo Tokes
[10] This man came to power in the wake of Ceausescu's death. After riding to power on the wings of the anti-communist NSF, he served three non-consecutive terms as President of Romania.
Answer: Ion Iliescu
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Identify these composers who withdrew symphonies, for 10 points each.,
[10] This composer of the opera The Maiden in the Tower revised his four movement fifth symphony into a three movement version, withdrew his unnumbered Kullervo symphony and supposedly burned a draft of his eighth symphony.
Answer: Jean Christian Sibelius.
[10] This German romantic composer decided his first attempt at a second symphony was not worthy of a number, leading it be called his Symphony number 0, while his first symphonic effort was his "Study Symphony" sometimes numbered 00.
Answer: Anton Bruckner
[10] This composer withdrew his symphony number 5, "tragic," and replaced it with an entirely new work, the symphony number 5 "joyous," but is better known for his Ballet Mechanique.
Answer: George Antheil
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Name these supervillains, each of whom also names a song by the stoner rock band Monster Magnet. For 10 points each:,
[10] Monster Magnet's Dopes of Infinity features a song named after this figure, who first appeared in an issue of Thor, where he threatened the Rigellians, and who has recently appeared in an issue of Marvel Comics: Avengers seeking to mate with Earth.
Answer: Ego the Living Planet [accept Ego the Loving Planet]
[10] A track from God Says No shares its name with this DC character, a monstrous and nigh-indestructible creature best known for killing Superman in The Death of Superman in 1992.
Answer: Doomsday
[10] That last track from Dopes of Infinity shares its name with this green-haired Savage Land mutate and sometime-Marauder, with the ability to distort a person's perceptions of reality.
Answer: Vertigo
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This man dispatched to attack Makuria his brother, Shams ed-Dawla Turanshah, who conquered Qasr Ibrim, which this man then ruled from 1173-11 For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this founder of the Ayyubids, whom el-Athir says was preparing to use Nubia as a refuge, should Nureddin defeat his Egyptian forces.
Answer: Saladin [or Salah al-Din]
[10] Abdallah, the son of this final Umayyad caliph, had earlier sought refuge in Makuria, after this man's death in Egypt. He had earlier been defeated at the Battle of the Zab by As-Saffah.
Answer: Marwan II [or Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan b. Muhammad b. Marwan]
[10] Abu Rakwa led a major revolt against this "mad" Fatimid caliph for his anti-Sunni policies. After Abu Rakwa's defeat, he fled to Nubia, but was returned to this caliph, who executed him, but began to liberalize his policies.
Answer: Tariqu Al-Hakim bi Amr-Allah
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This novel notes the fact that heaven is further from earth than Mars and thus prayers should take longer to reach heaven than six months. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this novel, in the second half of which the title figure becomes taken with a cellist who manages never to receive her purple-stamped envelopes.
Answer: Death with Interruptions [or Death at Intervals or As Intermitencias da Morte]
[10] In addition to Death with Interruptions, this author wrote a work about three generations of a peasant family from the turn of the twentieth century to the Revolution of 1974, Risen from the Ground, as well as All the Names.
Answer: Jose Saramago
[10] The title character of this Saramago novel meets God as an old man with a great white beard, who then tells him about the consequences that his death will have, including the Crusades and the Inquisition.
Answer: The Gospel According to Jesus Christ [or O Evangelho Segundo Jesus Christo]
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The number and size of "dead zones" due to hypoxia in this body have increased dramatically over the last 30 years, largely due to increases in nitrates in river discharge. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this body of water, an arm of the Caribbean Sea, which is fed by such rivers as the Mobile and Mississippi.
Answer: Gulf of Mexico
[10] That hypoxic zone is fed by the portion of the Mississippi discharge entrained by the Louisiana Coastal Current, but mainly by the discharge of this river, a distributary of the Mississippi, formed at Simmesport, near the confluence with the Red.
Answer: Atchafalaya River
[10] In addition to the increased nitrate concentration theories, the formation of that hypoxic zone have also been tied to the stability of this vertical density gradient as a boundary preventing oxygen renewal.
Answer: Pycnocline
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The massive energy release of supernovae SN2005ap and SN2006gy and the long-lived radiation originating in Cygnus X-3 are the best evidence for them. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this theoretical class of stars which are thought to be responsible for some types of gamma ray bursts via QCD confinement near their surface, formed via hadron collapse in oversized neutron stars.
Answer: Quark Stars [or Strange Stars]
[10] The lower limit of stability of quark stars is believed to be this limit beyond which degeneracy pressure is insufficient to prevent irreversible collapse, leading to a singularity.
Answer: Schwartzschild Limit or Radius
[10] Some theories hold that quark stars form via the quark direct version of this process in which neutrino antineutrino emission causes fast cooling and pressure decrease in the cores of neutron stars, which lose their ability to support overlying layers, leading to their collapse and rebound, resulting in quark novae.
Answer: Urca Process
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It argued that Western concepts like the Freudian Oedipus Complex were not universal across societies. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1927 work in which the two title concepts are explored in terms of the author's experience in the Torobriand Islands.
Answer: Sex and Repression in Savage Societies
[10] This author of Sex and Repression in Savage Societies also wrote The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia
Answer: Bronislaw Malinowski
[10] Bronislaw Malinowski may be the best known for writing this seminal study of the life of the Trobriand Islanders, whom he compared to a certain group of mythological sailors.
Answer: Argonauts of the Western Pacific
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Its Baroncelli Chapel features a polyptych by Giotto, while its simple Pazzi Chapel was designed by Brunelleschi. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Florentine church, which saw a crucifix by Cimabue, among other works, greatly damaged by a 1966 flood.
Answer: Basilica di Santa Croce
[10] The sacristy of Santa Croce also includes a fresco of the crucifixion by this artist. This successor to Giotto executed several frescos for the Baroncelli Chapel, such as the Life of the Vierge, and the nearby Ponte Vecchio is attributed to him or Neri di Fioravante.
Answer: Taddeo Gaddi [prompt on "Gaddi"]
[10] An early work by this artist was the wooden crucifix found in Santa Croce's Bardi Chapel. Santa Croce also houses his gilded bronze St. Louis of Toulouse, which was originally intended for Orsanmichel, like his St. Mark.
Answer: Donatello [or Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi]
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For 14 years before his accession, this man was deeply concerned with his personal army at the estate of Gatchina, which he received following the death of Grigory Orlov. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this monarch, who upon his accession in 1796 promptly decreased the labor of serfs from six days to three, among other massive changes.
Answer: Paul I [or Paul Petrovich Romanov]
[10] Paul's foreign policy is often thought to have been dominated by concern for this mid-Mediterranean group of islands, of which he was nominal head as the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitallers.
Answer: Malta
[10] After dispatching Vasily Orlov to conquer India, Paul was assassinated in a coup led by this man, the military governor of St. Petersburg.
Answer: Pyotr Alekseyevich Pahlen
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
They can be used to build a topological quantum computer. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these weird particle-like structures that may exist in only two dimensions, and are boson and fermion-statistic exclusive.
Answer: anyons
[10] Anyons which have one-quarter of an electron's charge are explained by the fractional version of this phenomenon whose integer version was discovered by Klaus von Klitzing. The fractional version involves electron gas excitations behaving like particles having a fraction of the charge of an electron via Coulomb interactions when in high magnetic fields and near absolute zero.
Answer: fractional quantum Hall effect [do not accept or prompt on "Hall Effect"]
[10] Non-abelian anyons can generate a group of this mathematical structure encountered in knot theory, in which a row of threads can be constructed by moving adjacent threads clockwise or counterclockwise; All possible sequences of anyon manipulations correspond to one of them.
Answer: braid
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The protagonist's journey is set in motion by her grandson drinking lye. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this story in which the ex-slave Phoenix Jackson travels to town to buy her grandson medicine.
Answer: "A Worn Path"
[10] "A Worn Path" appears in this collection of stories by Eudora Welty that also includes "The Petrified Man" and "Why I Live at the P.O."
Answer: A Curtain of Green
[10] A Curtain of Green also contains this story the title event of which occurs after he crashes his car into a ravine and receives help from the farmer "Sonny" and his pregnant wife.
Answer: "Death of a Traveling Salesman"
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It begins by explaining that truth is not "out there" because it is not independent of the human mind, for 10 points each:,
[10] This work of philosophy explores the first titular idea in regards to language, selfhood, and the liberal community and later analyze the relationship of cruelty with Nabokov and Orwell.
Answer: Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity
[10] Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity cites this work by Jacques Derrida in its second section. This work subtitled "From Socrates to Freud and Beyond" contains a farce on epistolary fiction in addition to philosophical essays.
Answer: The Post Card [or La carte postale]
[10] Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity is written by this 20th century philosopher at the University of Virginia of Philosophy and Social Hope and Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature.
Answer: Richard Rorty
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify some relations from thermodynamics, for 10 points each.,
[10] This statement, which is based on the approximation that change in enthalpy is invariant across a given range of temperatures, gives the slopes of coexistence curves, and allows for the calculation of any point on the curve given a reference point.
Answer: Clausius-Clapeyron equation
[10] This statement implies that for a system of n components, which has n+2 intensive variables, the system will have n+1 degrees of freedom. The Redlich-Kister method relies on the fact that activity coefficients must satisfy this relation for a binary mixture.
Answer: Gibbs-Duhem equation
[10] This relation explains that the specific heat capacity of a substance at constant pressure is equal to its heat capacity at constant volume plus its specific gas constant.
Answer: Mayer's relation
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
A namesake "Ladies Memorial Society" created a 5-acre cemetery for Confederate dead of this battle in 1866 and Capt. James Moore was charged with identifying and reinterring Union dead from this battle in 18 For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this May 1864 battle, noted for the heavy fighting around the "Bloody Angle", which presaged the trench warfare of World War I and which followed The Wilderness.
Answer: Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse
[10] This noted bulge, named for its shape, was the focus of two days of fighting, notably a charge which earned Emory Upton a promotion to general on May 11, and the fighting which produced the "Bloody Angle" on May 12.
Answer: "Mule Shoe"
[10] In the wake of Spotsylvania, Lincoln's re-election bid was challenged by Radical Republicans, who, disliking Lincoln's handling of the war, overly generous reconstruction proposals, and lack of civil rights fervor, nominated this general at the Cleveland convention in late May. He later withdrew in September, following a political deal.
Answer: John C. Fremont
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about some myths about people who hurt their chances at quizbowl success, for 10 points each.,
[10] This impetuous Lapith friend of Theseus suggests an expedition to the underworld to abduct Persephone, an adventure that earned him an eternity sitting on the Chair of Forgetfulness.
Answer: Pirithous [or Perithoos]
[10] Well, this poet and teacher of Fionn mac Cumhaill was probably pretty smart, but he missed out on a sure spot on the Definitive Greatest Players List after Fionn accidentally tasted the Salmon of Knowledge.
Answer: Finnegas [or Finn Eces]
[10] While the Cumaean Sybil did quote an exorbitant price, the fact remains that this last King of Rome could have had nine books of prophecy for what he eventually paid for three.
Answer: Lucius Tarquinius Superbus or Tarquin II or Tarquin the Proud
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Outspokenness leads to the death of the title character on charges of adultery in this work, though Salome lives when she becomes quiet. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1613 drama about the reaction of the title character and others when they believe King Herod has died. The title character has also been the subject of a novel by Par Lagerkvist and a play by Voltaire.
Answer: The Tragedy of Mariam: The Fair Queen of Jewry [do not accept "Mariamne"]
[10] This woman, thought to have possibly been the student of Michael Drayton, authored The Tragedy of Mariam, the first known play in English written by a woman.
Answer: Elizabeth Tanfield Cary, Lady Falkland [prompt on "Falkland"]
[10] Much of Cary's The Tragedy of Mariam is owed to Thomas Lodge's translations of the works of this Jewish-Latin writer, whose works include an account of the Jewish Revolt and a Latin exposition of Jewish practice.
Answer: Titus Flavius Josephus [or Yosef ben Matiyahu]

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