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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 Chicago Open Tossups by Mike Sorice Sure Does Turn in His Questions Late
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Publications in this work include the County News, associated with the conservative party of the titular character's brother-in-law, a schoolmaster. The liberal publisher of the Beacon rebuffs the titular character after hearing that he has left the Church, saying that he needs the support of Christians, not freethinkers. Local legend has it that the spirits of the dead appear in the form of white horses in the central setting. Characters in this work include a woman who inspired the pen name of the author of Black Lamb and Grey Falcon and a washed-up liberal orator named (*) Ulric Brendel. Insinuations that the titular character drove his wife Beata to suicide are made by Peter Mortensgard and by Professor Kroll. In the end, the titular character and Rebecca West drown themselves in the mill-pond in, for 10 points, what play by Henrik Ibsen set on the title estate?
Answer: Rosmersholm
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One form of this substance is stained black by Marchi's stain, and it is stained blue by Luxol fast blue. A protein specific to this substance is affected in the most common type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The composition and distribution of this substance is affected by the accumulation of N-acetyl aspartate in Canavan disease or phytanic acid in (*) Refsum disease. Cells that produce this substance exhibit Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. EAE is an animal model for the loss of this substance and is elicited by this substance's namesake basic protein; loss of this substance is also associated with multiple sclerosis. For 10 points, name this galactocerebroside-rich insulating substance that is important for saltatory conduction, and that is found in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells.
Answer: myelin [reluctantly accept "myelin sheath"]
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The "logic and metaphysics" of this concept are discussed in Graham Priest's recent book Towards Non-Being, while a collection of historical essays in the metaphysics of this concept, Tales of the Mighty Dead, was written by the possessor of the finest beard in American analytic philosophy. In addition to that work by Robert Brandom, a theory of this concept was advanced in a 1989 book which discussed thermostats. That book, which discussed the "Panglossian paradigm," (*) considered the "systems" which one discovers when one adopts this kind of "stance." In addition to that work by Daniel Dennett, this concept is defined as "directedness" in an "essay in the philosophy of mind" by John Searle. For 10 points, identify this concept from philosophy, the property by which the mind is directed toward objects.
Answer: intentionality [accept word forms like intentional or intention]
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As a youth, this person led a raid that killed Patrick of Salisbury and captured William Marshal, an act that greatly chagrined the ruler with which this figure would later side to defeat and expel Isaac Comnenus, indirectly leading to this ruler's purchase from the Templars of an island that his descendents would rule for three centuries, (*) Cyprus. A more prominent position held by this ruler was obtained through his wife Sibylla in spite of the intrigues of Raymond III of Tripoli. Following a failed attempt to lift a siege of Tiberias, this ruler lost a battle fought near an extinct volcano, the aftermath of which saw the beheading of the captured Knights Templar. For 10 points, name this successor of Baldwin V, a King of Jerusalem who lost at the Battle of Hattin to Saladin, the most prominent member of the House of Lusignan.
Answer: Guy of Lusignan [or Guy of Jerusalem or Guy of Cyprus]
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One work of this name was set to poems by Holderlin and was the opus 35 of Ernst Krenek. Another work by this name was choreographed by Merce Cunningham and was the first orchestral use of the gamut technique by John Cage. A third work with this name is divided into two parts and is the ninth symphony of Louis Spohr. Another work of this name is a ballet that includes such dances as a scherzo representing hail, a bacchanale that echoes themes from previous sections, and a waltz of (*) cornflowers and poppies. This name is also given to a set of twelve piano pieces that includes a troika and a "song of the reaper," and an oratorio derived from a James Thomson poem that features a musical depiction of croaking frogs and the peasants Hanne, Simon, and Lucas. For 10 points, give this name shared by a ballet score by Glazunov, a collection of piano pieces by Tchaikovsky, and an oratorio written after The Creation by Haydn.
Answer: The Seasons
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H. Rider Haggard's novel Elissa is subtitled "The Doom of" this place, and legend has it that an attempt to build a dam in this country angered the river god Nyami Nyami. One author associated with this country wrote a novel in which the influence of the planet Shammat leads to the degradation of Rohanda, and another author born in this country wrote a series of novels featuring Professor Doctor von Igelfeld, including The Finer Points of Sausage Dogs. A plan for its independence was established in the (*) Lancaster House Agreement following the Bush War. The Gokomere are thought to have built a complex in this country whose soapstone carvings of birds have become a national symbol. For 10 points, name this modern country associated with Doris Lessing, which is currently experiencing hyperinflation under the continued reign of President Mugabe.
Answer: the Republic of Zimbabwe
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A battle fought at the capital of this former polity resulted in the deaths of both Gordians, ending their rebellion against Maximinus Thrax, and long after the fall of this polity, its capital was razed by forces under Hasan ibn al'Numan, who besieged a force here under John the Patrician and Tiberius Apsimarus. This polity featured a military tribunal known as the One Hundred and Four, and an earlier siege of its capital saw the capture of its citadel, the (*) Byrsa, and a final stand at the temple of Eshmoun. Its forces were defeated at the Battle of Himera by Gelon, and it was victorious at the Battle of The Saw to fight off a revolt under Spendius and Mathos in the Truceless War, also known as the Mercenary War. A kingdom that shared its capital fell after the battles of Ad Decimum and Tricamarum, leading to the deposition of Gelimer the Vandal. Mago and Hanno the Navigator were subjects of, for 10 points, this empire, which had victories at Lake Trasimene and Cannae while fighting the Second Punic War against Rome.
Answer: Carthage [or the Carthaginian Empire]
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This author wrote that all the events of his life, though apparently his own acts, were "the work of some other, and each is signed with a name" in the last of his essays on poetry, "Variations on the `Eclogues.'" He claimed that a poem is never complete, but is merely "abandoned," in an essay which responded to a lecture by Gustave Cohen. In that essay, this author claimed that his most famous poem came to him in the shape of a composition in stanzas of six lines of ten syllables, and discussed some lines in which he wrote about Zeno of Elea. This author of Idee Fixe and Monsieur Teste wrote about visiting some (*) tombs in the city of Sete in his best-known poem. For 10 points, name this French author of the poems "The Young Fate" and "The Cemetery by the Sea."
Answer: Paul Valery
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This man rescues his beloved from a pack of 100 lust-crazed, club-wielding lepers after making a great leap from a chantry to escape his captors. He is the son of Blanchefleur and Rivalen, or of Isabelle and Meliodas, and he is accompanied on some of his adventures by his squire Governal and his brother-in-law Kaherdin. He successfully defies a demand for slaves, leaving a piece of his sword in the skull of King (*) Anguish's gigantic brother-in-law. His notched sword is later recognized by Anguish's daughter, but as he has just killed a dragon on her behalf she does not seek revenge for the death of her uncle Morholt. He also defeats a Saracen who converts to Christianity, Sir Palamedes, who rescues the maid Brangien and shares this man's love for the wife of his uncle Mark. For 10 points, name this Knight of the Round Table who loves Isolde the Fair.
Answer: Sir Tristan [or Tristram of Lyonesse]
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Sylvester's Law of Inertia implies that a bilinear form of this type has unique index and signature. For a topological group, a neighborhood is said to be of this type if it equals its own inverse. For a pair of sets, the difference of this type is equivalent to the logical exclusive or. (*) Cayley's Theorem states that any finite group of order n is isomorphic to some subgroup of the degree-n group of this type. A real matrix is of this type if and only if it is orthogonally equivalent to a real diagonal matrix. The degree-n group of this type contains as a normal subgroup the alternating group of degree n, and consists of permutations on n objects. A binary relation is an equivalence relation if it is reflexive, transitive, and has, for 10 points, what property that also describes a square matrix in which the i,j-th entry equals the j,i-th entry, so that it equals its own transpose?
Answer: symmetric [accept symmetry or other word forms]
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One confusing aspect of this concept was established in 1892's Hillmon case, which involved Frederick Walters traveling to Wichita. This doctrine was notably refined by Palmer v. Hoffman and by Cardozo's opinion in Shepard v. United States. The Supreme Court established a two-pronged test relevant to this concept in Ohio v. Roberts, though that decision was overturned in the landmark 2004 case Crawford v. Washington. The standard definition of it references "the (*) truth of the matter asserted," and the many exceptions to it include business records, dying declarations, and excited utterances. Covered by Article 8 of the Federal Rules of Evidence, for 10 points, give this legal term for statements made out of court that are generally not admissible in evidence.
Answer: hearsay
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In this work's first act, the title character's half-sister Alice tries to give him their mother's last testament, but he stupidly decides that he is unworthy to hear it. The composer added a solo for the title character of this work, in which that character prays to his mother and resolves to draw strength from his sword. One figure in this work sings the invocation (*) "Nonnes qui reposez" as a prelude to convincing the title character to obtain a magic cypress branch. The title character is seduced by Helene, who leads the nuns of Saint Rosalie in a debauched Act Three ballet. This work ends with the title character collapsing in the arms of his love Isabelle as his father Bertram descends into hell. For 10 points, name this Meyerbeer opera about the titular son of a Satanic figure.
Answer: Robert le diable, grand opera in 5 acts [or Robert the Devil]
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In one of this man's major endeavors, he employed a man named Antonio Perez whose correspondence is an important primary source, revealing the identities of such co-workers as Gherard de Malines, John de Cardenas, and Anthony Standen. This figure's early career saw him fail to negotiate marriage contracts for successive Dukes of Anjou, Henri and Francois, only to score a major diplomatic coup with the Treaty of Blois as Ambassador to France. This so-called "Moor" succeeded his mentor, Robert (*) Cecil, after the latter appointed him to head an inquest that led to the fall of the Duke of Norfolk. Later, similar work by this councilor led to the expulsion of Bernardino de Mendoza as his networks exposed both the Throckmorton plot and the Babington plot, implication in which led to the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. For 10 points, name this secretary of England's Elizabeth I, whom he also served as spymaster.
Answer: Sir Francis Walsingham
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In simulations of one version of this value, the Phong-Blinn Model is transformed by its "pumping up," leading to metallic effects. The Adem Equation gives the net surface longwave radiation as a function of this value, deviation from mean temperature and the probability of entrapment. Another version of it is related by the (*) Heyney-Greenstein phase function to the single free parameter and incident angle. In nuclear physics, it denotes the probability that a neutron will pass a given barrier, and beryllium and lead are noted for their high values of it. A version of Kirchhoff's Law of Radiation defines it as 1 minus the emissivity, though its value is more often given as a ratio of scattered power to total power, and it nears its maximum value for polished silver. For 10 points, name this measure most often used in the calculation of planetary energy budgets defined as the total reflected light over the incident light.
Answer: albedo
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One scene in this work takes place in a large pentagonal room whose entire southern face is occupied by a window made of an "immense sheet of unbroken glass from Venice" which is tinted with a "leaden hue." The epigraph to this work, which notes that God himself is "but a great will pervading all things by nature of its intentness," comes from Joseph Glanvill. This work includes a poem which describes a "gala night / Within the lonesome latter years" in which seraphs "sob at vermin fangs / In human gore imbued." That poem, which describes a play whose hero is "The (*) Conqueror Worm," is uttered by the title character just before she dies in a "dim and decaying city by the Rhine." The narrator of this work marries Lady Rowena Trevanion of Tremaine after the death of his first wife. For 10 points, name this story published in 1838 in which the narrator's dead second wife seems to be transformed into his revived first wife, a work by Edgar Allan Poe.
Answer: "Ligeia"
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An apparent error in this work's left-center far foreground has the rear of a brown hat visible through the side of a black hat. In the bottom-right corner of this painting, an unfolded blank page shines atop scrub and rocks. This work's background is highly similar to Peter Snayers' earlier depiction of Isabel Clara Eugenia at the same location currently hanging in the same museum as this painting; our view of that background is obscured off-center. Lines including the barrel of a shotgun shouldered by a (*) green-suited man looking directly out from far left and the edge of a blue-and-white checkered flag at right draw us toward the central figure, Ambrosio Spinola, who holds the lacquered wooden ovular tube and white-feathered black hat familiar from the artist's other portraits of nobles as he stands before a line of lancers receiving a large key. For 10 points, name this Prado-housed painting depicting the capitulation of a Dutch town, a 1635 work by Diego Velazquez.
Answer: The Surrender of Breda [or La Rendicion de Breda; or Las Lanzas]
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One obscure pathway that results in the reagents used to form this class of chemicals opens with a Pinacol rearrangement of deoxyxyluose; a better-understood pathway that results in an unequal yield of those reagents is the mevalonate pathway. These chemicals form when protic attack resulting from abstraction of OPP groups yields DMAPP radicals, which then combine with one another and with (*) isopentyl diphosphate and undergo stereospecific deprotination, thus forming open-chain varieties of these polymers. Pyrolysis of these compounds led Otto Wallach to posit a rule regarding their structure that is sometimes called the C5 rule but more often named for their monomer. For 10 points, name this family of polymers characterized as built from 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, a unit of five carbons and eight hydrogens also known as isoprene.
Answer: terpenes
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A nun and professor of mathematics named Diane Drufenbrock served as a vice presidential candidate for a party of this name. In another election, their vice presidential candidate Bill Edwards died during the campaign and was replaced by author Barbara Garson. The original party of this name splintered largely thanks to the divisive influence of Max Shachtman, and its last presidential candidate was (*) Darlington Hoopes. A major figure in this party's history is Frank Zeidler, who ran for president for the reformed party in 1976 after serving as mayor of Milwaukee, but it is better known for the escapades of the author of Is Conscience a Crime?, who ran for the presidency six times. For 10 points, name this political party which frequently nominated Norman Thomas for president.
Answer: the Socialist Party of the United States of America
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One of this movement's foundational texts concludes with a "Diploma" in a final chapter on "The Theological Lawgiver of Creation." That text helped inspire one of its adherents, who took the pen name G. G. Maragh to write about King Alpha and Queen Omega in another of its central texts, The Promise Key. The Prophet Gad founded one of this movement's branches, or mansions, known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Other important textual sources for this religion include one organized into four "Books of (*) Athlyi," The Holy Piby, and one that describes a dynastic line descended from Queen Makeda, the Kebra Nagast. Adherents of this religion celebrate several grounations, partake of the i-tal diet, and participate in ceremonies known as reasonings that feature the smoking of ganja. For 10 points, name this Jamaican religion whose adherents believe Haile Selassie is Jah incarnate.
Answer: Rastafarianism [Accept Rasta]
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He defended his critical method in a lecture delivered at Mount Holyoke on "Legitimate Criticism of Poetry," which would be collected in his 5 Pens in Hand. This author co-founded the Seizin Press and the journal Epilogue with a poet who collaborated with him on the novel No Decency Left. He rewrote a Dickens novel in his The Real David Copperfield, while he worked with an expert on Hebrew, Joshua Podro, to write (*) Jesus in Rome and The Nazarene Gospel Restored. He wrote from the perspective of Mary Powell in the historical novel Wife to Mr. Milton, while his relationship with Laura Riding influenced his autobiographical work about World War I, Goodbye to All That. For 10 points, name this English author who also wrote a historical novel set in 1st-century Rome, I, Claudius.
Answer: Robert Graves
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The respective applicability of sets of two and four of these equations is a fundamental difference between the anomalous and regular Zeeman effects. A relation that is in some sense a generalization of these entities gives the probability rate as two pi over Dirac's constant times the state density times the square modulus of a perturbation matrix element. (*) The aforementioned Fermi Golden Rule gives quantitative information about the processes about which these laws give qualitative information because these relations are derived in general by considering the inner products of wave functions for different quantum numbers such that transitions between states with those numbers follow one of these when that inner product is non-zero. For 10 points, name these strictures from quantum perturbation theory that often correspond to conservation of quantities like angular momentum and that dictate which quantum transitions are allowed.
Answer: selection rules [accept transition rules before "transitions" and prompt on it afterwards; prompt on convervation relations or similar]
 
2009 Chicago Open Bonuses by Mike Sorice Sure Does Turn in His Questions Late
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He wrote about George Bataille in his 1982 book The Unavowable Community, while his more recent work includes a book on Heidegger called The Experience of Freedom. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this French thinker, who collaborated with the late Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe on several books.
Answer: Jean-Luc Nancy
[10] Nancy had to stop working for a while after undergoing a heart transplant, an experience discussed in this man's book about Nancy, On Touching. This dude wrote about Baudelaire's story "Counterfeit Money" in his Given Time in addition to writing classics like Of Grammatology.
Answer: Jacques Derrida
[10] Nancy's The Speculative Remark discusses one of this thinker's "bon mots," while this thinker's influence on social theory was discussed in Reason and Revolution.
Answer: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
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The promoters for the genes behind the synthesis of these compounds contain a conserved 49 base pair sequences called their namesake "box," and they are synthesized after the host organism releases flavonoid signals. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify these signal molecules, a class of lipo-chito-oligo-saccharides which are secreted by rhizobia. They promote rhizobial entry into root hairs after which one can observe the formation of infection threads.
Answer: nod factors [or nodulation factors]
[10] Rhizobia help legumes perform this process which entails the reduction of a namesake gas into ammonia.
Answer: nitrogen fixation
[10] The metal cofactor central to nitrogenase contains this transition element, which, along with tungsten, is the only element to bind to dithiolene ligands. This metal is also central to xanthine oxidase and sulfite oxidase.
Answer: molybdenum [or Mo]
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He wrote about a "house in Broad Street" with nine rooms and the "weedgrown graveyard with its rows of tombs" in The Coming Forth by Day of Osiris Jones. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this poet of John Deth: A Metaphysical Legend, who claimed that "we live for small horizons" in "Palimpsest: The Deceitful Portrait."
Answer: Conrad Aiken
[10] Aiken wrote about finding the bodies of his parents after his father had murdered his mother and committed suicide in this "autobiographical narrative" from 1952.
Answer: Ushant
[10] Aiken's other books include one titled "a letter from" this Tang Dynasty poet, who allegedly drowned while trying to embrace the moon.
Answer: Li Po [accept Li Bai]
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Legend holds that this battle opened with single combat between Temir-murza and Alexander Peresvets, who killed each other on their first pass with lances, but Alexander's body didn't fall from his horse, cheering his fellow Muscovites. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1380 battle, a defeat for the Golden Horde under Mamai Khan. It came two years after a similar defeat at the Battle of the Vozha River.
Answer: Battle of Kulikovo Field
[10] This Grand Prince of Vladimir earned his nickname by leading the Russians to victory at Kulikovo, but soon afterwards was forced to become a vassal of Tokhtamysh.
Answer: Dmitri Donskoi [or Dmitri of the Don or Saint Dmitri Ivanovich or Dmitri I]
[10] Tokhtamysh later lost the battles of the Khondurcha, Terek and Vorskla Rivers against the forces of this conqueror, infamous for supposedly ordering the construction of pyramids of skulls after sacking Isfahan and Aleppo.
Answer: Tamerlane
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Created for the predella of a Justus of Ghent altarpiece, this series of six panels opens in a checker-floored room in which a woman is talking with a red-clothed man; the antechamber to that room later has its outside door broken down after blood spills into the street in the titular occurrence. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this blood red-highlighted work whose last panels respectively depict a man, a woman and two children burning at the stake and demons and angels disputing over a corpse.
Answer: Miracle of the Desecrated Host [or Miracle of the Profaned Host; or Miracolo dell'ostia profanata]
[10] Miracle of the Desecrated Host is generally attributed to this self-styled second of Five Masters of the Florentine Renaissance to whom is more firmly attributed the three-part Battle of San Romano.
Answer: Paulo Uccello [or Paolo di Dono; prompt on Paolo]
[10] This late work of Paolo's is housed in the Ashmolean and depicts red-suited riders and footmen and gold and brown dogs chasing stags toward a central vanishing point among a regular array of dark trees.
Answer: The Hunt in the Forest
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Answer the following on local winds for 10 points each.,
[10] This dry wind periodically descends the leeward side of the Alps, warming by adiabatic heating as it goes. It often appears in the winter and spring, greatly raising ground temperatures. Its equivalent in the Rockies is the chinook.
Answer: foehn
[10] The haboob can form walls of sand and dust nearly a kilometer high after being generated by downdrafts from this type of weather phenomenon, characterized by cumulonimbus clouds with an anvil top shape. A band of these forms a squall line.
Answer: thunderstorms
[10] The williwaw, bora and mistral are examples of this type of wind generated by a cold, dense airmass flowing over the rim of a highland area and down a slope due to gravity.
Answer: katabatic winds [or fall winds]
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Name these mythical characters associated with colorless hair for 10 points each.,
[10] The Graeae were born with gray hair from the union of this wise old man of the sea and his sister-wife Ceto. His other children by Ceto include Ladon, Echidna, and the Gorgons.
Answer: Phorcys
[10] This hero was born an albino or with gray hair; either way, his odd hair led to his being abandoned as a baby on Mount Alburz. He was found and raised by the Simurgh, and later married Rudaba, fathering the hero Rustam.
Answer: Zal
[10] This figure is sometimes considered to be an avatar of Sesha or of Vishnu. He was born from a white hair from Vishnu implanted in Devaki, while his brother Krishna was born from a dark hair.
Answer: Balarama
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Two trips to Yugoslavia supported the Oral-Formulaic Theory that orally-improvised epics, including the Homeric and some medieval epics, are composed using formulaic units larger than single words. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name the primary author of the Oral-Formulaic Theory whose papers were printed in the posthumous collection The Making of Homeric Verse, or his assistant who presented the theory in The Singer of Tales.
Answer: Milman Parry [or Albert Bates Lord]
[10] Parry analyzed formulaic units in Homer consisting of one of these paired with a noun, such as "winedark" paired with sea, or "cow-eyed" with Hera. Parry found that their use was determined by place within the metrical line, not by context, so that Achilles is sometimes described as "swift-footed" even when he's seated.
Answer: Homeric epithets [or fixed epithets]
[10] The Iliad features many examples of this type scene, a large unit whose sections include the hero's arming, his wounding followed by divine aid, his slaying the enemy leader in single combat, and his taunting of the victim and struggle over the corpse. This Greek term refers to a warrior's finest moments of battlefield excellence.
Answer: aristeia
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The Lunda rulers of this state accrued great wealth until their overthrow by Msiri, who introduced smallpox vaccination and the rifle. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this historical African state located in the southeast of what is now Congo (Kinshasa), roughly bounded by Lake Tanganyika and what are now Zambia and Angola.
Answer: Katanga [accept Shaba]
[10] Since about the tenth century CE, Katanga has been a center for the production of this material, which Msiri taught his people new uses for and which made the wealth of the Lunda kings. Katanga comprises most of this material's namesake African belt, which contains perhaps a fifth of the world's supply.
Answer: copper ore [accept clear-knowledge equivalents]
[10] Sharing of copper wealth and other issues led this Congolese politician to lead a Katangan secessionist movement in 1960, which in turn contributed to the downfall of Patrice Lumumba and led to a very strange relationship with Joseph Kasavubu.
Answer: Moise-Kapenda Tshombe
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This religion's Four Affirmations include physical cleanliness, love of nature, and honoring tradition and the family. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this religion whose final affirmation deals with matsuri, community festivals such as the celebrations for children of ages 3, 5, and 7, which are organized by shrines, or jinja.
Answer: Shintoism
[10] Many Shinto festivals feature this ceremonial art form of classical music and dance, said to have originated with Uzume's dance to lure Amaterasu out of a cave. It is performed at shrines by priestesses known as miko.
Answer: kagura
[10] This first text of the Rikkokushi or Six National Histories chronicles the reigns of the emperors from Jimmu through Temmu, who commissioned Prince Toneri to assemble it about 40 years after the Kojiki.
Answer: Nihon Shoki [or Nihongi]
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This work includes a disquisition on field methods squeezed between a chapter on "The Cultivation of Taro, Palms and Bananas" and one on "Land Tenure." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this "study of the methods of tilling the soil and of agricultural rites in the Trobriand Islands," written by Malinowski.
Answer: Coral Gardens and Their Magic: A study of the methods of tilling the soil and of agricultural rites in the Trobriand Islands
[10] This woman published some of her underwater photographs in the collection Coral Gardens decades after she made the documentary Olympia.
Answer: Leni Riefenstahl
[10] A 2006 federal regulation creating the US's largest protected marine habitat prohibits bottom trawling in the coral gardens of this archipelago, whose subgroups include the Near and Fox Islands.
Answer: Aleutians Islands
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This idealization consists of an arbitrarily large number of initially identical chemical systems that are free to exchange heat and particles with a reservoir. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this entity corresponding to a partition function equal to the sum over states and particle numbers, N, of a constant z to the N times the exponential of minus the state energy over kinetic temperature, kT.
Answer: grand canonical ensemble [do not accept or prompt on "canonical ensemble"]
[10] The aforementioned factor z in the partition function of the grand canonical ensemble is equal to this quantity, which is equal to the exponential of the chemical potential, mu, over kT and measures the difficulty in adding a particle to the ensemble.
Answer: statistical fugacity [prompt on f or z]
[10] For the grand canonical ensemble, this quantity is given by the pressure times the volume, as can be shown by performing an N-to-mu Legendre transform of the form of this quantity applicable to the canonical ensemble and considering that volume is then the only extensive variable.
Answer: free energy [prompt on thermodynamic potential or energy]
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Its central character is seduced by Millwood, and in the end they are both hanged. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this tragedy about George Barnwell which premiered at Drury Lane in the 1730s.
Answer: The London Merchant
[10] This author of The London Merchant also wrote an adaptation of the Elizabethan play Arden of Feversham and 1736's The Fatal Curiosity.
Answer: George Lillo
[10] Lillo's other plays include Marina, an adaptation of this Shakespeare romance whose other characters include Thaisa and the chorus, John Gower.
Answer: Pericles, Prince of Tyre
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This process may occur if a high Gamow penetrability factor exists, and it explains the occurrence of alpha decay. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this process that involves particles escaping from a potential well.
Answer: quantum mechanical tunneling
[10] The most commonly used approximation utilized for quantum tunneling problems is this model which generates multiple wave-packet solutions from Schrodinger's Equation, some of which display exponential decay and high probability of overlapping potential well "walls." It is named for three scientists.
Answer: Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin-Jeffries Model [or WKBJ approximation]
[10] One method of inducing quantum tunneling is believed to be injection of this type of particle into an eigenstate of its namesake parity at one of its Jackiw-Rebbi states in the vicinity of two solitons. The method is thought to operate because the equation governing these particles permits both its spinor and its complex conjugate to coexist in the same term.
Answer: Majorana fermion
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Name some heavyweight fighters who knocked each other the fuck out, for 10 points each.,
[10] This gold-medal middleweight at the 1952 Olympics won the tournament to succeed Rocky Marciano over Dollree Mapp beau Archie Moore. He lost that title after being knocked down seven times in three rounds by Ingemar Johanssen, only to gain and lose it again, by first-round knockout in 1962.
Answer: "Pretty Boy" Floyd Patterson
[10] Floyd Patterson lost his belt to this violent criminal and personal hero of August Wilson's. He himself lost his title in the first of two beatdowns from Muhammad Ali. His second fight against Ali saw this fighter knocked out, sort of, in under two minutes in Lewiston, Maine, leading to and iconic image of Ali preening over his unconscious body.
Answer: Charles "Sonny" Liston [accept The Bear]
[10] Muhammad Ali's last professional fight was a ten-round decision loss to this Jamacanadian, who held the WBC belt for two rounds until he was comically KTFO by Mike Tyson in 1986. Awesome video exists of this boxer being held by police while Larry Holmes jump-kicks him from the hood of a car.
Answer: Trevor Berbick
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This first cousin and sometime ally of Eugene of Savoy obtained the epithet "The Turk" for his decisive victory at Slankamen and later had built the Palace of Rastatt. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this head of the Imperial armies from 1689 until his death in 1707, a major figure in the War of the Spanish Succession.
Answer: Ludwig Wilhelm I, Markgraf von Baden [or Louis William I, Margrave of Baden-Baden; accept either underlined part in either case; prompt on Ludwig or Louis]
[10] Ludwig Wilhelm's victory at Slankamen and his cousin Eugene's at Zenta precipitated this treaty ending the War of the Holy League. It saw the Ottomans cede such territories at Transylvania, Hungary, and the Morea.
Answer: the Treaty of Carlowitz
[10] While not present on the field of this battle, Ludwig Wilhelm played a major role in its outcome by contemporaneously besieging the cities of Landau and Ingolstadt, tying the hands of Maximilian II of Bavaria.
Answer: the Battle of Blenheim
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Cleitarchus records that this Greek hetaera provoked the burning of Persepolis on a whim. Some sources have her later bearing several children of Ptolemy I Soter. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this woman who shares her name with another whore, a fifth-century Egyptian who reformed and was later sainted and probably painted by Jusepe de Ribera.
Answer: Thais
[10] The Greek Thais' provocation is the subject of this Handel choral work, a setting of a Dryden ode for St. Cecilia's Day that had earlier been set by Jeremiah Clarke.
Answer: Alexander's Feast, ode for St. Cecilia's Day, HWV 75 [accept either underlined part]
[10] St. Thais, on the other hand, is the subject of the novel Thais by Anatole France, which was made into an opera of the same name with a notable orchestral meditation by Louis Gallet and by this composer of David Rizzio, La Grand' Tante, and Manon.
Answer: Jules Massenet
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This author's life is described in Vishnu Prabhakar's biography Awara Messiah, while his novels include Debt and Payment and Good Riddance. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Bengali author who wrote about an engineer named Ramesh in a book which has been described as the Indian Main Street, Palli Samaj.
Answer: Sarat Chandra Chatterjee
[10] Perhaps a better-known product of the Bengali Renaissance is this novel, in which Nikhil's wife Bimala falls in love with the revolutionary Sandip.
Answer: The Home and the World [or Ghare Baire]
[10] The Home and the World was written by this author of Gitanjali.
Answer: Rabindranath Tagore
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He edited the Evansville Daily Journal after the Civil War, and went on to serve as the American minister to Mexico, Russia, and Spain. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this politician, who succeeded James G. Blaine in a certain Cabinet position after Blaine succumbed to Bright's disease.
Answer: John W. Foster
[10] Foster's time as ambassador to Mexico included seeing this man's victory at the Battle of Tecoac and subsequent seizure of power in 1876. He would later lead Mexico from 1884-1911.
Answer: Porfirio Diaz
[10] After serving as Secretary of State, Foster helped with the drafting of this agreement whose signatories included Ito Hirobumi and Mutsu Munemitsu.
Answer: the Treaty of Shimonoseki
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This Hungarian mathematician's general-audience books include How to Solve It. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this man who proved that random walks in one and two dimensions always return to the origin given sufficient time, and that random walks in higher dimensions have probability less than one of returning to the origin.
Answer: George Polya
[10] This man is the namesake of a series of continuous-time stochastic processes, whose increments are normally distributed with zero mean and variance equal to the increment length. He founded cybernetics.
Answer: Norbert Wiener
[10] This man's namesake lemma gives the differential for a function of a Wiener process. He developed a form of calculus for use with differential equations involving stochastic differentials.
Answer: Kiyoshi Ito

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