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View Packets Tournament Editor
2007 Chicago Open Tossups by Hart
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This character made her debut in a short story that opens with her declaring her intent to buy gloves; in a later novel, the gloves are replaced with flowers. The story places her "in Bond Street," while she is absent from a scene in the novel set in Regent's Park where a man in a grey suit is believed to be the dead man Evans by Lucrezia's husband Septimus. She remembers being kissed by Sally Seton, and feels annoyance at the thought of Doris Kilman praying with her daughter Elizabeth. At the end of the novel, her arrival produces terror and ecstasy in Peter Walsh. FTP name this title character who spends a day organizing an evening party in a novel by Virginia Woolf.
Answer: Mrs. Dalloway or Clarissa Dalloway
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Crampton et. al. found that the version of this enzyme encoded by the T7 bacteriophage is powered by sequential dTTP hydrolysis and interacts with its substrate via three lysine residues in loop 2. Mutations in the RecQ family of them cause Bloom's Syndrome and Werner's syndrome, both of which lead to rapid aging. In E. coli, one member of this superfamily is the hexameric DnaB, which interacts with the beta clamp-loading complex to synchronize actions on the leading and lagging strands. All versions of it bind to AT-rich ori sites in order to disrupt the hydrogen bonds between bases and begin replication. FTP, name this class of enzymes that move directionally along DNA, effectively unzipping the strands.
Answer: DNA Helicases (prompt on helicase)
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Alessandro Parronchi has attributed some of the paintings of the Karlsruhe Master to this painter's daughter, Antonia. In a fresco reminiscent of a statue, he depicted Sir John Hawkwood on horseback, and his Creation and Expulsion in the Green Cloister of the Santa Maria Novella is now badly damaged. Lesser known works depict a chained princess looking on as a hero arrives in his St. George and the Dragon and a series of panels that depict noblemen hunting in a forest. His most famous work depicts Niccolo da Tolentino on horseback at the title event. Apprenticed to Ghiberti his nickname stemmed from a love of painting birds, and Vasari described his obsession with perspective, FTP, name this Renaissance master who painted the Battle of San Romano.
Answer: Paolo Uccello or Paolo di Dono
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During this battle, the winning general's veteran troops stopped halfway to the enemy to conserve energy. The victors used the River Enipeus to secure their left flank, and used infantry positioned behind cavalry to repulse the charge of Titus Labienus's cavalry. This battle took place about a year after the siege of Massilia and a few weeks after a near-disastrous attempt by its victor to surround the loser's forces at Dyrrhachium. A resounding Optimate defeat at the hands of the Populares in Thessaly, FTP, name this decisive 48 BC battle that Pompey lost to Julius Caesar.
Answer: Battle of Pharsalus
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This region's most important properties are due to free electrons, a fact demonstrated by its namesake using an equation he developed with Hartree. These free electrons are produced by the interaction of extreme ultraviolet photons with nitrogen and oxygen. This region's namesake discovered it when he found a second reflection of signals from the BBC's Bournemouth transmitter. Its two subdivisions merge at night, and lie above the Kennelly-Heaviside layer or E region, which was also discovered by its namesake. The 1947 Physics Nobel went to the discoverer of, FTP, this uppermost layer of the ionosphere useful in radio communications.
Answer: Appleton region/layer (prompt on F region/layer after "E region", accept before)
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Tychicus will arrive with this man, "the faithful and beloved brother, who is one of you," according to Colossians 4:9. The "beloved brother" title recurs in the more famous episode in which he is sent back to his former home with a letter. The statement that "formerly [this man] was useless to you, but now he is indeed useful both to you and to me," is a play on his name, which literally means "useful." Scholars Lenski and Hendrikson disagree as to whether literal theft led this man to flee his master's house to visit his imprisoned friend, Paul. FTP, name this escaped slave, a convert to Christianity who was to be freed after Paul sent an epistle to Philemon.
Answer: Onesimus
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In this man's lone play, a former U.S. president hallucinates on his deathbed that his niece needs advice on how to rebuff suitors. In addition to Buchanan Dying, he wrote about the philanderer Piet Hanema leaving his wife Angela for the sensual Foxy in Couples. George Caldwell makes sacrifices so his son Peter can become an artist in this author's modern-day version of the Prometheus and Chiron story. In one of this man's short stories, Sammy quits his job as a cashier after his manager Lengel admonishes three girls in bathing suits. FTP name this author of The Centaur and A&P who wrote several novels chronicling the life of former high-school basketball star Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom.
Answer: John Hoyer Updike
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At the age of 19, he became the editor of the South Bend Free Press, and purchased it in 1845. On the urging of Horace Greeley, he won election to Congress in 1854 as an anti-Kansas-Nebraska Act candidate, and, after a brief flirtation with the Know-Nothings, joined the Republican Party. Chosen over Benjamin Wade in the nomination for the highest office he held because of his strict temperance, he became Speaker of the House in 1863, serving in that capacity until 1869. Henry Wilson replaced, FTP, what Indiana politican, involved in the Credit Mobilier scandal, as Ulysses S. Grant's Vice-President?
Answer: Schuyler Colfax Jr.
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A book on this concept "and experience" was written by Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge, and it considered the dialectic between the bourgeois and proletarian types of it. A recent book by Pauline Johnson attempts to "rescue" this concept, and one of its chapters is entitled "Discourse Ethics and the Normative Justification of Tolerance." In her book The Human Condition, Hannah Arendt suggested that it reached its peak in the Greek polis. The most famous book on this subject describes it as a space apart from the market where rational-critical debate can take place, and found examples of it in the salons, literary societies, and coffee houses of the eighteenth century. For 10 points, identify this concept, whose "structural transformation" was discussed in a book by Jurgen Habermas.
Answer: the public sphere or die Offentlichkeit
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The composer considered titling this work after Lidice, a Czech town destroyed in World War II. It was composed to answer a request from Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra conductor Eugene Goossens that yielded 18 works dedicated to, among other things, friends, France, and the Merchant Marine. Its first three notes are B-flat, F, high B-flat, which announce a theme that the lower brass instruments take turns repeating after its opening timpani flourish. Containing no strings or woodwinds, FTP, name this work that debuted near tax day to honor the WWII contributions of everyday citizens, a fanfare by Aaron Copland.
Answer: Fanfare for the Common Man
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This object is the prototype for the SBm ("S B M") class introduced by de Vaucouleurs, and the prototype for luminous blue variables is its brightest star, S Doradus. Supernova 1987A occurred on the outskirts of its Tarantula Nebula, the most active star formation region in the Local Group. Its partner is home to the Cepheid variables used by Henrietta Leavitt to establish the period-luminosity relation. Currently thought to be second only to the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical in proximity to the Milky Way, FTP name this galaxy visible in the southern hemisphere along with its smaller apparent neighbor.
Answer: Large Magellanic Cloud or LMC (accept anything with Large, Cloud, and Magellan in it)
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To its northwest is Adam's Bridge, a series of limestone shoals and a remnant of isthmus breached in 1480. Mountains here include the Knuckles Range and Adam's Peak, while major rivers include the Mahaweli and the Kelani. Its oldest inhabitants are generally believed to be the Wanniyala-Aetto, while another small group are the Burghers of mixed European blood, mainly Portuguese and Dutch. The largest inland city is Kandy, while other major cities include Galle in the south and Trincomalee in the east. Lying to the east of the Gulf of Mannar, It is a major tea-growing country, and the city of Jaffna lies in the north, on the shores of the Palk Strait. FTP, identify this island country with capital at Colombo.
Answer: Sri Lanka or Ceylon
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A namesake declaration on the sesquicentennial anniversary of this battle led to the 1978 Mexican Conference on arms limitation. The Briton William Miller was later named Grand Marshall for his heroics in this battle, and Miller's cavalry distinguished themselves in a preceding skirmish, earning the name "Hussars of Junin." Abimael Guzman worked as a professor in the city of this name while founding the Shining Path. The battle saw a cavalry charge under Jose Maria Cordoba quickly lead to the rout of the Spaniards and the capture of Viceroy de la Serna. FTP name this last major battle for South American independence, an 1824 victory for Sucre that liberated Peru.
Answer: Battle of Ayacucho or Battle of Pampa de la Quinua
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Maps of the Holy Land prompt his assertion that he wants to honeymoon at the Dead Sea, after which he reveals that he was a poet. When another character abruptly asks his name, he replies that it's Adam, and he requests "even ten francs" from that same character after he's given chicken bones to gnaw on. Each of his efforts to recount nightmares is rebuffed by his companion and each night he sleeps in a ditch after being beaten. He constantly has aching feet from his ill-fitting boots and he claims that he'll never walk again after Lucky kicks his shin. FTP, name this character, nicknamed Gogo, who often suggests "Let's go," but is told "We can't" by Vladimir because they are waiting for Godot.
Answer: Estragon (accept Gogo early)
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Advanced glycation endproducts of this reaction have been implicated in the progression of Alzheimer's disease and collagen crosslinking associated with aging. One type of molecule yielded in this reaction is short-chain hydrolytic products such as diacetyl, all of which undergo the Strecker degradation. In the second step of this reaction, the product of the first step becomes a ketosamine in the Amadori rearrangement, and this product can turn into a reductone in the next step. Its first step results in the formation of N-glycoside, and most commonly, nitrogenous brown polymers are the product of this reaction. FTP, name this organic reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar that explains how bread gets toasted and meat browns.
Answer: Maillard reaction
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One piano used in this song was supposed to have been reserved for Daniel Barenboim's exclusive use. During its recording, violinists were given red clown noses to wear. One verse describes the death of Guinness heir Tara Browne, and an article in the Daily Mail about pothole problems inspired the line about the town of Blackburn, Lancashire. Mal Evans is credited with operating the alarm clock that announces this song's middle section, in which a new singer says he "woke up" and "fell out of bed." Two iconic orchestral crescendos are preceded by Paul McCartney's line "I'd love to turn you on." FTP, name this song that begins "I read the news today, oh boy," the last track on the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.
Answer: "A Day in the Life"
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One forced the gentry of Pskov to kiss the cross and was a deacon named Sidorka. Another failed to break the siege of the Saint Sergius monastery when his former co-ruler called in Swedish troops, after which he turned to Polish King Sigismund III Vasa. Another, known as the rebel of Tushino, appointed Feodor Romanov Patriarch of all Russia. The original's appanage was at Uglich, where he died in suspicious circumstances. One, said to have been named Grigory Otrepyev, was acclaimed as Tsar over Feodor II after the 1605 death of Boris Gudonov. FTP, give this name shared by the youngest son of Ivan IV and the many pretenders who claimed to be him.
Answer: Dmitri (accept "False Dmitris" until "original" is mentioned)
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His essays include one in which he discovers he is riding with a dead man but still ritually discards his cigar, "The Secret of a Train." An object thrown from a belfry and not the freakish strength of a blacksmith provides the fatal blow in his The Hammer of God, while two "impossibly ugly" suitors vie for the hand of Laura Hope, one killing the other and smuggling his dwarfish body out of a house filled with robot servants, in a work entitled Invisible Man. He is more famous for a novel in which the Central Anarchist Council elects Lucian Gregory to the title position and another that sees Adam Wayne refuse to sell land for a new highway. FTP, name this author of the Father Brown detective stories, The Man Who Was Thursday, and The Napoleon of Notting Hill.
Answer: Gilbert Keith (G.K.) Chesterton
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This woman's son was found at the same time and on the same hillside as Auge's son Telephus. She followed Ancaeus and Cepheus from Arcadia to a gathering where she wound up killing the centaurs Hylaeus and Rhaecus. While there, she also caught the eye of Cleopatra's husband, who wound up killing Toxeus and Plexippus, his uncles. This mother of Parthenopaeus stopped to pick up three golden apples during a footrace, resulting in her marriage to Melanion; unfortunately, they wound up transformed into lions yoked to Cybele's chariot. FTP name this huntress who received from a smitten Meleager the hide of the Calydonian Boar.
Answer: Atalanta
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Belady's MIN algorithm is the theoretically most efficient one used for these, however it is not practically implementable in hardware. Snooping and snarfing, as well as the Firefly and Dragon protocols are all used to maintain coherency in these structures. An important decision in their design is their write policy, which can be either write-through or write-back, and their replacement policy is often governed by a least recently used algorithm. FTP, what are these structures utilizing the concept of locality of reference, which, on CPUs, are often divided into a level 1 and a level 2?
Answer: cache (pron. "cash")
 
2007 Chicago Open Bonuses by Hart
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Give the following about a poet and his works FTPE:,
[10] This poet's collection His Toy, His Dream, His Rest features over 300 poems centering on Henry.
Answer: John Allyn Berryman or John Allyn Smith
[10] An unnamed interlocutor in Berryman's Dream Songs always addresses Henry using this name.
Answer: "Mr. Bones"
[10] "The Governor your husband lived so long / moved you not, restless, waiting for him?" opens this 57-stanza Berryman poem, a spiritual biography of a 17th century American poet.
Answer: "Homage to Mistress Bradstreet"
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Name these personages appearing in myths relating to the confusion of tongues, FTPE.,
[10] One Hindu legend states that the confusion of tongues resulted when this god destroyed a tree that sought to shelter all mankind under its branches. This four-headed creator-god also gave birth to the rakshas from his foot after mistakenly creating ignorance. What a jerk.
Answer: Brahma
[10] In Aztec myth, the confusion of languages begins with this woman's children following the Great Flood at the end of the Fourth Sun. She shares her name with a flower goddess sometimes said to be the wife of Centeotl.
Answer: Xochiquetzal
[10] In the Sumerian myth of Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, this god causes the confusion of tongues and holds the power to undo it. Name this Sumerian deity of water and intelligence, or his Babylonian counterpart.
Answer: Enki or Ea
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Mutations of one enzyme associated with them causes Gaucher's disease. FTPE:,
[10] Name this organelle that contains namesake hydrolases; they digests food particles and decrepit organelles.
Answer: lysosomes
[10] Old organelles are destroyed via this process, which occurs via the lysosome fusing to a double membrane surrounding the target. It's also known as type II programmed cell death.
Answer: autophagy
[10] This disease results from mutations in the mannose-6-phosphate receptor used to target lysosomal enzymes to their destination. Enlargement of the spleen and congenital heart failure result due to the formation of inclusion bodies.
Answer: Inclusion-cell Disease or Mucolipidosis II (Prompt on partial)
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Answer the following about an Edward Albee play, FTPE:,
[10] This work's title characters are named A, B and C; A is the elderly version of 52-year-old B and 26-year-old C, who serve as A's nurse and lawyer, respectively.
Answer: Three Tall Women
[10] This male character is the only character other than A, B and C to appear on stage, but he says nothing. We learn from A that he is gay.
Answer: the Boy or her son (accept A's son, B's son or other equivalents; C is too young to have had him)
[10] A and B mention marrying a short man with a glass eye, whom they refer to by this avian nickname.
Answer: "the penguin"
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Give the following about the Vietnam war FTPE:,
[10] This 1968 countrywide offensive by the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong started on the night of the Vietnamese lunar new year.
Answer: the Tet offensive
[10] This U.S. marine base and airstrip near the DMZ fell under a two-month siege following the Tet offensive; the Joint Chiefs of Staff questioned whether tactical nuclear weapons would be used to break the siege here if the situation became desperate.
Answer: Khe Sahn
[10] This U.S. intelligence operation aimed to use sophisticated electronic sensors to relay bombing targets along the Ho Chi Minh trail; its test phase was conducted during the Khe Sanh siege.
Answer: Operation Igloo White
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Name the following Mexican muralists FTPE:,
[10] This muralist painted Man at the Crossroads, controversially wrote "God does not exist" on a mural in Mexico City, and liked Frida Kahlo a lot.
Answer: Diego Maria de la Concepcion Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodriguez
[10] He painted From Porfiriato to the Revolution at the Mexican Museum of Natural History and got exiled a couple times, once for trying to kill Trotsky.
Answer: David Alfaro Siqueiros
[10] This painter was photographed holding a guitar by Carl Van Vechten; his most notable mural is Birth of Nationality, but he's better known for colorful easel works like Two Characters Attacked by Dogs and The Flautist.
Answer: Rufino Tamayo
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Many of his most important papers are collected in the 1953 collection Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this thinker, whose work in logic included a definition of logical consequence and a description of model theory. Along with Stefan Banach, he gives his name to the sphere-doubling paradox in topology.
Answer: Alfred Tarski
[10] One of Tarski's teachers at the University of Warsaw was this mathematician, whose work on set theory led him to develop his namesake carpet and triangle fractals.
Answer: Waclaw Sierpinski
[10] In this really important 1933 paper, Tarski distinguished between the meta- and object types of the namesake concept, described the "Convention T," and proved his indefinability theorem.
Answer: "On the Concept of Truth in Formal Languages" or "The Concept of truth in the languages of the deductive sciences" or "The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages" or "Der Wahrheitsbegriff in den Sprachen der deduktiven Disziplinen" or "Pojecie prawdy w jezykach nauk dedukcyjnych"
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Give the following about an operetta FTPE:,
[10] This operetta by Jacques Offenbach parodies a Gluck opera about a mythical musician and his lover.
Answer: Orpheus in the Underworld or Orphee aux enfers
[10] Orpheus in the Underworld culminates in this irreverent dance to the famous Can-Can music.
Answer: galop infernal
[10] This movement of Saint-Saens's Carnival of the Animals uses a slow rendition of the Can-Can theme from the galop infernal.
Answer: Tortoises or Tortues or movement IV
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Answer the following about a work FTPE:,
[10] This novel details the homecoming of brothers Mitsu and Takashi Nedorkoro to their native village Okubo to learn about their family's involvement in a 19th century peasant riot.
Answer: The Silent Cry or Man'en gan'nen no futtoboru
[10] This is the author of The Silent Cry as well as a work in which a teacher nicknamed Bird struggles to balance duty and desire, A Personal Matter.
Answer: Kenzaburo Oe
[10] This descendent of Korean immigrants owns the supermarket in Okubo that drove out local businesses; Takashi encourages the townspeople to turn a giveaway promotion into a n opportunity to loot this man's store.
Answer: The Emperor or Paek Sun-gi (accept either part of the second answer)
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Answer the following about the Supreme Court under Earl Warren's predecessor, FTPE:,
[10] Truman nominated this old friend of his, then his Secretary of the Treasury, to replace Harlan Stone in 1946. Not wanting a 5-4 decision, he order Brown re-argued, but died before that could take place.
Answer: Frederick Moore Vinson
[10] Vinson wrote the majority opinion in this 1950 victory for Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP reversed a state Supreme Court decision denying the plaintiff admittance to a law school; the court ruled that intangible factors such as isolation factor into "Separate but Equal."
Answer: Sweatt v. Painter (accept either, prompt on "339 U.S. 629")
[10] Vinson dissented in this case which held Truman's seizure of steel mills unconstitutional. Despite the fact that Black wrote the majority opinion, it is Jackson's concurrence that is most cited today.
Answer: Youngstown Sheet
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His goofy exploits include burning his foot on a George Foreman grill, forcing his employees to take part in a hot dog eating contest, and kissing Oscar the accountant on the lips after accidentally outing him. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this character from NBC's The Office.
Answer: Michael Scott (accept either)
[10] Michael Scott is played by this actor, who played a suicidal Proust scholar in Little Miss Sunshine after his star turn as the titular 40 Year Old Virgin.
Answer: Steve Carrell
[10] Michael's love interest for much of the series is this woman, his corporate supervisor. A driven woman, she vows to make her relationship with Michael her "new full-time job" after she is fired at the end of the third season.
Answer: Jan Levinson-Gould (accept either)
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It is typically used after a Friedel-Crafts acylation to create the corresponding alkylated benzene derivative. FTPE:,
[10] This method for reducing ketones to alkanes treats the ketone with zinc amalgam in hydrochloric acid. It's selective for aryl ketones.
Answer: Clemmensen reduction/reaction
[10] The usual method of reducing ketones to alkanes, the Wolff-Kishner reaction, converts the ketone into this intermediate before treating it with a base.
Answer: hydrazone (hydrazine is not the same thing)
[10] This one-pot version of the Wolff-Kishner reduction involves putting all of the reactants together in ethylene glycol. It's definitely preferable to using sealed glass tubes at one thousand degrees as in the original version.
Answer: Huang-Minlon modification
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Name the short stories of William Faulkner FTPE:,
[10] The title character of this story poisoned a northerner named Homer Barron; his withered corpse is found in her bed surrounded by a silver toilet set over forty years later.
Answer: "A Rose for Emily"
[10] This story tells of Young Sarty, who warns Major de Spain that his father Abner is perpetrating the title offense.
Answer: "Barn Burning"
[10] In this story, Sarty's brother Flem Snopes cons Henry Armstid into buying the wild title animals. An expanded version of the story was later incorporated into the novel Hamlet.
Answer: "Spotted Horses"
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Answer the following about a sculpture and its creator, FTPE:,
[10] This sculpture, also known as Canon, shows an athlete wielding a certain weapon.
Answer: Doryphorus (prompt on "spear-bearer" or equivalents)
[10] This sculptor of Doryphorus was the head of the Argive school and popularized the contrapposto style of the human form in such works as Diadumenos.
Answer: Polykleitos the Elder or Polyclitus the Elder
[10] After everyone voted for themselves, Polykleitos won a competition against Phidias, Kresilas, Kydon, and Phradmon to sculpt one of these figures for the temple of Ephesos by getting the most second-place votes.
Answer: an Amazon (accept "Wounded Amazon")
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According to legend, this African trading empire declined under a curse for seven years, seven months and seven days after a young warrior slew the sacred seven-headed serpent Bida. FTPE:,
[10] Name this west-African empire of the Sahel region that rose to prominence in the 8th century and fell into decline during the reign of Tunka Manin in the 11th century after its capital was captured by the Almoravids.
Answer: Ghana or Wagadou
[10] This city was the capital of Ghana when it fell to the Almoravids in 1076.
Answer: Kumbi or Koumbi Saleh
[10] This Muslim geographer and historian of Cordoba interviewed travelers to Ghana during Tunka Manin's reign and compiled the results in his Book of Roads and Kingdoms, not to be confused with a work of the same name by ibn Khordadbeh.
Answer: Abu Abdullah al-Bakri or Abu Abdullah al-Bekri
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This hero was known for slick battle moves like his Warp-Spasm and the salmon leap. FTPE:[10] This Irishman held off the army of Ailill and Medb single-handedly for several months during the pangs of Ulster. He also earned a second name when he vowed to serve as the hound of the smith Culann.,
[10] Conchobar avoided exercising his "right of first night" with this woman so as not to earn Cuchulainn's enmity. Cuchulainn stormed the castle of her father Forgall the Wily to win her after vowing to rest his weapon in the sweet country of her cleavage.
Answer:
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Name these features consisting of piles of debris deposited by glaciers FTPE:,
[10] These teardrop-shaped hills are aligned with glacial movement. They consist of deposited material, unlike roche moutonees, and are thought to be waveforms of ice or water flow in retreating glaciers.
Answer: drumlins
[10] These mounds of poorly sorted drift material deposited by meltwater are sometimes found in association with kettles, resulting in a namesake topography.
Answer: kames
[10] The lateral subtype of these structures form along the sides of glaciers, while terminal ones mark the farthest progress of a glacier before it begins to retreat.
Answer: moraines
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Give the following about a poet FTPE:,
[10] This Chilean poet taught Pablo Neruda and was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Answer: Gabriela Mistral or Lucila de Maria del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayata
[10] This Mistral poetry collection contains the section The Death of My Mother and the poem La Flor del Aire.
Answer: Tala or Destruction (accept equivalents to "Felling" as that is the literal English translation)
[10] Published in the collection Desolation, this dark three-poem sonnet series was inspired by the suicide of Mistral's love, Romelio Ureta.
Answer: Sonetos de la Muerte or Sonnets of Death
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Answer the following related to the Ming Dynasty, FTPE:,
[10] This city-within-a-city was constructed during the Ming Dynasty in Beijing and was surrounded by a 32-foot-tall wall to keep out commoners.
Answer: The Purple Forbidden City or Forbidden Palace or Zijin Cheng or Dabkuri dorgi hoton
[10] This "perpetually jubilant" third Ming emperor moved the capital to Beijing and ordered construction on the Forbidden City after usurping his nephew.
Answer: the Yongle (pron. approx.: Yoang-luh) Emperor or Zhu Di (pron. approx.: Jue Dee)
[10] The father of Zhu Di, this founder of the Ming Dynasty established his capital at Nanjing.
Answer: the Hongwu emperor or Zhu Yuanzhang (pron. approx.: Jue Yooen-jong) or Emperor Tai Zu

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