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View Packets Tournament Editor
2007 Chicago Open Tossups by ELSB
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Henry Adams left a history professorship at Harvard in order to edit the papers of this man, who wrote the pamphlet Peace With Mexico at age eighty-six, twenty-three years after he was kicked off of William Crawford's presidential ticket. More successfully, he formed the ancestor of the House Ways and Means Committee and delivered a speech that calmed the Whiskey Rebellion. This founder of the American Ethnological Society was also the lead American negotiator of the Treaty of Ghent. FTP, name this Swiss immigrant who drastically reduced the national debt during his thirteen years as Secretary of the Treasury.
Answer: Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin
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Fractures of this bone were formerly treated with a figure-eight brace. Stethoscope auscultation of the bicuspid valve can be done easily at the intersection of the fifth intercostal space and a sagittal plane crossing the midpoint of this bone. Its sternal notch is formed via its anterior articulation with the mandibrum of the sternum, and is the attachment point for the deltoid and trapezius muscles. It is attached to the coracoid process via the trapezoid and conoid ligaments and also attached to the acromion of the scapula. FTP, name this bone whose name comes from the Latin for "little key," commonly known as the collarbone.
Answer: the clavicle (accept collarbone until mention, prompt afterwards)
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While working as an agent for the Scioto Land Company, this person wrote his Advice to the Privileged Orders and helped Thomas Paine to publish the first part of his The Age of Reason. This author's previous efforts include The Vision of Columbus, which was later expanded into a larger work. However, his fame rests primarily on two longer works, one subtitled "A New England Poem" and another including several rural New England scenes in which the speaker bids a substance in a bowl to inspire his soul. He is known for his collaboration with John Trumbull and Lemuel Hopkins on mock-epics. FTP, name this notable Hartford Wit poet and author of The Anarchiad and The Hasty Pudding.
Answer: Joel Barlow
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The methodology of this school put forth a "threefold test" of basis, verifiability, and applicability, which was partnered with four "benefits" including population increase and enrichment of the poor. Practitioners were required to avoid the waste inherent in playing music, avoid fatalism and aggression, and have simple funerals. Advocating devotion to the "Lord on High," Shangti, this movement arose in opposition to the aristocratic bent of Confucianism. FTP, name this Chinese school of thought founded by an eponymous fifth-century thinker who preached universal love.
Answer: Mohism
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One of its goals was to overturn the results of the Gela conference, where Hermocrates had won support for expelling foreigners. Gylippus joined with local horsemen to oppose this initiative, eventually destroying its members at a naval battle in the Great Harbor. Eurymedon and Demosthenes replaced Lamachus and Nicias as the leaders of its 160 ships, which were sent to fortify the Ionians. A faction led by Androcles recalled one of its leaders, who then escaped to Sparta and avoided trial for mutilation of the hermae. FTP, Alcibiades was one of the generals originally in charge of what planned assault on Syracuse, an Athenian fiasco of the Peloponnesian War?
Answer: the Sicilian expedition (or Sicilian disaster; accept obvious equivalents)
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One type of experiment useful for obtaining data for these relations in solids involves using lasers to accelerate "flyers" into objects; this often allows estimation of values in the stiff gamma variety. One of these due to Saha can be solved for the ionization of a volume. The one for radiation dictates a fourth-power scale factor, and ten parameters are used by the Benedict-Webb-Rubin one. Soave modified one named for Redlich and Kwong, and truncating the virial one to two terms gives the one named for Van Der Waals. FTP, name these constitutive relations that fix the condition of matter, a simple example of which is p v equals n r t for ideal gasses.
Answer: equations of state
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One of them was killed for serving vomit at a banquet. Another, who wore geese's skin and was thrown out of the mortal world by the springing action of a stalk of millet, is known as the "Small Man of Renown." A different one burned his mother to death while being born, after his parents used a bejeweled spear to create the islands where they are worshipped. In another story, one hides in a cave to protest the filthiness of her brother, leading to the world going dark. FTP, Izanami, Susanowo and Amaterasu are examples of what supernatural spirits from indigenous Japanese religion?
Answer: kami or gods of Shinto or similar such answers
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In this drama, the symbols of the eagle and viper represent a dead character and his estranged wife. One character's claim to have come from far-off Phocis is dropped after another observes a lock of hair on the ground, which results in a recognition scene. The chorus' laments ultimately result in the death of that aforementioned wife's lover, Aegisthus, as Pylades and Orestes have conspired with Electra to gain revenge on Clytemnestra for her vile actions. FTP, name this Aeschylus drama whose title characters provide offerings in mourning of Agamemnon, the second play in the Oresteia trilogy.
Answer: The Libation Bearers (or Choephori; prompt on Oresteia)
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One Supreme Court case in which this man was the plaintiff created the "outer perimeter" doctrine. A case brought by him five years earlier concluded that the prohibition on bills of attainder does not necessarily invalidate a law affecting only a small fraction of the population. A ruling in which this man was the respondent cited Accardi v. Shaughnessy to assert the power of the Attorney General and notes that "in camera inspection" is not a substantial diminishment of communications. That case concluded that a duces tecum subpoena could not be countermanded by executive privilege. FTP, name this frequent Supreme Court litigant, who sought to avoid surrendering various audiotapes in 1974.
Answer: Richard Milhous Nixon
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One footnote in this work claims that "Man is an animal organism with an unmistakably bisexual disposition;" an earlier one more fully explains the concept of organic repression. The author discusses memory through the metaphor of Roman archaeology, concluding that a "memory trace" may explain his friend Romain Rolland's "oceanic" feelings. It utilizes the analysis of neurosis presented in the author's previous work, The Future of an Illusion. FTP, name this short treatise on the inevitable antagonism between demands of instinct and the restrictions of progressive society, written by Sigmund Freud.
Answer: Civilization and its Discontents or Das Unbehagen in der Kultur
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One work by this person features a desolate landscape with a needle-based top supporting a humanoid, blood-colored lattice with hands and green hair, while another has a hand in a black pyramid attached by strings to a yellow crescent and a creature consisting of two joined waist-down human forms. In addition to the aforementioned Ubu Imperator and to Men Shall Know Nothing of This, this artist's works include a painting of himself, Paul Allouard, and Andre Breton witnessing the Virgin chastising Jesus; Pieta or Revolution by Night; and Une Semaine de Bonte, a book of collages made of encyclopedias. This author of the treatise Beyond Painting started the Cologne school of Dada. For ten points, identify this former husband of Peggy Guggenheim, a German Surrealist who discovered and utilized artistic techniques like grattage and frottage.
Answer: Max Ernst
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Some integral equations can be solved by Smith's theorem for processes of this type, allowing evaluation of some of their associated densities. Doob's theorem gives probability densities for a process that is both Gaussian and this. The inequality of this name applies to random non-negative variables and leads to Chebyshev's inequality. The probability density for a sequence of this kind is given by the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. For a finite state space, the transition probabilities are given by a stochastic matrix and depend only on the most recent state in the chains named for, FTP, this Russian mathematician.
Answer: Markov (accept Markov processes, Markov sequences, Markov matrices, Markov chains, etc.)
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In this novel, one character's love for Father Mulligan cannot be returned and the breaking of a wooden chair in the middle of the night represents Pappachi's loss of authority. The Orangedrink Lemondrink Man traumatizes one of the central characters, while the other marries Larry McCaslin out of boredom. Chacko's love for his ex-wife Margaret indirectly results in the drowning of his daughter Sophie Mol, but the so-called rape of the Malayalee Christian Ammu is blamed on the title character, Velutha, much to the despair of the twins Rahel and Estha. FTP, name this novel taking place near a pickle factory in Ayemenem, Kerala, which won the 1997 Booker Prize for Arundhati Roy.
Answer: The God of Small Things
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He was the leader of the Dorothean faction that deposed Christian Democrat leader Fernando Tambroni, setting the stage for his five terms as Prime Minister. Communist gains in the election that brought down this man's government led him to form a controversial center-left coalition. The trial at Turin of Renato Curcio and fourteen other accused terrorists placed him in danger. Despite police searches and a psychic seance, his body was found two months later in the trunk of a car on the Via Caetani. FTP, name this Italian politician, a 1978 victim of the Red Brigades.
Answer: Aldo Moro
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The last name of this series' main protagonist comes from an in-joke about his hair color. Its second installment turns on the treachery of the Mandarins and "Jazz" Colson. Following the defeat of the Black Lance, Admiral Tolwyn hangs himself at the end of The Price of Freedom, while Devereaux is eviscerated by Thrakath before the third installment, The Heart of the Tiger. Directed by Chris Roberts and produced by Origin, FTP, name series of computer games mostly featuring the struggles of Todd "Maniac" Marshall and Christopher Blair against the feline Kilrathi in space fighter combat.
Answer: the Wing Commander games (accept Wing Commander I - IV; accept Wing Commander: The Kilrathi Saga before "hangs")
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This work defines the fundamental principle of ethics through an analogy to an emperor who weds his daughter to a peasant. It posits that the craving to experience extinction can never be satisfied since the end of existence is the end of sensation. It also suggests that unlike animals, humans form "selves" that can reconcile opposites. It condemns those who reside in "sensuous categories" as saying "goodbye to truth" and thus creating a sinful state of "unconscious despair." FTP, name this book published under the pseudonym of "Anti-Climacus," which identifies separation from God as the cause of the titular malady and was written by Soren Kierkegaard.
Answer: The Sickness unto Death: A Christian Psychological Exposition for Edification and Awakening, by anti-Climacus (or Sygdommen til Doden: En christelig psychologisk Udvikling til Opbyggelse og Opvaekkelse, af Anti-Climacus)
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This man's thesis on John Webster and the Elizabethan Drama won him a scholarship to King's College, Cambridge. W.B. Yeats called this author "the handsomest man in England," and his appearance helped spur his entry into many literary circles. His early poem "Heaven" references fish repeatedly, while his poem "The Fish" ironically fails to use the term at all. His other poems include "Helen and Menelaus" and a work including such portions as "Peace", "Safety", and "The Dead." He was buried on Skyros after dying from a mosquito bite resulting in septicemia. FTP, name this friend of Siegfried Sassoon and author of "The Soldier," which was a part of his larger work, 1914.
Answer: Rupert Chawner Brooke
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One of these relations recently called into question is established by considering microwave background scattering of charged particles and is named for Greisen, Zatsepin, and Kuzmin. Better-known ones are given by estimating the local disc density by stellar dispersion, considering the wavelength of the n-one to n-two hydrogen transition, or balancing radiation pressure and gravitation. The aforementioned ones are named for Oort, Lyman, and Eddington. FTP, name these relations from astronomy, one of which gives a lower bound on the orbital radius of satellites and is named for Roche and another of which gives an upper bound on the mass of white dwarves and is named for Chandrasekhar.
Answer: astronomical limits (accept Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit, Oort limit, Lyman limit, etc.; accept Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin paradox or cut-off before "transition")
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One of their rulers forbade kings from inheriting property and instituted the mitma, a policy of reshuffling ethnic groups. Another created the system of Chosen Women, which received tributes of Aqllakuna maidens from subject tribes. Those emperors were mummified before entombment in the Coricancha; one of them was Topa Yupanqui, whose deeds were chronicled by the historian Guaman Poma. Their last undisputed ruler was killed after the Battle of Cajamarca, though his nephew Tupac Amaru fought on against the Spaniards. FTP, Manco Capac ruled from Cuzco over what Andean civilization?
Answer: the Incas (accept equivalents like the Incan empire)
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The second movement of the first one was thought to have been inspired by the tomb scene from Romeo and Juliet. A section of the Cavatina movement of the 13th one is marked Beklemnt, and the finale of the seventh is based on a Russian folk theme. The finale of the last one is marked with an epigraph that reads "The difficult resolution," while the Molto Adagio of the 15th one is a song of thanksgiving in the Lydian mode. The original finale of the 13th is now known as the Grosse Fugue. FTP, name this group of sixteen works, with subtitles such as "Serioso," "the Harp" and "Razumovsky."
Answer: Beethoven string quartets
2007 Chicago Open Bonuses by ELSB
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An increased level of this quantity is associated with decreased boiling point and increased melting point. FTPE:,
[10] Name this chemical property, often symbolized p-sub-v, defined as the pressure at which a solid or liquid is in equilibrium with the third phase.
Answer: vapor pressure
[10] Vapor pressure increases non-linearly with temperature as shown by this equation, which allows one to calculate the slope of the coexistence curve on a p-T phase diagram.
Answer: Clausius-Clapeyron equation
[10] This method for measuring small vapor pressures uses a cylinder with a hole in it as its namesake "cell". The rate of effusion through the orifice is measured, from the vapor pressure can be computed.
Answer: Knudsen effusion method
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His namesake "raiders" killed about 150 people during an August, 1863 assault on Lawrence, Kansas. FTPE:,
[10] Name this captain of Confederate irregulars, also responsible for the Baxter Springs massacre.
Answer: William Clarke Quantrill (or Charley Hart)
[10] Frank James joined his brother Jesse and three Quantrill raiders of this surname to form a band of outlaws which was decimated during a botched bank robbery at Northfield, Minnesota.
Answer: Younger
[10] Robert Ford claimed the bounty on Jesse James put forth by this governor of Missouri, who shared his surname with an uncle and Kentucky senator whose compromise failed to prevent the Civil War.
Answer: Thomas Theodore Crittenden
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A positive one might result in the free rider problem and a positional one might result in one employee's attempting to look better than another by working longer or harder. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify these costs or benefits that occur to a third party not involved in a given economic transaction.
Answer: externalities
[10] In his work The Economics of Welfare, this protege of Marshall advocated a namesake tax to account for negative externalities.
Answer: Arthur Cecil Pigou
[10] Ronald Coase attacked Pigou's analysis and showed that externalities become irrelevant in certain situations in this article printed in the 1960 edition of the Journal of Law and Economics.
Answer: "The Problem of Social Cost"
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The young fisherman Shinji vies for the attention of the beautiful pearl diver Hatsue, but has his efforts thwarted by her father, Miyata. For the stated number of points:,
[10] Name the 1954 novel in which those events take place.
Answer: The Sound of Waves (or Shiosai)
[5] In this other, autobiographical novel, the gay protagonist Sunoko dreams of dying like St. Sebastian and hides his fears by pretending to obsess about women with his friends.
Answer: Confessions of a Mask (or Kamen no Kokuhaku)
[5] The Sound of Waves and Confessions of a Mask were written by this Japanese author, who also authored the Sea of Fertility tetralogy.
Answer: Mishima Yukio
[10] This Mishima work set in the textile manufacturing industry centers on the lost ideals of the factory owner Komazawa and the political maneuverings of Okano.
Answer: Silk and Insight or (Kinu to Meisatu)
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Answer the following about discontiguous territories FTPE.,
[10] Bangar and Labu are found in the smaller section of this Islamic sultanate, divided from the rest by part of Malaysian Sarawak.
Answer: Negara Brunei Darussalam
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An August 2006 ceasefire limited insurgent activity in this oil-rich Angolan province, the only one that adjoins Congo-Brazzaville.,
[10] The fall of the Soviet Union escaled violence in this Armenian-populated enclave within Azerbaijan. Answer: Nagorno-Karabakh
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Named for a Norwegian mathematician, this is a continuous group with the structure of a smooth manifold and the point structure of a like-named algebra. For ten points each:,
[10] Name this type of mathematical group used to formulate the theory of continuous symmetries.
Answer: Lie group
[10] Lie groups represent symmetries in these objects if their generators map solutions to solutions. A Lie group representing a symmetry in one of these allows one to algorithmically integrate it, reducing its order.
Answer: differential equations (accept ordinary differential equations or partial differential equations)
[10] The Lie bracket satisfies this man's namesake identity. His namesake matrix contains all first-order partial derivatives of a given function.
Answer: Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi
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Name these related composers for ten points each.,
[10] This composer and close friend of Louis XIV danced in his own ballets, as well as writing music for some of Moliere's comedies. He is better known as the founder of French opera, or tragedies en musique, with such works as Cadmus and Hermione and Phaeton.
Answer: Jean-Baptiste Lully
[10] This harpsichord master wrote apotheoses of Lully and Corelli, the latter of which is subtitled Le Parnasse. The greatest of a prominent French musical dynasty, his most well known work is The Art of Playing the Clavichord.
Answer: Francois Couperin
[10] This composer paid homage to the 18th century harpsichord suite with his Le Tombeau de Couperin He also wrote the Noble and Sentimental Waltzes and the Daphnis and Chloe suites.
Answer: Joseph-Maurice Ravel
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He was known as doctor mellifluus for his honey-like prose. FTPE:,
[10] Name this opponent of Peter Abelard and author of Sermons on the Canticle of Canticles who presided over the rapid expansion of the Cistercian order.
Answer: St. Bernard of Clairvaux
[10] Bernard joined with Eugenius III to promote this 1145 expedition led by Louis VII and Conrad III, which mostly involved fighting the Byzantine emperor Manuel Comnenus.
Answer: the Second Crusade
[10] The Second Crusade was supposed to retake Edessa from rule by this atabeg of Halab, who later annexed Damascus and Egypt while patronizing Saladin.
Answer: Nur al-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Imad al-Din Zangi (or Nureddin)
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Name these American female poets of the twentieth century for ten points each.,
[10] Benet's claims that her "breakthrough" came with the 1963 collection Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law, but it was her collection Diving into the Wreck that won a National Book Award in 1974.
Answer: Adrienne Rich
[10] Notable for such titles of collections as Poems, Observations, and Collected Poems, the latter of which won a Pulitzer in 1952, she claims that "[She], too, dislike[s] [poetry]" in a poem about poetry.
Answer: Marianne Moore
[10] Her poem "The Life of Lincoln West" received some acclaim, but she first gained notice with her collection A Street in Bronzeville, which focuses on life in a Chicago ghetto.
Answer: Gwendolyn Brooks
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Bach and Harnish classified them into constatives, directives, commissives, and acknowledgements, after they were described in the 1962 book How to Do Things With Words. For 10 points each:,
[10] A 1969 John Searle book is titled after what verbal phenomena, defined as any utterance that has some effect.
Answer: speech acts
[10] The Oxford philosopher discussed speech acts in How to Do Things With Words. He also analyzed ordinary language in Sense and Sensibilia and "A Plea for Excuses."
Answer: John Langshaw Austin
[10] This philosopher discussed speech acts in his 1971 essay collection Logico-Linguistic Papers. He famously critiqued Russell's theory of descriptions, and his books Individuals and The Bounds of Sense helped to revive interest in metaphysics among Anglo-American philosophers.
Answer: Sir Peter Frederick Strawson
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Most of the first attacks of this disease occur in the big toe. FTPE:,
[10] This condition arises from the buildup of uric acid crystals at any given joint. Hyperuricemia from metabolic syndrome and lead poisoning have been known to cause it.
Answer: the gout
[10] This enzyme creates uric acid from its nucleotide-like precursor. Inhibitors of it such as allopurinol are frequently used to treat gout.
Answer: xanthine oxidase
[10] This X-linked recessive disorder results in a lack of the enzyme HGPRT, which often results in severe gout and mental retardation. It is associated with self-mutilation and other severe neurological deficits.
Answer: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
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An average import duty of forty-nine percent was enacted by this 1897 tariff program. FTPE:,
[10] Name this tariff put forth by a Congressman from Maine that supplanted the Wilson-Gorman tariff.
Answer: the Dingley tariff
[10] Dingley failed to learn the lesson of this 1890 tariff, which, despite establishing a sugar subsidy and discouraging agricultural imports, cheesed off enough farmers to swing House control to the Democrats.
Answer: the McKinley tariff
[10] The McKinley tariff was the final outrage perpetrated by the Fifty-First Congress, better known by this nickname reflecting its habit of pissing away ill-gotten tariff gains on lavish veterans' pensions.
Answer: the Billion-Dollar Congress
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Name each of the following works of Hieronymus Bosch for ten points.,
[10] This triptych dates from around 1504. Its right panel depicts a hell of gigantic musical instruments and bird-like creatures, but it is named for its better-known center panel, a lush scene with enormous fruit and birds and dozens of naked couples.
Answer: The Garden of Earthly Delights
[10] Dating from the 1490's and found in the Boijmans van Beuningen Museum, this Bosch oil depicts the hoof-footed title character bent nearly parallel to the ground and straining with a stick to keep walking.
Answer: St. Christopher Carrying the Christ Child
[10] Two versions of this Bosch triptych exist, one each in the Escorial and the Prado. In its center panel, God watches over people stealing from and fighting over the contents of the titular cart.
Answer: The Haywain
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Ramon Valle-Inclan, Pio Baroja, and Ramon Perez de Alaya were members of this literary group, which attempted to recapture the lost values of Spanish life. For ten points:,
[10] Name this set of poets who reacted thusly to the Spanish-American War.
Answer: el Generacion del 98 (or Generation de 1898 or the Generation of 1898; 98 may be rendered in English or as noventa ocho; 1898 may be rendered in English or as dieciocho cientos y noventa ocho)
[10] The leader of the Generacion del 98 poets was said to have been this author of the collections Solitudes and Campos de Castilla.
Answer: Antonio Machado
[10] Another famous member of the Generacion was this pre-existential philosopher, who wrote some exemplary novels in addition to The Tragic Sense of Life and The Agony of Christianity.
Answer: Miguel de Unamuno
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These are propagating disturbances in a medium across which characteristics are discontinuous. One example is the Mach wave emitted when an object exceeds the speed of sound. For ten points:,
[10] Name these dissipative waves.
Answer: shocks (or shockwaves)
[10] Shocks that are not emitted perpendicular to the flow are described by this adjective, as opposed to normal.
Answer: oblique
[10] The state variable jumps across normal shocks in ideal fluids are given by a set of equations named for Hugoniot and this man, also the namesake of an absolute temperature scale that uses the Fahrenheit degree.
Answer: William John Macquorn Rankine
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It came exactly one month after Frederick the Great inflicted a 14-to-1 casualty ratio at Rossbach. FTPE:,
[10] Name this December, 1757 battle on the Oder, where fewer than 1,200 Prussians were sacrificed in order to kill or capture over fifty thousand Austrians under Count von Daun.
Answer: the Battle of Leuthen
[10] The Battle of Leuthen was the high point of Prussian success in this war, spurred by the Diplomatic Revolution and concurrent with the French and Indian War in North America.
Answer: the Seven Years' War
[10] Prussian success at Leuthen guaranteed support from this British politician, who controlled the Newcastle cabinet during the war and later formed the government responsible for the Townshend Acts.
Answer: William Pitt the Elder, 1st Earl of Chatham, Viscount Pitt of Burton-Pynsent (prompt on Pitt; accept Chatham)
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He arranged a competition between Athena and Poseidon to select the chief deity of his new city. FTPE:,
[10] Name this chthonic serpent-man who founded Athens.
Answer: Cecrops
[10] The piety of Cecrops, who sacrificed only cakes, contrasts with this contemporary, who sacrificed a baby to Zeus and then served a man for dinner. This made Zeus mad—world-floodingly mad, in fact.
Answer: Lycaon
[10] Zeus's flood was survived only by this son of Prometheus and his wife Pyrrha, who hid in a chest.
Answer: Deucalion
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Answer these questions about Caribbean music, FTPE.,
[10] One of the first Jamaican acts to have an international hit was this man with "The Israelites." He was immortalized as the male character in the Beatles' "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da."
Answer: Desmond Dekker and the Aces
[10] Sharing his name with a David Lynch movie, this man is a Jamaican dancehall musician. His charting songs include "Pon di River", "Jook Gal" and 2007's "Whine Up."
Answer: Elephant Man
[10] In 2005, this artist's reggae album "Welcome to Jamrock" charted and won two Grammys, echoing the success of his famous father.
Answer: Damian Marley
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This novel embodies the existential dilemma of choosing one's own ends in the form of Ch'en, a Chinese terrorist who is killed in an attempt on the life of Chiang Kai-shek. For ten points each:,
[10] Name this novel about Kyo Gisors' attempt to lead a revolt in Shanghai.
Answer: Man's Fate (or La Condition humaine)
[10] Name the author of Man's Fate, who also wrote The Conquerors and The Temptation of the West.
Answer: Andre Malraux
[10] This Malraux work, set in the Indo-Chinese jungle, follows the adventures of Claude Vannex and Perken, who try to find undiscovered temples along the titular road.
Answer: The Royal Way or La Voie Royale

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