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View Packets Tournament Editor
2006 Aztlan Cup Tossups by Steve Watchorn
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It is by virtue of this that "man is distinguished from animals," according to Ludwig von Mises [MEE-say] in Liberalism. He goes on to say that this has "made feeble man. . .the lord of the earth." Along with extensive use of machinery, it was blamed for the proletarians losing all individual character in their work in The Communist Manifesto, though Karl Marx differentiates between the natural "social" type and the deleterious "manufacture" type. In Book Three of a namesake 1893 work, its abnormal forms -- including forced and anomic -- are outlined; and, in the first chapter of The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith uses a pin factory to describe it. For 10 points, name this separation of work into tasks performed by specialized units, whose manifestation "in society" was examined by Emile Durkheim [AY-meel DUR-kime].
Answer: division of labor (accept in society as an add-on)
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His reputation for bravery was based on killing a Cadusian warrior-champion in single combat, for which he was awarded the satrapy [SAA-truh-pee] of Armenia. His depiction on a mosaic in the House of the Faun in Pompeii shows a different aspect to his character. He ascended to the throne after his two predecessors were poisoned by Bagoas. Bagoas was, in turn, poisoned by this man, whose own death came at the hands of the satrap Bessus. The death of Memnon, his general, left this man limited militarily; but he also showed poor judgment in not preparing for Granicus, and in bringing his relatives to another doomed battle. In that battle, famously painted by Albrecht Altdorfer, this man abandoned his family in retreat. For 10 points, name this last Achamaenid [AH-kuh-MAY-nid] ruler of Persia, who decisively lost to Alexander at Gaugamela and Issus.
Answer: Darius III (accept Codommanus; prompt on partial answer)
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"You are an Alexander-Nebuchadnezzar [NEH-buh-kahd-NEH-zer]/ breaking horses and murdering tigers/ (You are a Professor of Energy/ as today's madmen say)," he wrote in a poem to a U. S. president. Born in Metapa, a city now renamed in his honor, he read his poem "The Book" to his country's president, Joaquin [wah-KEEN] Zavala, at age 15 to get a scholarship to Europe. That failed, but he became his country's ambassador to Paris in 1903 and was also an ambassador to Argentina. In the latter position, he wrote the collection Profane Hymns, while in the former, under the influence of French Symbolist poets, he wrote Songs of Life and Hope. For 10 points, name this Nicaraguan poet of "To Roosevelt" and "In Autumn," whose collection Azul [ah-ZOOL] helped usher in the literary movement he originated, Modernismo [moh-dare-NEEZ-moh].
Answer: Ruben Dario [roo-BEN dar-EE-yoh] or Felix Ruben Garcia Sarmiento (accept To Roosevelt before "born in")
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The first known reference to it is in De Medicina Praecepta [pry-KEP-tuh], by Serenus Sammonicus, physician to Caracalla [CAR-uh-CAHL-uh]. He had patients wear an amulet on which it was written in the form of an inverted cone. Possible sources for it include corruptions of the Aramaic phrase meaning "I create as I speak," or a combination of the Hebrew words for "Father," "Son," and "Holy Spirit:" ab, ben, and ruakh ha-kodesh [ROO-ahkh hah-koh-DESH]. This word was the leading original candidate for the title of the Beatles' Revolver album, and was the title of an album by the Steve Miller Band, as well as the song in which they wanted to "reach out and grab ya." For 10 points, give this 11-letter nonsense word, which names a 2004 card game by Mayfair, and is often associated with magicians.
Answer: abracadabra
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Via the proteins TIR-1 and ARF-1, many of the effects of this class of substances are mediated by gene transcription. The first of these was isolated by Fritz Went [vent] in Avena seedlings, where he cut the coleoptile [coh-lee-OP-tul] from oat plants, placed it in agar, then replaced it on the plants. Synthetic types like 2,4-D acetic acid are used in weed killers, though the most common natural form, indole-3-acetic-acid, or IAA, can have a different effect. Produced in the apical [AY-pih-kul] meristem, these substances are the prime factor in apical dominance, as they build up in the shoot apex at the leading tips of stalks. For 10 points, name these plant hormones that cause the curvature in phototropism, and whose most important function is in plant growth.
Answer: auxins
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With a comparison to girls entertaining at a party only when the partygoers cannot entertain themselves, the title character is admonished for avoiding the main question and, instead, examining a poem by Simonides [sye-MAHN-ih-deez] -- an examination that hinges on the difference between "being" and "becoming" good. Pursuing the main question, the title character compares the parts of excellence to features on a face, while his principal antagonist argues they are not distinct, but, instead, all follow from knowledge, since no one deliberately does evil. The antagonist had sought Hippocrates at the gathering, to find out if he was spending his money wisely to learn excellence from, for 10 points, the title character of which Platonic dialogue that is largely a conversation between Socrates and a prominent sophist?
Answer: Protagoras
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His last completed work, a violin concerto commissioned by Louis Krasner, became a requiem for the daughter of the sister-in-law of his mistress, Hanna Fuchs-Robettin. Hanna, the sister of Franz Werfel [VER-ful], also inspired the section names -- including "Andante [ahn-DAHN-tay] amoroso," and "Adagio [uh-DAH-gee-oh] appasionato" -- in his Lyric Suite. He interpolated his and Hanna's initials into the pitch sequences of that piece, and made playful references to 23 and ten, their respective "fateful numbers." Similar references appear in his unfinished final opera, whose completion was prevented by his jealous wife until 1976. That opera, based on two Frank Wedekind [VAY-duh-kihnd] works, is -- unlike his earlier opera based on a Georg Buechner [GAY-org BYOOK-ner] play -- composed entirely in the style of his mentor, whom he met in Vienna in 1904. For 10 points, name this student of Arnold Schoenberg [SHERN-berg], a twelve-tone adherent who composed Wozzeck [VOY-chek] and Lulu.
Answer: Alban Berg
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Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee in the 36th Congress, he was elected senator in 1861 to replace Salmon Chase when Chase was appointed Secretary of the Treasury. In 1881, he was elected again, to replace James Garfield, when Garfield was elected President. His second cabinet appointment was as William McKinley's Secretary of State, a post he held from 1897 to 98. His first cabinet position, immediately preceding his 1881 Senate election, was as Rutherford Hayes's Secretary of the Treasury. In that position, he implemented the Resumption Act, redeeming greenbacks for hard money and effectively returning the U. S. to the gold standard. His tenure also saw passage of the Bland-Allison Act, which would later be modified by his own act that was repealed after the Panic of 1893. For 10 points, name this politician, best known for two 1890 acts: a silver purchase act and the first congressional anti-trust act.
Answer: John Sherman
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Tom Cassidy's $40,000 -- meant to "buy off unhappiness" by purchasing his daughter a house as a wedding present -- sets the plot in motion, as it travels toward Fairvale from Phoenix, stopping briefly at California Charlie's. It is carried by a woman seeking her lover, the hardware store owner Sam Loomis. The woman is later sought by her sister, Lila [LYE-luh], and the detective Arbogast. Scored only with strings, to match its black-and-white photography, this film supposedly features the first flushing toilet in American cinema, used by Marion Crane to get rid of some paper shortly before a fateful encounter, in the same room, with the mother of a young man she just met. Man and "mother" are the same person in, for 10 points, which Alfred Hitchcock film, where Marion would have been better off not meeting Norman or taking a shower at the Bates Motel?
Answer: Psycho
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The procedures of Pratt and Atkin-Goldwater-Kilian-Morain certify them. AKS and Lucas-Lehmer are deterministic tests for them, while Miller's test is probabilistic, meaning it can also detect their pseudo-counterparts. Shanks and Cunningham are chains of them, and ones in a Cunningham chain of the first kind are the Sophie Germain type. Ones that divide the class number of a cyclotomic field generated by e to the 2-pi-i over themselves are irregular, and odd irregular ones also divide the numerator of certain Bernoulli numbers, while Ferrier's was the largest one known before the advent of electronic computers. For 10 points, name this class of numbers, all of which greater than four are the sum of two others, by the strong Goldbach conjecture; and which may only be factored by one and themselves.
Answer: primes or prime numbers
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In the poem with this name, the questions "How should a mere worldling regale you, chorus divine?" and "Gods! what can mortals give to you, truly?" are asked by Friedrich Schiller [SHIL-er]. In general, this term names a class a poems, of which John Dryden's "Alexander's Feast" is often cited as a later example. Traditionally developed by Arion, two of the ones by Bacchylides [baa-KIL-uh-deez] survive, including "Ode 18," which separates a soloist from the chorus. Composed for groups of 50 men and boys, and sung in competition, these are, for 10 points, which song-chants, which stand in contrast to the more somber Apollonian paeans [PAY-ahnz] and are tributes to Dionysus [DYE-oh-NYE-sis]?
Answer: dithyrambs [DITH-ih-ramz]
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Section 201 amended Title III to include new offenses, while Section 216 codified arguments used to support the implementation of the Carnivore system. Section 216 also allowed for expanded "pen registers," and Sections 206 and 218 added to the reach of 1978's FISA [FYE-suh]. The subject of House Resolution 3162, it was primarily drafted by Viet Dinh and introduced by James Sensenbrenner. Four years later in the senate, John Sununu [soo-NOO-noo] -- by introducing an adjunct bill of compromises -- broke a stalemate over its renewal. The opposition quadrupled, however, as Tom Harkin, Jim Jeffords, and Robert Byrd voted no on the adjunct bill, along with the only senator to originally oppose this act, Russ Feingold [FINE-gold]. For 10 points, name this 2001 act to "[Unite] and [Strengthen] America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism."
Answer: USA Patriot Act (accept early House Resolution 3162 or equivalents)
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In Yrttiaho [IR-tee-AH-ho] v. Public Curator (Queensland), the Australian High Court determined that ones of these related to "merely procedural" matters, as opposed to those which divested rights, were not prohibited. A similar distinction by the U. S. Supreme Court limited their prohibition to criminal, rather than private, rights in Calder v. Bull. Forbidden by Article I, Section 9, Clause 3 of the U. S. Constitution, they were key to the Ex parte [PAR-tay] Garland case, where post-Civil War loyalty oaths were called these, as well as bills of attainder. With their forbiddance following from the legal phrase nulla poena sine lege [NUH-luh PAY-nuh SEE-nuh LAY-juh], or "no punishment without law," these are, for 10 points, which kind of laws, which retroactively change the legal consequences for an action, and have a Latin name meaning "from things done afterward?"
Answer: ex post facto laws (or retrospective law) (do not accept early "bill (or act) of attainder")
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According to its founder's grandson, its most important tablet, along with the Surih of the Temple, was ordered written in the shape of a pentacle, to signify the temple of man. Its holiest book -- written soon after its spiritual founder was transferred to the house of Udi Khammar -- sets its year to begin on March 21st, dividing it into 19 months of 19 days each. The book also prescribes the mandatory 19 days of fasting to those between 15 and 70, and establishes the Nineteen Days Feasts. It exhorts the Presidents of the Republics of the American continent to champion justice; reproofs Francis Joseph; and ordains the House of Justice, now located in Haifa [HYE-fuh]. This is how the Kitab-i-Aqdas [kih-TAB ee AHK-dahs] is described by Shoghi [SHO-ghee] Effendi. For 10 points, name this religion, where Effendi was the grandson and appointed successor of its Iranian founder, Baha 'Ullah.
Answer: Baha'i faith (prompt on early "Kitab-i-Aqdas")
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Their interaction with the "d" orbitals of the atoms they bind to was developed by J. H. Van Vleck as their "field theory." Alfred Stock first used their name in 1916 in relation to silicon chemistry, and Swiatoslaw Trofimenko [SWAH-tih-slav troh-fee-MEN-koh] discovered the influential scorpionate ["scorpion"-ate] variety in 1966. Ethylenediammine [ETH-uh-leen-DYE-uh-meen], acetylacetonate [uh-SEE-tul-aa-suh-TOE-nate], phenanthroline [fen-AN-throw-leen] and oxalate ion are common bidentate [bi-DEN-tate] types, while tetradentate [TET-truh-den-tate] types include the porphyrins [POR-fur-inz] of chlorophyll and hemoglobin. For 10 points, name these chemical structures which bind to the central metal ion in a coordination compound, whose polydentate [PAH-lee-DEN-tate] types are stabilizing agents via the chelate [KEE-late] effect.
Answer: ligands
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Its downfall saw Julius von Pflug restored to his Holy See. Henry of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel [VUL-fen-byoo-tul] was also reinstated, though Ulrich -- whom it had restored to power in Wurttemberg [VYOOR-tum-burg]-- remained in power after paying an indemnity. The way for its defeat was cleared by the Peace of Crepy [CRAY-pee], which prevented the French from assisting it. Its vanquishment was also expedited by a bigamy charge -- requiring an imperial pardon -- against one of its leaders, Phillip of Hesse. Its precursors included Speyer [SHPAY-yer], Dessau, and Regensburg. Formed in 1531, largely in response to the Confutation of Augsburg, it was the first of its kind to have a large military component, thanks to leaders like John Frederick the First of Saxony. For 10 points, name this Protestant league of Germany, defeated by Charles the Fifth at Mulhberg in 1547.
Answer: Schmalkaldic League or Schmalkaldischer Bund (accept League of Schmalkalden)
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The narrator's psychic compared the woman he is looking for to Serena. That desired woman may be the "cutie the bomb" he met at a beauty salon, who carried a baby Louis Vitton [VEE-tahn] under her underarm. The narrator later tells a cautionary tale about a man who is on TV any given Sunday, winning the Super Bowl and driving off in a Hyundai [HUN-day]. His baby momma was supposed to buy his shortie Tyco ["tie"-koh] with his money, but instead went and got lipo [LYE-po] with his money. Backed by Jamie Foxx singing a modified sample of Ray Charles's "I Got a Woman," the narrator tells the titular type of woman -- whose car and crib are bigger than her man's -- to "get down." If you ain't no punk, holla "we want pre-nup!" and, for 10 points, name this song about money-hungry females, from 2005's Late Registration album by Kanye [KAHN-yay] West.
Answer: Gold Digger
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In the lower left, a man looks to his left to speak to someone, while in the lower right, another man looks at someone over his left shoulder. The most prominent figure in the rear peeks up over the raised floor on which the main action is taking place. The expected ropes appear to the right and behind the main action, but are missing in front, allowing for a clearer view. Each combatant in this two-tone painting appears to be standing momentarily on one leg, with their other legs nearly connecting. The one on the right has his right gloved hand out, seeming to punch the nearby referee in the head. For 10 points, name this 1909 painting of an illegal boxing match, perhaps the best known work of George Bellows.
Answer: A Stag at Sharkey's
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At the end of Book I, Mr. Carmichael announces that he will take a case pro deo [DAY-oh], which gratifies the main character. That main character lies twice: once on a train, when he says he has been to his ultimate destination before; and once to hurt his brother John, when he says that a spy in his brother's political organization might bring him harm. His brother's son, Matthew, and Johannes Pafuri, were with the main character's son, Absalom, when Absalom murdered an engineer, whose father, James Jarvis, lives near the main character's village. The main character -- an umfundisi [OOM-foon-DEEZ-eh] who went looking for his son -- brings his son's wife and child back home to Ndotsheni [EEN-do-SHEH-nee], in Natal [nuh-TAHL], to live a quiet life. For 10 points, name this novel, set principally in Johannesburg, about the trials of Stephen Kumalo, by Alan Paton [PAY-tun].
Answer: Cry, the Beloved Country (prompt on early "Stephen Kumalo")
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In a rotating variation of it, Georges Sagnac [SAHN-yahk] discovered a namesake effect. The Kennedy-Thorndike experiment confirmed its results 35 years later. Its results were also confirmed by observing the change in orientation, or lack of change, in a parallel-plate capacitor in the Trouton-Noble experiment. Dayton Miller worked on Mount Wilson with one of its namesakes to try to show that entrainment may have led to its result, while George FitzGerald [fitz-GEHR-uld] explained its null result by a physical contraction. Its central device, floated in a pool of mercury, could detect a shift of one-one-hundredth of a fringe, much finer than the one-twenty-fifth that would have been shown by a positive result. For 10 points, name this 1887 experiment which used an interferometer [IN-ter-fur-AH-muh-ter] to try to detect the luminiferous aether [loo-min-NIH-fur-us EE-ther].
Answer: Michelson [MYE-kul-sun]-Morley Experiment (accept Michelson interferometer before "confirmed its results") [named after Albert Abraham Michelson and Edward Williams Morley]
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Before describing this event, a contemporary chronicler states "I esteem the intellectual above the physical qualities of man; and the task of the historian has attracted me because it taxes the writer's abilities to the utmost." His account makes it clear that the Allobroges [AL-loh-BROH-jez] were in league to hinder this event; the letters they were carrying when arrested led to the downfall of Lentulus. Before going to Faesulae [feh-SYOO-lay], this event's namesake said "[s]ince I am beset by enemies and driven out, the fire you have kindled about me shall be crushed out by the ruin of yourselves," according to Sallust. Forced from the senate, its leader battled at Pistoria against Gaius Antonius Hybrida, and was utterly defeated in January 62. For 10 points, name this attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, uncovered by Cicero.
Answer: Catiline conspiracy (or plot) (accept Lucius Sergius Catalina conspiracy)
2006 Aztlan Cup Bonuses by Steve Watchorn
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Answer the following about blood types, for 10 points each.,
[10] The blood cells of someone with blood type A also carry type A of these bodies, which provoke antibody formation in someone with type B blood.
Answer: antigens (accept immunogens)
[10] This is the designation for the precursor to the A and B antigens, modified by enzymes into either type A or B. It is unmodified in those with type O blood.
Answer: H antigen or factor
[10] People of this rare genetic dispostion, named for the city in which it was first observed, cannot manufacture the H antigen, and can only receive blood from others with the same condition.
Answer: Bombay phenotype
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Name the religion based on a characteristic quartet of statements or rituals, for 10 points each.,
[10] The Four Noble Truths, which lead to the cessation of suffering.
Answer: Buddhism (accept word forms on all parts)
[10] The Four Ends of Life, which include wealth, and controlled satisfaction of genuine desires of the body and mind.
Answer: Hinduism
[10] The Four Affirmations, including tradition of the family, love of nature, and physical cleanliness.
Answer: Shinto
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Name these relatively short-lived republics, for 10 points each.,
[10] From 1967 to 1970, this principally Igbo state seceded from Nigeria. It was forcibly reintegrated.
Answer: Biafra
[10] The 1797 Treaty of Tolentino ceded Romagna to this republic, created by merging the duchies of Reggio and Modena with the legate states of Bologna and Ferrara.
Answer: Cispadane Republic (do not accept "Cisalpine Republic")
[10] Defined by congresses at Angostura and Cucuta [KOO-kuh-tuh], this republic had Simon Bolivar as its president until his -- and, effectively, its -- death.
Answer: Republic of (Gran or Greater) Colombia (do not accept "New Granada" or variants)
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Answer the following about incomplete trilogies in 20th-century North American literature, for 10 points each.,
[10] The unfinished Wolf was to be the last of this author's "Epic of the Wheat," which began with The Octopus.
Answer: (Benjamin) Frank(lin) Norris
[10] Theodore Dreiser [DRYE-zer] did not quite complete The Stoic, the final novel about this industrial magnate -- based on Charles Yerkes [YER-keez] -- who was the main character in The Financier and The Titan.
Answer: (Frank) Algernon Cowperwood [COO-per-wood]
[10] Though his "Toronto Trilogy" was left incomplete, this Canadian did complete the "Cornish Trilogy" and the "Deptford Trilogy."
Answer: (William) Robertson Davies
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His description of temple design in terms of ideal human proportions was the basis for a famous Leonardo Da Vinci drawing of a man inside a circle. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this architect, whose ten-book masterwork provided an ancient foundation for architecture.
Answer: Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
[10] This artist, known for woodcuts like The Life of the Virgin and paintings like Young Jesus with the Doctors, commented extensively on the Vitruvian Man in Four Books on Human Proportions.
Answer: Albrecht Durer
[10] Also inspired by Vitruvius, this 16th-century architect of the facade [fuh-SAHD] at Il Redentore [ray-den-TOHR-ay] wrote a collection called Four Books on Architecture.
Answer: Andrea Palladio or Andrea di Pietro della Gondola
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For 10 points each, name these NFL quarterbacks who are free agents in spring 2006.,
[10] Perhaps with an eye towards developing Philip Rivers, the San Diego Chargers are letting this quarterback from Purdue test the free agent market.
Answer: Drew (Christopher) Brees ["breeze"]
[10] After losing playing time to up-and-coming Carson Palmer, this former Seahawk may be on his way out of Cincinnati.
Answer: Jon Kitna
[10] Signed as a backup to Eli Manning, this former Boston College quarterback is not having the high-profile success of his brother Matt in Seattle.
Answer: Tim Hasselbeck (do not accept "Matt Hasselbeck")
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For 10 points each, answer the following about zero-point energy.,
[10] Any body or system, such as an atom, which can be described as one of these will have a zero-point energy of h-bar times frequency over 2, equal to its ground-state energy.
Answer: quantum harmonic oscillator (prompt on partial answer)
[10] Vacuum fluctuations, a kind of zero-point energy, may generate this factor, which Albert Einstein included in general relativity to make a static universe possible.
Answer: cosmological constant
[10] Vacuum fluctuations are also responsible for this effect, important in nano-technology, which is characterized by a very small attraction between grounded neutral plates.
Answer: Casimir [KAA-zuh-meer]Effect (named for Hendrik Brugt Gerhard Casimir)
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Name the largest island, by surface area, completely administered by each of these countries, for 10 points each.,
[10] Indonesia
Answer: Sumatra (do not accept "New Guinea" or "Borneo")
[10] United States
Answer: Hawai'i (accept Big Island of Hawai'i)
[10] Russia.
Answer: Sakhalin
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"[Even a] fool, when he hears of … a being than which nothing greater can be conceived … understands what he hears, and what he understands is in his understanding." For 10 points each:,
[10] That fact necessitates the existence of God in which statement, first codified by St. Anselm of Canterbury in the Proslogion [proh-SLOH-jee-un]?
Answer: ontological argument or proof
[10] Immanuel Kant and others have attacked the ontological argument for assuming that existence is this, the part of a logical proposition affirmed or denied about the subject.
Answer: predicate [PREH-duh-kut]
[10] Kurt Goedel [GEHR-dul] and others have tried to lift up the ontological argument using this kind of logic, which studies the deductive behavior of the statements "necessary" and "possible."
Answer: modal [MOH-dul] logic
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The town of Tsarskoye Selo [tsar-SKOH-yay SAY-loh], where he began writing Ruslan and Ludmila, was later named for him. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Russian poet, killed in a duel in 1837.
Answer: Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) Pushkin
[10] In this Pushkin poem, Yevgeny curses the title object for his sorrows, and ends up being pursued by it through the streets of St. Petersburg.
Answer: The Bronze Horseman or Medny vsadnik
[10] Along with his mentor Vasily Zhukovsky, Pushkin was a member of this literary circle, which ridiculed the "Lovers of the Russian Word" who wanted to keep the language tied to Old Church Slavonic.
Answer: Arzamas Society
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For 10 points each, name these battles which may have taken their "toll.",
[10] Constantine's defeat of Maxentius here in 312 cleared the way for his leadership of the Western Roman Empire.
Answer: Milvian (or Mulvian) Bridge
[10] The 1297 battle at this site on the Forth river was a decisive victory for William Wallace over the earl of Surrey's English army.
Answer: Stirling Bridge
[10] The shooting incident at this site near Wanping [wan-PING] in 1937 helped maintain the Chinese-Japanese conflict leading into World War II.
Answer: Marco Polo Bridge
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For 10 points each, try to be polite in answering this bonus.,
[10] This trio performed the songs "Neutron Dance" and "Jump."
Answer: Pointer Sisters (accept Ruth, Anita, and June Pointer together in any order)
[10] This entity indicates the direction of energy propagation of an electromagnetic wave.
Answer: Poynting Vector (prompt on partial answer) [named after John Henry Poynting]
[10] George Lemmen's The Beach at Heist and Paul Signac's [seen-YAHKZ] Quay at Clichy [kay at KLEE-shee] are paintings done in this technique, developed by Signac and Georges Seurat [sur-AHT].
Answer: pointillism or pointillist
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It occurred for English between the 14th and 18th centuries, and affected the long type of its subject sounds. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this change in pronunciation, which moved articulation points up in the mouth and created new diphthongs [DIP-thongs].
Answer: Great Vowel Shift
[10] The shift was first investigated and named by this Danish linguist, who also originated the artificial language Novial.
Answer: (Jens) Otto (Harry) Jespersen [YES-purr-son]
[10] Consonant shifts between proto-Indo-European and modern languages like English and German -- shifts such as the unvoiced p-to-f and k-to-h -- are described by this codification.
Answer: (Jacob Ludwig Carl) Grimm's Law (accept Rask-Grimm Rule or Law) [co-named for Rasmus Kristian Rask]
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In stereochemistry ["stereo"-"chemistry"], it is the property of not being able to super-impose a molecule on its mirror image. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this property, from the Greek for "hand" or "hand-like."
Answer: chirality [ky-RAL-ih-tee]
[10] Such stereoisomers ["stereo"-"isomers"] are optical isomers, and are also called by this one-word name.
Answer: enantiomers [ee-NAN-tee-oh-merz]
[10] All or nothing, these two letters, as a naming convention, can refer to the optical activity of the isomers, or to an unrelated geometric convention originated by Fischer and Rosanoff.
Answer: D and L (do not accept "dextrorotatory" or "levorotatory")
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It included Jules Dupre [doo-PRAY] and Constant Troyon [trwah-YOHN], and was named for a village near the forest of Fontainebleu [fone-tan-BLOO]. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this school of painting which stressed naturalism in its depictions, especially landscapes.
Answer: Barbizon school
[10] This leader of the Barbizon school painted Departure from the Forest at Fontainebleu at Sunset and Under the Birches, Evening.
Answer: Theodore Rousseau
[10] The Barbizon style helped launch this particular kind of painting with a French name, which refers to working outside in natural light. It has inspired at least 13 current state and national painting societies in the U. S.
Answer: En plein air ["on" "plan" "air"] (accept plain air)
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Answer the following about the churning of the milky ocean in Hindu mythology, for 10 points each.,
[10] The churning was a collaboration between a group of gods and a group of demons, who were usually enemies. Name either group.
Answer: devas and asuras
[10] The churning was meant to bring up the life-restoring amrta [AH-mur-tuh], whose purity was threatened by a poison. This god saved the amrta by holding the poison in his throat, which, as a result, turned blue.
Answer: Siva or Siwa or Shiva
[10] The churning also turned up this goddess, who arose seated on a lotus flower, with another blossom in her hand.
Answer: Laksmi or Lakshmi or Sri
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Answer the following about the founding of the NAACP ["n"-"double a"-"c"-"p"], for 10 points each.,
[10] Many founding members came from this precursor to the NAACP, which was led by W. E. B. DuBois [doo-BOYZ] and stemmed from a secret 1905 meeting at a namesake location.
Answer: Niagara Movement (do not accept "Niagara Falls")
[10] The founding of the NAACP was spurred by race riots in this city in 1908.
Answer: Springfield, Illinois (prompt on "Springfield")
[10] Vice-president of the Brooklyn chapter of the National Consumers League, this co-founder of the NAACP wrote Half a Man: The Status of the Negro in New York.
Answer: Mary White Ovington
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
It is home to such people as Doctor Thorne, such institutions as the Framley Parsonage, and such residences as the Small House at Allington. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this fictional English county.
Answer: Barsetshire [BAR-set-sher]
[10] The Barsetshire chronicles were written by this prolific author, who also created Plantagenet Palliser.
Answer: Anthony Trollope [TRAH-lup]
[10] This cathedral town, whose "towers" provide the title of one of the chronicles's novels, is the principal city of Barsetshire.
Answer: Barchester
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
The melody of Florestan's dungeon aria, "In the Springtime of Youth," is included in or near the adagio [uh-DAH-jee-oh] of the ones labeled "number two" and "number three." For 10 points each:,
[10] Give the group name of these four pieces composed by Ludwig van Beethoven as prefaces to a longer work.
Answer: Leonora (or Leonore) Overtures (prompt on partial answer) (accept opus(es) 72 and opus 138 together; do not accept "Fidelio" overtures)
[10] The Leonora [LAY-oh-nore-uh] Overture "number four," opus 72, is also called by this name, after the ultimate name of the work before which it is often played.
Answer: Fidelio [fee-DAY-lee-oh] Overture
[10] This composer of the Tragic Symphony and Songs on the Deaths of Children may have begun the practice of playing the Leonora Overture "number three" between the two scenes in Fidelio's second act.
Answer: Gustav Mahler
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Answer the following about radio astronomy, for 10 points each.,
[10] This man, who originated radio astronomy by discovering emissions from space in 1932, is honored by having his name attached to the unit of radio-wave emission strength.
Answer: Karl (Guthe) Jansky
[10] Because it propagates easily through dust and gas, this particular radio emission -- related to hydrogen flipping between spin parallel and anti-parallel states -- is widely studied. It is named for its wavelength.
Answer: 21-centimeter emission (accept 8.27-inch but do not accept other units)
[10] Strong regular periodic radio emissions distinguish this kind of object, theorized to be a rapidly spinning neutron star.
Answer: pulsar or pulsating radio star

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