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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 ACF Regionals Tossups by Dartmouth B and Illinois B
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The speaker remembers "the sterile sands and the fields beyond", where he, as a young boy, leaves his bed and "wanders alone". This poem includes a conversation with a "bird that chanted to me", addressed as "sad brother." Originally titled "A Child's Reminiscence," this poem starts out with a recollection of the poet's origins on the shores of Manhattan and involves hearing a bird's "aria" as a "musical shuttle." When the speaker understands that he is to become a poet, "a thousand warbling echoes" rise within him, "never to die". For 10 points, name this poem that chronicles a dialogue with the sea and a mockingbird, written by Walt Whitman.
Answer: "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking"
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According to Homer, Anteia, the queen of Argos, tried to seduce him, and after his fall from grace, he wandered the Aleian plain. He was the cousin of Melampus, and King Iobates was asked by his son-in-law to have this figure put to death, but his attempt was thwarted by the advice of the wisest man in Lycia. The son of Poseidon by Eurynome, he was told by Polyeidus to spend a night at one of Athena's altars, and when doing so he dreamed he was given a golden bridle. His fame went to his head, and when attempting to ride up Mount Olympus, he was bucked off. For 10 points, identify this tamer of Pegasus and slayer of the Chimera.
Answer: Bellerophon
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These compounds can be formed in the McFadyen-Stevens reaction from the decomposition of acyl-sulfonyl-hydrazides, while asymmetric ones are formed in the Meyers synthesis from the hydrolysis of an oxazine. Reactions in which their defining functional group is introduced, such as the Sommelet reaction that uses water and hexamine, are known as formylation reactions. They can also be formed in the Rosemund reduction of an acid chloride or through oxidation of a primary alcohol. For 10 points, name these compounds detected via the formation of a silver mirror in the Tollens test, defined by the presence of a terminal carbonyl group.
Answer: aldehydes
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He displaced one of his rivals by giving the Kanto domain to them, which precipitated that family's move away from the Chubu region. This man redefined class relationships based on kokudaka, or amount of agricultral production. He became so enraged at his nephew Hidetsugu that he killed thirty of Hidetsugu's female relatives, and he failed to get past Korea in an attempt to conquer China. In order to enforce an order that allowed only samurai to bear arms, this man started the Great Sword Hunt. For 10 points, name this successor of Oda Nobunaga who unified Japan before being succeeded by the namesake of a shogunate, Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Answer: Hideyoshi Toyotomi [accept Toyotomi Hideyoshi]
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This poem's third stanza begins "When, like committed linnets, I/ With shriller throat shall sing, The sweetness, mercy, majesty, And glories of my King" which shows the author's pro-royalist attitude. That stanza also demonstrates the setting of the poem, as "committed linnets" refers to pet birds. The rest of this poem, which first appeared along with a verse about "going to the wars" in To Lucasta, makes such statements as "When I lie tangled in her hair.../ The birds wanton in the air/ Know no such liberty." For 10 points, name this poem by Richard Lovelace, whose fourth stanza begins "Stone wall do not a prison make,/ Nor iron bars a cage;."
Answer: "To Althea, from Prison"
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Fictional works by him include Gone Bamboo and The Bobby Gold Stories, about a ex-con who goes to work with a nightclub and restaurant owner. His book The Nasty Bits was dedicated to the Ramones and he has fed such musicians as Johnny Thunders, who was very uncomfortable in his restaurant. He once said that the most disgusting thing he has ever eaten was a Chicken McNugget, as he doesn't even know what it exactly was. In 2006, he had to be evacuated from Lebanon while shooting an episode of his TV show. For 10 points, identify this chef, a vocal critic of people on The Food Network who can't cook and host of the Travel Channel's No Reservations.
Answer: Anthony Bourdain
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This artist used pre-made letters known as "Letraset" to vary the surface of paintings like Sphinx?Portrait of Muriel Belcher, and he juxtaposed oil and pastel paints in his Study of the Human Body.A He began his "light" period with Van Gogh's Painter on the Way to Tarascon, eschewing the darkness of works like Study of a Baboon.A Many of his paintings were based on photographs by Eadweard Muybridge.A The Furies are the title images of his triptych Three Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion, created shortly before a series of deconstructions of a famous portrait by Velasquez.A For 10 points, name this British artist known for his shocking depictions of Pope Innocent X.
Answer: Francis Bacon
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One river of this name is found in Ontario and is the namesake of a series of Precambrian rocks that are similar to the Knife Lake Series and adjacent to the Keewatin Series. Tributaries of another river of this name form in the Morvan highlands, an extension of Massif Central. The "mascaret" is the phenomenon of tidal bore between the mouth of this river and the English Channel. Cities that lie on this river include Rouen and Troyes. It has two natural islands, Ile Saint-Louis and Ile de la Cite, both located where it passes through the largest city on its banks. For 10 points, identify this river which cuts through Paris.
Answer: Seine River
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Its fourth leader commanded a battle between it and a fleet under Thomas Dale and was killed during a siege by Mataram. Twelve crewmen were killed at Sidayu on one of its initial voyages, and its decline began with a 1741 defeat by Raja Marthanda Varma at the Battle of Colachel. It dissolved by 1800. The "Amboyna Massacre" saw ten Englishmen and ten Japanese arrested and executed for conspiring against it. Under Coen it expanded and changed its headquarters to Batavia. For 10 points, name this first multinational corporation in the world, also the first to issue stock, founded by chambers from Delft, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, and other cities for trading with Asia.
Answer: Dutch East India Company [accept United East India Company; accept Vereenigde Oost-indische Compagnie; prompt on East India Company]
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The introduction of this work states that there are a "certain number of essential ideas which dominate all our intellectual life...called categories of the understanding." Language is described in it as a "product of collective elaboration" containing terms expressing things "which we have never perceived." It says that festivals and ceremonies are regularly fulfilling the need of strengthening and reaffirming one's bond to the sacred beings early man depended on. Its last section addresses "The Negative Cult and its Functions" and "Piacular Rites." For 10 points, the origins of totemic beliefs and the church are described in what last major work of Emile Durkheim?
Answer: The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life
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It has been proposed to create a supercluster named for this star that would include the likes of Beta Crateris, Beta Eridani, and Beta Serpentis. Its annual heliacal rising matches the earth's solar year because it is found along the same arm of the Milky Way, and along with Procyon and Betelgeuse, it forms part of the Winter Triangle. Friedrich Bessel first discovered its wobble, which was confirmed by Clark to be the result of a companion to it that is now known to be a white dwarf, while its A star is a main sequence star of type A1V. For 10 points, name this star system, the brightest in the night sky and a member of the constellation Canis Major, often called the "Dog Star."
Answer: Sirius [prompt on "Dog Star"]
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Minor characters in this work include Romola Martin and Adore Loomis, a neighborhood brat. The main character is described as man with a "whole set of personalities, one inside the other like a nest of Chinese boxes." One character paints an apocalyptic scene containing the middle-class Midwestern immigrants who "have come to California to die" and hosts a cockfight in his garage, and the painter of "The Burning of Los Angeles" gets into a fight over who will dance with Fay Greener. Following Todd Hackett and Homer Simpson, it labels its Hollywood setting "Caliphonia." For 10 points, name this novel by Nathanael West.
Answer: The Day of the Locust
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A controversial work on this theme added the confidante Laura and was composed by George Benda, while Berlioz, whose own opus 17 concerns this theme, considered the one by Daniel Steibelt to be the best of its kind.A Two vehement anti-Shostakovich editorials in Pravda prevented the performance in Russia of a ballet on this theme that features a notable part for tenor saxophone.A A work by Gottfried Keller provided the inspiration for one that contains the interlude "The Walk to the Paradise Garden" and is set in a village.A For 10 points, name this play that inspired an overture by Tchaikovsky and an opera by Gounod about two star-crossed lovers.
Answer: Romeo and Juliet
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His last paper, Considerations on the Government of Poland, was completed, but never published. He writes about how men should rule publicly and women should rule men privately inone work, and another of his books says that man is corrupted by his want to be perfect. In addition to The New Heloise and Discourse on Inequality, he wrote about stealing from an employer and blaming the maid in his autobiography, Confessions. He also wrote about educating the titular boy, who marries Sophie, in Emile. For ten points, name this French writer who proposed obeying the "general will" because of man being everywhere in chains in his The Social Contract
Answer: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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This molecule is found in high concentrations in the basal nucleus of Meynert. One class of receptors for it is antagonized by the likes of mamba toxin and gallamine and contains five different members based on the alpha subunit of their associated G proteins. Another class of receptors for it is ionotropic and is targeted by auto-immune antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Its muscarinic receptors bind it at the end of parasympathetic nerves, while the nictonic receptors for this molecule, whose release is blocked by botulinum toxin, are found on muscle cells. For 10 points, name this neurotransmitter depleted in Alzheimer's disease, which is cleaved by its namesake -esterases.
Answer: acetylcholine
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This man's first military campaign came against Aristobolus in Judea. Under command of his own troops at Forum Gallorum and Mutina, he lost decisive battles despite killing the two consuls he opposed. In 37 BCE, he returned to Judea and captured Jersualem, installing Herod the Great as king. His strife with Rome included an open distribution of territory among his children after conquering Armenia. It was because he gave a title to a child that was not his own, Caesarion, that his onetime confederate went to war against him. For 10 points, name this man who helped win the Battle of Philippi with Octavian and Lepidus, but was later defeated alongside Cleopatra.
Answer: Mark Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
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A discussion of sex and pancakes in this work leads two characters to the Blue Ox motel.A Another character falsely laments the death of his wife Linda Cooks in a hotel restaurant, which he claims is "a Radisson, so it's pretty good." A gunfight with Carl Showalter leads to the death of Wade, whom Jerry Lundegaard was attempting to scam out of one million dollars by having his wife kidnapped.A The protagonist later shoots Carl's partner in the leg upon seeing him shoving Carl's body into a wood chipper.A The trail of bodies left by Carl and Gaear Grimsrud involves pregnant deputy Marge Gunderson in, for 10 points, what Coen Brothers film, named for a city.
Answer: Fargo
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George Bernard Shaw wrote that this character was "a besotted and disgusting old wretch", but of himself, he claims that he is "witty in not only myself, but the cause that wit is in other men". Harold Bloom calls him his author's most original character. At one point, he hangs out with Bardolph and is threatened with a lawsuit by Justice Shallow. The hostess of Boar's Head believes that he has gone to "Arthur's Bosom," while at another point he is called a "huge hill of flesh." He later tries to seduce Mistress Ford and Mistress Page. For 10 points, name this character from the two Henry IV plays who became the protagonist of The Merry Wives of Windsor.
Answer: Sir John Falstaff
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The namesake suppression of this effect is designed to counteract the namesake edge, which is the highest energy at which false spectra are obtained due to incomplete detection. A related effect can be broken down to include the Ostriker-Vishniac effect and has been used to observe dense galaxy clusters through perturbations of the CMB. That effect, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich, is the inverse of this process, which has its differential cross section described by the Klein-Nishina formula and includes a constant known as its wavelength. For 10 points, name this effect in which the namesake shift describes the change in wavelength of a photon colliding with an electron.
Answer: Compton effect or scattering or shift, etc.
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These people once lost their independence following a loss at the Battle of Chernomen. Among the laws attributed to their greatest king is one forbidding the exhumation and staking of the deceased. The successors to the state of Raska, these people were ruled by the Nemanjic Dynasty and such kings as Dusan the Mighty, who promulgated the laws known as the Zakonik. An important defeat for this group involved the killing of Sultan Murad I and the death of their leader Lazar in 1389, at the Field of Blackbirds. For 10 points, name this group of people whose namesake state is no longer in federation with Montenegro and is in danger of losing Kosovo as well.
Answer: Serbs [accept Serbia]
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This figure's daughter participates in the "stretching the cord" ritual and is responsible for tracking the regnal dates of kings He holds power over Renenet and Shai, or Fortune and Fate, and he is sometimes considered syncretized with a youthful moon god who has a cobra on his head, Khonsu. He questions the dead before Ma'at weighs the heart, and is sometimes associated with baboons. Worshipped at Hermopolis, he was responsible for writing and the moon. For 10 points, name this Egyptian god who became known to later Greeks as Hermes Trismegestus and had an ibis head.
Answer: Thoth [or Djehuty]
2008 ACF Regionals Bonuses by Dartmouth B and Illinois B
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Answer the following questions about the history of the Chinese legalistic school, for 10 points each,
[10] This mid-fourth-century minister extolled the state as the source of an individual's primary loyalty, and was captured at a hotel because he lacked proper identification for admittance as required by his own law.
Answer: Shang Yang
[10] Though from the state of Wei, Shang Yang enacted his reforms in this neighboring state, where he served from 361 until his execution in 338. It was the namesake of a certain king who became Shi Hunag Di.
Answer: Qin
[10] Shang made a show of burning Confucian texts, an example followed by this minister of Qin who served under Qin Shi Huang Di. Like most legalistic formulars, he died violently, in his case by being publicly bisected.
Answer: Li Si
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Name these authors of Arabic literature, for 10 points each.,
[10] Before dying in 2006 at the age of "incredibly old," this Egyptian wrote Children of Gebelawi and The Cairo Trilogy.
Answer: Naguib Mahfouz
[10] This Moroccan explorer and scholar dictated an account of his travels across the Islamic World and into India and China to Ibn Juzzay. His name literally translates as "the son of the duckling."
Answer: Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta
[10] This blind intellectual and the "dean of Arabic literature" wrote The Future of Culture in Egypt, which recommended nationalization and independence. He also served as the Minister of Education.
Answer: Taha Hussein
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Answer the following about a thing to measure temperature for 10 points each.,
[10] This device consists of two different metals joined such that, upon the presence of a temperature gradient, they will produce a voltage.
Answer: thermocouple
[10] Thermocouples are governed by this effect named for a German guy who discovered that two different metals joined at different temps could deflect a compass needle.
Answer: Seebeck effect
[10] The Seebeck effect is sometimes merged with this effect, which described the generation of heat from passing a current through two distinct metals joined up like in a thermocouple.
Answer: Peltier effect
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Remember these things involving memory in psychology, for 10 points each,
[10] In this dissociative disorder, a prolonged kind of amnesia, the loss of biographical memory combined with the sudden adoption of a new identity, often accompanied by move to a completely different location, occurs.
Answer: dissociative fugue
[10] Studied by Brown and Kulik, this is a highly detailed and vivid memory of an important even, such as where one was during JFK assassination. Studies suggest they are no more accurate then typical biographical memory.
Answer: flashbulb memory
[10] Part of working memory, this is the subsystem that produces inner speech and holds acoustic information for about two seconds.
Answer: phonological loop
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It is one of the very few ensemble pieces from the work in which it appears. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this piece that begins in the prelude to Act III of its namesake opera as the characters begin to gather dead soldiers.
Answer: "Ride of the Valkyries" [or Walkurenritt]
[10] Name the composer of the "Ride of the Valkyries," which unsurprisingly appears in Die Walkure, part of his Ring Cycle.
Answer: Richard Wagner
[10] Wagner wrote this symphonic poem for his wife upon the birth of their son, and later used ideas from it when composing the third opera of the Ring Cycle.
Answer: Sigried Idyll
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Identify the following about a chain of islands in the Pacific, for 10 points each.,
[10] This island nation with capital at Majuro lies east of the Federated States of Micronesia and consists of twenty-nine atolls and five coral islands.
Answer: Marshall Islands
[10] This group of islands in the Marshalls was subject to many nuclear tests, including the largest U.S. bomb ever tested, as part of Operation Castle.
Answer: Bikini Atoll
[10] This U.S. territory is also part of the Marshall Islands, and was formerly known as Halcyon Island. The atolls of Peale and Wilkes are also part of it, along with the namesake of the group.
Answer: Wake Island
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Answer the following about the Mahabharata, for 10 points each.,
[10] This son of Indra was taught archery by Dronacharya and helped lead his family to victory.
Answer: Arjuna
[10] This brother of Arjuna is known for his strength and mace-wielding skills. He also father the half-demon Ghatotkacha, who would assist him in fighting the Kauravas.
Answer: Bhima
[10] Along with Yudhisthira, Nakula, and Sahadeva, this group of five people was made up of Bhima and Arjuna and fought against the Kuravas.
Answer: Pandavas brothers
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It won its German formulator a Nobel Prize and has a noted Schlosser modification. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this reaction in which triphenyl phosphine is used to create an alkene from a carbonyl group.
Answer: Wittig reaction
[10] Triphenyl phosphine is an example of one of these compounds, defined by the presence of a positive and a negative charge on adjacent atoms but being overall neutral.
Answer: ylides
[10] The Wittig reaction proceeds through this kind of intermediate, which like an ylide is neutral overall and has separate positive and negative charges, but the charges are non-adjacent.
Answer: betaine
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Name these video games that have something to do with philosophy, for 10 points each.,
[10] "Is a Man Not Entitled to the Sweat of His Own Brow?" asks this Objectivism-laden game, as the player moves through the underwater world of Andrew Ryan and faces the choice of saving or harvesting Little Sisters.
Answer: BioShock
[10] Featuring the standard alien invasion by the DomZ, this 2003 Ubisoft game stars a reporter who uncovers her government's secret role in the invasion. It shares its title with a work by Nietzsche.
Answer: Beyond Good and Evil
[10] The developers for this Valve game featuring Aperture Science and a "neat gun" based the storyline on the philosophy that lots of people seem to like cake. Players will unfortunately find out that "the cake is a lie."
Answer: Portal [prompt on The Orange Box]
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This was a "biography of a young man who was in no degree a hero, who regarded himself as a seeker after truth." For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this novel about the life of a titular doctor who must fight between staying true to his research and wealth, and who in the end pursues his dream by joining Terry Wickett at his private laboratory.
Answer: Arrowsmith
[10] Arrowsmith is by this author of It Can't Happen Here and Babbit.
Answer: Sinclair Lewis
[10] This stern and unrelenting outsider was Martin Arrowsmith's medical school mentor, who remains unappreciated despite his discoveries and in the end becomes senile.
Answer: Max Gottlieb [accept either or both names]
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For 10 points each, name these European assassins.,
[10] This person bought a six-inch long kitchen knife at the Palais-Royal and then used it to stab Marat in his bathtub after being admitted to his presence. She was guillotined four days after Marat's death in 1793.
Answer: Charlotte Corday
[10] He was the real-life assassin of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, in 1628 and is also a character in Alexandre Dumas's The Three Musketeers.
Answer: John Felton
[10] In 1944, a suitcase bomb that he placed under a conference table killed four people but resulted in only minor injuries to Adolf Hitler.
Answer: Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg
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He set many of his novels in his birthplace of French Algeria. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author of "The Myth of Sisyphus" and The Stranger.
Answer: Albert Camus
[10] This Camus book begins with thousands of rats dieing, the first signs of trouble to come. Dr. Rieux criticizes Father Paneloux for suggesting that all those who have died are sinful before himself dying of the titular cause.
Answer: The Plague [or La Peste]
[10] This Camus play, set in nineteenth-century Russia, adapts a Dostoyevsky novel and follows Nicholas Stavrogin's affairs with women and eventual union with Verkhovensky's revolutionary group.
Answer: The Possessed [or Les Possedes]
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He held the consulship five consecutive times. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Roman general who defeated the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae and led the campaign against Jugurtha before conquering Rome and killing a slew of political enemies in 86 BCE.
Answer: Gaius Marius
[10] Jugurtha was personally surrendered to this conservative general and longtime nemesis of Marius, who proved victorious in the civil war following Marius's death.
Answer: Lucius Cornelius Sulla
[10] One of Marius's political supporters was this consul who was cast out of the city for proposing to enfranchise all Italians, then joined in Marius's insurrection. His daughter was Cornelia, the wife of Julius Caesar.
Answer: Lucius Cornelius Cinna
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Name these stolen paintings for 10 points each.,
[10] This Edvard Munch painting of a guy with his hands on his face has been stolen a whole bunch of times.
Answer: The Scream [or Skrik; accept The Cry]
[10] Formerly part of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, this only marine painting by Rembrandt depicts a rocking ship in the middle of a tempest.
Answer: Christ in the Storm on the Sea of Galilee [be somewhat lenient with the pronouns]
[10] While in the Palazzo Ducale, this work by Piero della Francesca shows three men standing in the left foreground, paying no attention to the titular action being performed in the background.
Answer: The Flagellation of Christ
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For 10 points each, name these parts of a tree.,
[10] Also known as sapwood, it comprises the youngest layers of wood, and its network of thick-walled cells brings water and nutrients up from the roots to leaves and other parts of the tree.
Answer: xylem
[10] It is this part of a tree that makes the trunk, branches, and roots grow larger in diameter. Its vascular type is found in the interior, while its cork type is found further out.
Answer: cambium
[10] In the roots, the procambium produces this cylindrical structure, just inside the endodermis, that contains the pericycle, as well as xylem and phloem.
Answer: stele
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Name these plays that concern the pursuit of vengeance, for 10 points each.,
[10] The title island-dwelling character, Barabas, poisons most of his enemies, and his own daughter, in this Christopher Marlowe play, after the governor confiscates his fortune. He dies after he falls into a cauldron.
Answer: The Jew of Malta
[10] This play, the second in The Oresteia, follows Orestes and Electra as they murder their mother and her lover to avenge their father's murder.
Answer: The Libation Bearers
[10] This Friedrich Durenmatt play chronicles the return of Claire Zachanassian to her hometown of Gullen, where she promises to donate one million pounds if her childhood sweetheart and betrayer, Alfred Schill, is killed.
Answer: The Visit
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He built Blenheim Palace to celebrate one of his victories, and his political career at the court of Anne proved less successful than his military campaigns. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this British general from the War of the Spanish Succession.
Answer: John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Marquess Of Blandford, Earl Of Marlborough, Baron Churchill Of Sandridge, Lord Churchill Of Eyemouth, Reichsfurst [accept Churchill]
[10] In what some consider his greatest tactical triumph, Marlborough shifted his reserve cavalry from the right to the left to defeat Villeroi here and provoke the surrender of over a dozen fortresses in Flanders.
Answer: Ramilles
[10] Marlborough finally met his near equal at this September 1709 battle, when Marshall Villars failed to fall for his feints and he was forced to send out 24,000 casualties in the bloodiest modern European battle before Borodino.
Answer: Malplaquet
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This philosophical article, first published in 1951, is divided into four sections on analyticity and two sections on reductionism. For 10 points each:,
[10] Analyticity and reductionism are thus the title concepts of what critique directed at a tenet of the logical positivist school?
Answer: "Two Dogmas of Empiricism"
[10] This author of From a Logical Point of View wrote "Two Dogmas of Empiricism."
Answer: Willard van Orman Quine
[10] This 1960 Quine work further developed the ideas in "Two Dogmas of Empiricism" and also introduced his "indeterminacy of translation" thesis.
Answer: Word and Object
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Name these Jazz musicians for 10 points each.,
[10] He dropped out of Julliard to play trumpet, and his albums include Birth of the Cool and Kind of Blue.
Answer: Miles Davis
[10] This big band leader's hits included "Jumping at the Woodside" and "One O'Clock Jump." He is also known for his "New Testament" group and got his "royal" nickname while playing with Bennie Moten.
Answer: William 'Count' Basie
[10] This "King of Jazz" hired Gershwin to write Rhapsody in Blue for his eponymous orchestra in 1924. He often worked with Ferde Grofe and helped to kick-start Bing Crosby's career.
Answer: Paul Whiteman
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Name these poets who commented on the toils of war, for 10 points each.,
[10] Perhaps his most famous poem begins with the line "What passing-bells for those who die as cattle? Only the monstrous anger of the guns". He is also known for "Dulce Et Decorem Est."
Answer: Wilfred Owen
[10] In "The Revolt of Islam," this Romantic poet of The Cenci and "The Mask of Anarchy" speaks of the "soldiers, our brethren and our friends" that he has slain.
Answer: Percy Bysshe Shelley [prompt on Shelley]
[10] His most famous war poem is called "The Battle of Blenheim," the subject of which is a famous, but empty, victory. He also wrote A Tale of Paraguay and Thalaba the Destroyer.
Answer: Robert Southey
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Name these moons of our solar system for 10 points each.,
[10] The larger, and nearer, moon of Mars, it orbits Mars in less than the planet's "day," thus appearing to move backwards across the sky.
Answer: Phobos
[10] This moon of Neptune is the coldest object in the Solar System, at -235 degrees Celsius. Its surface has melted and refrozen many times, forming a network of huge cracks.
Answer: Triton
[10] Valhalla is the largest of the craters that dot this Galilean moon, the second-largest of Jupiter.
Answer: Callisto

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