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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 ACF Regionals Tossups by Columbia and Temple
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For a black hole, this quantity is calculated as Boltzmann's constant times the area divided by 4 times the square of the Planck length. The Tsallis variety of it relates it to non-extensivity, and the Shannon type is used in information theory. It can be calculated for a monatomic ideal gas in the Sackur-Tetrode equation, and it is the negative derivative with respect to temperature of Helmoltz Free Energy. Its discontinuous nature in mixing was the subject of the Gibbs paradox, and its tendency to increase is the subject of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. For 10 points, name this quantity symbolized S, a measure of disorder.
Answer: Entropy
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Two Airborne Divisions botched their initial orders in this mission, but nonetheless captured Saint-Mere-Eglise. To compensate for a lack of armor, one side's engineers here devised a plan to construct a Mulberry harbor by sinking transport ships at Arromanches, and used floating tanks, which the British dubbed "Hobart's Funnies." After this battle, the British advance on the east ground to a halt outside of Caen, while American forces swung west from Utah and Omaha across the Cotentin Peninsula, cutting off the Germans in Cherbourg. For 10 points, name this Allied landing in northern France, which took place on June 6, 1944.
Answer: D-Day [or Operation Overlord or Battle of Normandy or Debarquement]
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One of Gilles Deleuze's dissertations was on this man's "expressionism." He distinguished between false and fictitious ideas in his On the Improvement of the Understanding. In his earliest tract, he denied the mind-matter duality of Decartes and held that the existence of free will cannot be accounted for, while in a later work he advocated a historical reading of the Bible and accounted for miracles as moral fables, not natural events. His neutral monism and accused pantheism may have led to this author of Tractatus Theologico-Politicus being "excommunicatied" by the Dutch Jewish community. For 10 points, name this writer of Ethics.
Answer: Baruch de Spinoza
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An important study on the economic role of this product was written by David Christy. A national quota for it was set by the 1934 Bankhead Act, and in 1814, Francis Lowell created the first factory for processing it, which helped take dominance of it away from Manchester and Birmingham. Samuel Slater memorized the blueprints for the first mill for it in America. The long staple length of the Mexican kind soon made this product the "King" of the American South. Its ascendancy was helped by the invention of a machine that separated its fiber from seedpods. For 10 points, name this crop, for which Eli Whitney made a namesake gin.
Answer: cotton
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They can be formed by reacting ketones with hydrazoic acid in the Schmidt reaction, or from the Willgerodt Rearrangement by reacting an aryl alkyl ketone with an ammonium polysulfide. Cyclic ones are formed in the Beckmann rearrangement, and their hydrolysis is made more difficult due to contributions from a secondary resonance form. The Hoffman rearrangement converts a primary one of these into a primary amine with one fewer carbon atoms, and they are formed by reacting a carboxylic acid with an amine, as in protein synthesis. For 10 points, name these compounds with a carbonyl group bonded to a nitrogen atom.
Answer: amide
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Edmund White's Hotel de Dream fictionalizes this author writing his lost novel about a male prostitute, supposedly titled Flowers of Asphalt. He described a man eating his own heart in the poem "In the Desert," from The Black Rider and Other Lines, and he began a short story with "None of them knew the color of the sky." His most famous character dies in a barn fire in "The Veteran," a sequel to a work where that character watched Jim Conklin die in the woods and only received the title mark by accident, from a fellow soldier. For 10 points, name this author of "The Open Boat" and a novel about teenage soldier Henry Fleming, The Red Badge of Courage.
Answer: Stephen Crane
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Horace Vernet painted this figure on his deathbed, while Antoine-Jean Gros's paintings of him include one at Jaffa and one at the Arcole Bridge. In one work by his most famous depicter, he stands in his signature pose as his candles burn out at dawn in his study, while in another the names of Charlemagne and Hannibal are carved into a mountain beneath the hooves of his leaping horse. If it were not for a mis-measurement of The Marriage at Cana, the painting of him placing a crown on his wife's head would be the largest at the Louvre, whose central hall bears his name. For 10 points, name this favorite subject of Jacques-Louis David, former Emperor of France.
Answer: Napoleon Bonaparte [accept either]
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This region contains the Ngorongoro Highlands, which were once part of its namesake national park. The natrocarbonatite lava that erupts from this region's volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai, northwest of the city of Arusha, is responsible for its lack of trees. The Grimeti River runs through this region's center, while on its northern edge, the Mara River feeds the Maasai Mara Reservoir. These locations, as well as the Olduvai Gorge, are visited twice a year by two million wildebeests and zebras as a part of a long circular route. Lying beside the Great Rift Valley, for 10 points, name this plain of Tanzania and Kenya, home to a huge-ass migration.
Answer: the Serengeti Plain [generously prompt on Tanzania before it is read]
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Among the early tribes that lived here were the Elmyians. It was the site of three namesake wars in the fifth and fourth centuries BCE, the last of which was between Agathocles and Hanno the Navigator, and under Roman rule it was briefly governed by the corrupt Gaius Verres. One of its notable Norman rulers was known as "Roger" of this place, and in the thirteenth century, it witnessed a revolt against Charles I and a massacre of Frenchmen that began just before Easter services. When he conquered this area, its Ferdinand I renamed his former holdings as the "Kingdom of the Two" of them. For 10 points, name this Greek-colonized Italian island, the birthplace of the Mafia.
Answer: Sicily
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He anticipated Cantor's later work with his paradox, which shows there are as many perfect square numbers as whole numbers. He wrote a tract against Orazio Gassi that claimed comets were optical illusions, The Assayer, and proposed that the distance covered by an object accelerating at a constant rate was proportional to the square of time. One of his works recounts a discussion between Salviati, Sagredo, and Simplico, but fails to discuss the Tychonian system. For 10 points, identify this man whose Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems drew ire from the Church for its support of a heliocentric model of the universe, an early improver of and user of the telescope.
Answer: Galileo Galilei
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A recent John Adams piece fictionally claims that his father knew this man. His chamber works include From the Side Hill and The Other Side of Pioneering, while his Second Symphony ends with a chord nicknamed "the Bronx Cheer." Central Park in the Dark was written as a response to the "cosmic drama" of a better-known piece dominated by woodwinds seeking "the invisible answer." In addition to The Unanswered Question, he wrote a piano sonata with movements nicknamed for Emerson and Hawthorne, and the Alcotts. For 10 points, name this eclectic American composer of The Concord Sonata and Three Places in New England.
Answer: Charles Ives
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In the Byzantine period, this city became renowned for its silk industry, and served as the capital for the Catalan Company. Thucydides has representatives from this city argue that they were not responsible for siding with the Persians because they were then ruled by a tyrant. They secured their hegemony over Greece when Epaminodas lead them to victory over the Sparta at Leuctra in 371 BCE. The most famous unit from this city, the Sacred Band, was destroyed by the Macedonians at Chaeronea. For 10 points, name this Boetian city which ruled Greece before the arrival of Alexander the Great and was the setting for the myths of Cadmus, Polyneices, and Oedipus.
Answer: Thebes
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He adapted Grimms' fairy tales into verse, set in his own country, in The Tale of the Fisherman and his Fish and The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Warriors. In one of his romances, a hero rescues his lover from the evil magician Chernomor, while in an early novel, loosely based on his own ancestry, Peter the Great adopts a moor. A statue of Peter haunts a hero lost in the streets of Saint Petersburg in one of his poems. Also the author of a work where Lensky is shot in a duel by Tatiana's lover, for 10 points, identify this author of The Bronze Horseman, Ruslan and Ludmila, and Eugene Onegin.
Answer: Alexander Pushkin
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In Mamet's American Buffalo, Teach gripes about the stinginess of Gracie and a character of this name. A Wordsworth figure with this name "wanders forth with freedom bold" but goes made after the Youth deserts her. Lycidas commands "look homeward angel, and melt with" this word. One character of this name spends two hours upstairs with Joey without "going the whole hog" after finally meeting her husband Teddy's family in The Homecoming, while another is Rabbit Angstrom's first infidelity. The Old Testament character of this name follows Naomi to Israel and marries Boaz in a namesake book. For 10 points, name this great-grandmother of David.
Answer: Ruth
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A Robert Samuelson article says that this man is a "single-bullet" theorist who ignores cultural factors in his attempt to explain why the same programs work in the West and fail elsewhere. His work has focused on the unmeasured "dead" part of the economy, which has no legally protected way to be invested. He advocates that title rights be given to small assets held by the poor in such books as The Other Path. This former president of the Copper Exporting Countries Organization now leads the Institute for Liberty and Democracy. For 10 points, name this Peruvian author of The Mystery of Capital, who shares his name with an explorer.
Answer: Hernando de Soto
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One of its characters is killed when he doesn't know the name of a farm. After success in Signal Hill, the killer moves on to Little Boston, where he encounters trouble from William Bandy and the Church of the Third Revelation. The soundtrack is comprised of pieces by noted Estonian composer Arvo Part in this film, whose final scene shows adopted, deaf son H.W. leaving beforeEli Sunday is bludgeoned to death with a bowling pin by Daniel Plainview. Including a scene where a man shouts "I drink your milkshake!" and based on Upton Sinclair's Oil!, name, for 10 points, this 2007 film starring Daniel Day-Lewis and directed by P.T. Anderson.
Answer: There Will Be Blood
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Narcissus gave one to Amenias to make him go away, while Aegeus left one of these and a pair of sandals for Theseus when he left his mother. Another one is made from a thread from the cloak of the Virgin Mary, a tooth of St. Peter, a hair of St. Denys, and a drop of St. Basil's blood. Freyr's unnamed one can rain fire onto the world without any action on his part. Sigurd's is named Gram, though the Nibelungenlied renames its Balmung and Wagner further renamed it Nothung. Another one is is returned by Bedyvere to the Lady of the Lake, and is usually considered distinct from the one in the stone. For 10 points, name these pointy weapons, which include Excalibur.
Answer: swords
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In one section of this work, Mr. Okeda catches the narrator having sex with Madame Miyagi while his daughter Makiko watches. In another, the reclusive novelist Silas Flannery is tempted to copy out Crime and Punishment word for word before being apprehended by a woman bearing a work from the no-longer-existent nation of Cimmoria, Outside the town of Malbork. That book had gotten caught up in another that began in a misty railway station. It ends in a library, where the two readers decide to enjoy the process of falling through ten connected novels. For 10 points, that happens in what 1979 meta-fiction novel by Italo Calvino?
Answer: If on a winter's night a traveler [or Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore]
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In the second millennium CE, Randall Davidson was the longest-serving holder of this post, though Bertwald held it for nearly forty years in the seventh century. A third holder also served as Councilor of the Exchequer under Charles I and was infamous for his love of ceremony. Another one wrote a dialogue with Boso to explain why God became human in Cur Deus Homo, while another resisted the constitutions of Clarendon, leading to his inadvertent assassination. It is currently held by a man who made intemperate statements about Sharia law, Rowan Williams. For 10 points, name this post held by the second Saint Augustine, William Laud, and Thomas a Becket.
Answer: Archbishop of Canterbury
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The lower-case version of this symbol can denote the ratio of heat capacity at constant pressure to that at constant temperature, the adiabatic index, while its upper-case version can denote a Christofel symbol or a namesake probability distribution governed by the parameters k and theta. It represents a photon in a Feynman diagram, as well as the quotient of measured time over proper time in relativity equations, the Lorentz factor, and the nuclear emission that results from an annihilation. For 10 points, name this Greek letter that names a function which is a generalization of the factorial and a ray that has a wavelength shorter than x-rays.
Answer: gamma
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The narrator often notes that the owner of this work's central locale was "born a Conflans, no less." In one of its subplots, a doctor raises Rousseau's postulate of willing an old Mandarin to be killed to enrich oneself, in reference to the death of Monsieur Taillefer's as part of a scheme by Jacques Collin. Its title character's epitaph says that he was buried at the expense of two university students, despite being the father-in-law of the Count de Restaud and Baron de Nucingen; their cruelty keeps his daughters away from the Maison Vacquer boarding house, leaving him alone with Eugene Rastignac. For 10 points, name this entry in Balzac's The Human Comedy about a doting father.
Answer: Pere Goriot [or Old Goriot or Father Goriot]
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These organisms may have evolved from Spriggina and Parvancorina, while those of the order Lichida may have had horns. Their earliest order is Redlichiida, which did not have the natant hypostome of the ensuing Ptychopariida and Harpetida types, and the Proetida were the longest-lasting. Though the Agnostina were eyeless, other orders were among the first species to develop complex compound eyes. Containing over 17,000 identified species, they came into existence during the Cambrian period but died off with most other marine species during the Permian-Triassic Extinction. For 10 points, name these small arthropod fossils, named for their three-lobe structures.
Answer: trilobites
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Many of the critical texts on this school were written by Reyner Banham. Unintentional practitioners of this style include Sigurd Lerewentz and Oswald Mathias Ungers, while Stirling and Gowan abandoned the moniker for fear of losing business. Many of the buildings at the Istituto Marchiondi Spagliardi were created by its main Italian proponent, Vittoriano Vigano. A school at Hunstanton is one example of the "new" form of this style championed by Alison and Peter Smithson, who called it "an ethic, not an aesthetic. For 10 points, name this school of architecture based in the barebones designs of Le Corbusier that takes its name from the French word for concrete.
Answer: (New) Brutalism
2008 ACF Regionals Bonuses by Columbia and Temple
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about opponents of the New Deal, for 10 points per part.,
[10] Nicknamed the Kingfish, this Louisiana Senator created the "Share the Wealth" program, with the motto "Every Man a King."
Answer: Huey Long
[10] His radio program praised Hitler and Mussolini and was eventually shut off by his Church superiors. Much like Ron Paul, he was blatantly anti-Semitic, but unlike Ron Paul he railed against the gold standard.
Answer: Father Charles Coughlin
[10] The Agricultural Adjustment Administration was deemed unconstitutional in this 1936 Supreme Court Case, where Owen Roberts wrote the majority opinion on behalf of the anti-New Deal "Four Horsemen."
Answer: United States v. Butler [accept reverse order]
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The seventh is known as "Ysobel" and the tenth is "Dorabella." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this work officially called Variations on an Original Theme for Orchestra, whose best known section is the ninth, known as "Nimrod."
Answer: Enigma Variations
[10] This British composer wrote the Enigma Variations, as well as some Pomp and Circumstance marches.
Answer: Edward Elgar
[10] This concert overture by Elgar was intended as a humorous depiction of London, as it is alternately called In London Town.
Answer: Cockaigne Overture
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Answer these questions about the Greek judges of the dead, for 10 points each.,
[10] This king of Crete imprisoned Daedalus in the labyrinth and called for fourteen young Athenians for tribute to the Minotaur every nine years.
Answer: Minos
[10] This brother of Minos is supposed to judge the souls of Asians in the underworld.
Answer: Rhadamanthus
[10] The third judge was this man, ruler of the island of Aegina and father of Peleus.
Answer: Aeacus
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An elderly waiter finally decides not to give much credence to his conclusion that the world is nada. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this short story, largely set at a cafe with a drunk, deaf patron.
Answer: "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place"
[10] This author wrote "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place;" his other short stories include "The Killers" and several works featuring Nick Adams.
Answer: Ernest Hemingway
[10] In this Hemingway story, a boy prepares to nobly face death until he realizes that a temperature of one hundred is not as fatal in the Fahrenheit scale as it is in Celsius.
Answer: "A Day's Wait"
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For 10 points each, answer some questions about DNA replication.,
[10] This enzyme catalyses the addition of base pairs to the 3-prime end of a growing DNA strand.
Answer: DNA polymerase
[10] Because DNA polymerase can only catalyze the growth of DNA strands from the 5-prime to the 3-prime direction, one of the two strands forms these short pieces, which are later joined together by ligase.
Answer: Okazaki fragments
[10] Replication in chloroplasts and mitochondria is given this name based on the structure found at the start site, which is defined as a region where double stranded DNA is separated, with a third strand between them.
Answer: D-Loop [or displacement loop]
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By the end of the twelfth century, this thirty-one-syllable form had overcome the choka as the dominant type of waka. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Japanese poetic genre.
Answer: tanka
[10] Hundreds of tanka are exchanged by Fujitsibo, Kitayama, and other characters in this work by Lady Murasaki Shikibu.
Answer: The Tale of Genji [or Genji Monogatari]
[10] Otomo Yakamochi helped compile 4,500 waka, mostly tanka, into this work during the eight century.
Answer: The Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves [or Collection of Myriad Leaves; or Collection of Myriad Ages; accept further such variants; or Man'yoshu]
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For 10 points each, answer these questions about a general assembly of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire.,
[10] This theological meeting lasted from January 28 to May 25, 1521 in a small town on the Rhine and promised safe passage to Martin Luther.
Answer: Edict of Worms [accept Diet of Worms or Reichstags zu Worms]
[10] This papal bull, with a name meaning "Arise, O Lord," was issued by Pope Leo X, demanding the Luther retract 41 of his 95 theses. When that didn't happen, the Diet of Worms did.
Answer: Exsurge Domine
[10] Luther had previously debated his ideas with this prolific seller of indulgences and inquisitor for Poland.
Answer: Johann Tetzel
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Mystery Science Theater 3000's Satellite of Love takes its name from this album's seventh track. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1973 album that opens with "Vicious."
Answer: Transformer
[10] Transformer was the second solo album by this former leader of the Velvet Underground.
Answer: Lou Reed
[10] This Transformer track invites you to take the title journey with cross-dressing Holly, gigolo Joe, and a chorus of "colored girls" singing "doo doo doo."
Answer: "Walk on the Wild Side"
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His model of cognitive development has four stages. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Swiss child psychologist.
Answer: Jean Piaget
[10] This stage theoretically starts when a child is two years old, and ends when the child is six years old. It sees the development of language.
Answer: preoperational stage
[10] In the preoperational stage, this substage is characterized by the child understanding conservation.
Answer: intuitive stage
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For 10 points each, name these men who served as both Secretary of State and Secretary of War.,
[10] He served as Secretary of War for three years under James Madison, after which he was moved to State. In 1820, William Plummer was the only elector who didn't vote for his re-election as president.
Answer: James Monroe
[10] He served in War under both Taft and FDR, where he supervised the Manhattan Projected. At State under Hoover, he cut funding to cryptography, because "gentlemen do not read each others' mail."
Answer: Henry Stimson
[10] He reorganized the War Department under McKinely, and Roosevelt appointed him to succeed the late John Hay at State. He negotiated an agreement calming diplomatic relations with Japanese ambassador Takahira Kogoro.
Answer: Elihu Root
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If this can be defined on a vector-space, that space is a Banach space. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this quantity that describes the length of a vector.
Answer: norm
[10] For a vector, this type of norm is the square root of the sum of the squares of each of the vector component's complex modulus.
Answer: the L2-norm [accept Euclidian Norm]
[10] An inequality named for this developer of a computer architecture says the norm of a polynomial of a matrix with norm one is less than or equal to the maximum modulus of that polynomial evaluated on the complex unit disk.
Answer: John von Neumann's inequality
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It claimed that movements like New Criticism could not bring about its title effect, leaving behind the interpretative limits imposed by Tchaikovsky's vice and van Gogh's madness. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1967 essay.
Answer: "The Death of the Author"
[10] "The Death of the Author" is by this French structuralist of Mythologies and Writing Degree Zero, whose name kind of sounds like the German theologian who wrote Church Dogmatics.
Answer: Roland Barthes
[10] In Mythologies, Barthes wrote that "the great spectacle of Suffering, Defeat, and Justice" is best seen in this activity, a sport mythologically practiced by Cercyon and Antaeus.
Answer: all-in professional wrestling
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It proposes a method that will best foolish expedients like taxing absentees, promoting thrift, or buying locally-produced goods. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1730 essay, which hopes that the method discussed will incidentally reduce the Catholic population.
Answer: "A Modest Proposal For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland From Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public"
[10] This misanthropic author of Gulliver's Travels and The Drapier's Letters wrote "A Modest Proposal."
Answer: Jonathan Swift
[10] Twenty-seven years earlier, Daniel Defoe made his own satiric modest proposal of killing all of the religious opposition in this pamphlet; most readers thought he was serious.
Answer: "The Shortest Way With Dissenters"
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For 10 points each, answer these questions about art works with something in common.,
[10] This J.S. Copley painting shows a swimming youth about to get bitten by the titular animal off the coast of Havana.
Answer: Watson and the Shark
[10] This Winslow Homer painting, presumably set in a notable current, shows a shirtless black man in a sail-less dinghy, surrounded by sharks.
Answer: The Gulf Stream
[10] A mako shark is suspended in preservatives in this guy's The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living.
Answer: Damien Hirst
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For 10 points each, answer the following about a class of molecules.,
[10] In this type of molecule, a nitrogen atom is doubled-bonded to a carbon, which is double-bonded to a terminal oxygen atom.
Answer: An isocyanate
[10] Di-isocyanates can be polymerized into polyurethane upon reaction with these simple functional groups defined by the presence of an -OH.
Answer: hydroxyl [accept alcohol]
[10] The polyurethane polymerization reaction makes use of these molecules, which lower surface tension.
Answer: surfactants
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It set up a submarine telegraph between England and France in 1851 to more quickly report the news. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this wire news service, founded by a German.
Answer: Reuters
[10] Paul Reuter initially used this method to transmit information across a wire gap between Brussels and Aachen.
Answer: homing pigeons
[10] In 1872, Paul Reuter was given a concession of all of this country's mineral wealth by the Qajar dynasty for sixty years, as well as banking rights, though the concession was soon revoked.
Answer: Iran [accept Persia]
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Its second act ends with a laughing chorus of conspirators who find that Amelia is meeting with her husband Count Anckarstrom, not Gustavo. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this opera that features the aria "Eri tu."
Answer: A Masked Ball [or Un ballo in maschera]
[10] A Masked Ball was composed by this frequent collaborator of Francesco Piave, who also wrote such operas as Rigoletto and Il Trovatore.
Answer: Giuseppe Verdi
[10] King Gustavo was a favored role of this very successful Italian tenor of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who performed its 1904 Italian debut at the Met.
Answer: Enrico Caruso
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It was originally created to show that the extension of a spring is proportional to the force pulling on it. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this law, first stated as F = -kx.
Answer: Hooke's Law
[10] In the generalization of Hooke's law, the spring constant becomes in part this quantity, usually represented by G or mu, which equals its type of stress over strain for a tangential deformation.
Answer: shear modulus [or rigidity]
[10] These types of doubly eponymous solids are generalizations of neo-Hookean solids, which were first introduced to deal with large deformations.
Answer: Mooney-Rivlin solids
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Dr. Pillsbury's attempts to cure the protagonist's insomnia result in him sleeping for 113 years. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1887 experimental novel, in which Julian West wakes up to the socialist utopia that is the United States in the year 2000.
Answer: Looking Backward
[10] This author of Dr. Heidenhoff's Process wrote Looking Backward.
Answer: Edward Bellamy
[10] Named for an important value in socialist political theory, and including the "parable of the water tank," this sequel to Looking Backward incorporates Bellamy's beliefs from the essay "The Religion of Solidarity."
Answer: Equality
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For 10 points each, name these rivers of Russia.,
[10] This major river of the European half of Russia flows east until it reaches Kazan, and then flows south emptying into the Caspian Sea.
Answer: Volga
[10] This river forms part of the boundary between China and Russia before emptying into the Sea of Okhotsk. The Chinese name means "River of the Black Dragon".
Answer: Amur [or Heilongjiang]
[10] This Siberian river flows north past Yakutsk before emptying into the Arctic Ocean.
Answer: Lena
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For 10 points each, answer these questions about Buddhism in Tibet.,
[10] Tibetan Buddhists are currently headed by Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth man to hold this title.
Answer: Dalai Lama
[10] Most Tibetans practice this variant of Mahayana Buddhism that claims that certain meditative practices can allow a quickened path to becoming a bodhisattva.
Answer: Vajrayana [or Tantric Buddhism; or Mantrayana]
[10] Tantric Buddhism largely subsumed and supplanted this local religion during the seventh century. In 1977, it was recognized as the fifth major school of Tibetan Buddhism
Answer: Bon
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Answer the following about a certain substance for 10 points each:,
[10] In astrophysics, this is the matter that does not emit or reflect radiation, which makes up a bout a quarter of the universe.
Answer: dark matter
[10] This type of dark matter is non-baryonic and moves non-relativistically, and is part of the current concordance model of big bang cosmology.
Answer: cold dark matter
[10] This problem, arising from the cold dark matter theory, is related to the idea that large galaxies should be surrounded by hundreds of small galaxies, though observations show otherwise.
Answer: The missing dwarf galaxy problem.
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For 10 points each, name some Kings of England from the House of Wessex.,
[10] Crowned in 978 CE, this king earned his epithet for the ill-counseled moved of paying Danegeld to get rid of Danish invaders.
Answer: Aethelred the Unready [or Aethelred II; prompt on Aethelred]
[10] This king, who ruled between 924 and 939 was the first to be acknowledged as sovereign over all of Britain when he defeated the Scots at Brunanburh in 937.
Answer: Athelstan
[10] This final king of the House of Wessex was killed at Hastings, possibly by getting an arrow through his eye. Sucks to be him.
Answer: Harold Godwinson [or Harold II; prompt on Harold]
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The early deaths of Tom and Hanno help extinguish the title family. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this novel in which a merchant clan declines.
Answer: Buddenbrooks
[10] This author of the novellae The Black Swan and Death in Venice wrote Buddenbrooks, as well as The Magic Mountain.
Answer: Thomas Mann
[10] Subtitled "The Beloved Returns," this 1939 Mann novel is named for a character in The Sorrows of Young Werther and is in fact a fictionalized biography of Goethe.
Answer: Lotte in Weimar

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