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View Packets Tournament Editor
2007 ACF Nationals Tossups by Wayne State
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This king carried on a scandalous affair with the actress Maria Calderona. He made Luis de Haro his chief minister after the expulsion of the man who ran his government for much of his life, Caspar de Guzman. He began the construction of the Buen Retiro palace, which featured the Hall of Realms, which led to this ruler's designation as the "Planet King." The brother of Anne of Austria, he married Elizabeth of Bourbon, the daughter of Henry IV, and his children included the first wife of Louis XIV, Maria Theresa. FTP, name this ruler who was succeeded by Charles II after ruling as the king of Spain from 1621 to 1655.
Answer: Philip IV of Spain (or Philip III of Portugal)
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It is a fundamental constituent in the processes that produce the breast cancer drug Tamoxifen and the anti-inflammatory Naproxen. Reactions involving it are governed by the Schlenk equilibrium, and these reactions often take place in diethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran. The addition of mercuric chloride amalgamates can help to speed up the normally sluggish reactions that form these compounds, which involve adding an alkyl or aryl halide to magnesium. FTP, identify this reagent used in a namesake organometallic reaction to form carbon-carbon bonds, which is named after a French chemist.
Answer: Grignard reagent
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He developed the idea of Hebbian learning independently of Hebb and published his model of the brain in the 1952 work The Sensory Order. Around the same time he opposed excessive reductionism in social science in The Counter-Revolution of Science. He came to eschew explanations of business cycles based on changes in interest rates, and his 1939 book Profits, Interests, and Investments contrasts with earlier work in the Austrian vein like The Pure Theory of Capital. He distanced himself from some of his disciples in Why I am Not a Conservative, which was published as an appendix to The Constitution of Liberty. FTP, name this economist, who argued that collectivism leads to tyranny in The Road to Serfdom.
Answer: Friedrich Hayek
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The attendees at this event included satirist Joseph Hall and Simon Episcopius, who acted as a spokesman for one party. It resulted in a version of the Bible known as the Translation of the States, a version of which remains in the Arquebusiers Armory where this conference was held. Moderated by Bogerman, it set forth the doctrines of perseverance of saints, irresistible grace, total depravity, limited atonement, and unconditional election. These became known as its canons and refuted the five articles of the Remonstrance of 1610, which was drafted by the followers of Arminius. FTP, name this 1618 meeting of Reformed churches in the Netherlands, a synod named for a Dutch town.
Answer: Synod of Dort (or Dordt or Dordrecht)
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In section six of this work, one of the main characters recites a verse from Carolyn Norton's "Bingen on the Rhine." In a previous section one of the characters asks another what type of pie he likes best, in an attempt to assuage his hunger. For a brief moment there is excitement when a man waves his coat, but he is soon swallowed up by the murk as a lighthouse also disappears. First published in Scribner's in 1897, it is based on the author's experience after the steamer Commodore went down. It features four men?a captain, a cook, a reporter, and an oiler?who try to guide the title object to shore. FTP, name this short story about a shipwreck by Stephen Crane.
Answer: "The Open Boat"
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The first skirmish in them was fought on Mount Scorobas, and was followed by battles at Orchomenos and Chaeronea, both defeats for the general Archelaus. The second of them saw Lucius Murena take over the armies of Flavius Fimbria, after the first of these contests had been ended by the Treaty of Dardanus. The third saw an alliance with Tigranes the Great and battles at Cyzicus and Lycus. That conflict involved a commander named Lucius Lucullus, who was replaced by Pompey. FTP, name this series of three wars against the Romans beginning around 90 B.C., named for the King of Pontus who instigated them.
Answer: Mithridatic Wars (or wars of Mithridates VI, I suppose)
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The first recorded discovery of one was made by Pastor David Hermann in Germany in 1706, but they were later described by Hentzen and Barrows. The groundwater table puts a downward limit on their formation, and they generally come in two types; the most rare is the rock variety which are almost exclusively found on mountain peaks. One composed of staurolite, ilmenite, and rutile was discovered at Camp Blanding, and African ones often contain Lechatelier-ite. Their formation requires a dry dielectric overlying a more conducting soil layer, and their interior may feature blister-like bubbles and roots, while their exterior is usually composed of coarse sand particles. FTP, name these rare geological formations, hollow glass tubes created by the super-heating of sand when it is struck by lightning.
Answer: fulgurites (or fulqurites)
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The construction of this building was documented by the black and white photographs of Max Dupain. Two large murals were commissioned for it, one by Michael Jagamara and the "Salute to Five Bells" by John Olsen. A section of it is known as the Wobbly Land for its U-shaped timber paneling. Architectural breakthroughs included the use of telescoping erection arches to avoid scaffolding and epoxy resin to bond rib segments. When Jorn Utzon resigned as the main architect, its construction was thrown into controversy. FTP, name this building on Bennelong Point, a performing arts venue in Australia noted for its distinctive roof.
Answer: Sydney Opera House
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In the third act of this work, one character asks "Am I the bosom Snake, that sucks thy warm Life-Blood, and gnaws thy heart?" A captain of the guards named Perez escorts various people, one of whom laments the loss of his friend Heli, though they soon meet in prison. Garcia is the noble son of Gonsalez and Leonora is the faithful servant of the main character, a daughter of King Manuel of Granada named Almeria, who is contrasted with the captive queen Zara. This work notably asserts that "heaven has no rage like love to hatred turned, nor Hell a fury like a woman scorned," and its opening line claims that "musick has charms to soothe a savage breast." FTP, name this 1697 work, the lone tragedy of William Congreve.
Answer: The Mourning Bride
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Although this mythological figure falls victim to the spell of the Golden Bowl, another story describes this deity using a magic bag to escape from an unwanted marriage. That feat allowed her to marry her first consort, a man who would later punish her by sending her to the court of Arberth. Described as the "Mistress of Birds," she left her father, Heyfed the Old, and had an adventure that ended with King Teyrnon discovering and adopting her missing son. Often cited as the Welsh manifestation of the Gaulish Epona, FTP, identify this Celtic goddess, the wife of Pwyll and mother of Pryderi, who made her first appearance dressed in gold and riding a white steed.
Answer: Rhiannon
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Off the eastern coast of this nation is the barren island of Masirah, and just inland is the Oryx Sanctuary, a scenic biological preserve. The south is indented by Kuria Muria Bay and the north sees the Al Hajar Mountains, but its northernmost point is the Musandam Peninsula, which is separated from the rest of the nation and off-limits to tourists for military reasons. Its major cities include Suhar, Nizwa, and Mirbat. Its namesake gulf extends from the Strait of Hormuz to the Arabian Sea. FTP, name this nation whose capital is Muscat, a country surrounded by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
Answer: Oman
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Stimulation of cells to produce this hormone is a long process when compared to others due to its dependence on cyclic AMP for stimulation of transcription. When at extremely high levels, it causes a syndrome of diabetes, gallstones, and inhibited stomach acid secretion. Modificatons in synthetic forms of this hormone include an ethylene bridge to replace a disulfide bridge, and is used in patients with carcinoid syndrome and acromegaly. Present in two forms - one with 14 amino acids and another with 28, the longer form is secreted by the pancreas where it inhibits glucagon and insulin. FTP, name this hormone whose shorter form is primarily produced in the anterior hypothalamus and carried to the anterior pituitary where it inhibits the release of growth hormone.
Answer: somatostatin or somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone
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This composer ventured into comic opera with Le Filibustier, based on a Jean Richepin play, which premiered under the title By the Sea. His first numbered opus, which was dedicated to his wife Malvina Bamberg, was a piano duet based on letters in her name, while his opus 50, "Kaleidoscope," features the "Orientale." He wrote several works on military fortifications, but he is better known for a three-act opera based on a tragedy by Heinrich Heine, William Ratcliff, and his opera The Prisoner of the Caucasus, one of several of his works based on Pushkin. FTP, name this Russian composer regarded as the most minor member of The Five.
Answer: Cesar Antonovich Cui
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George Bradley's collection The Fire Fetched Down contains one of these written for Douglas Crase. The first "digression" in this work concludes that man's labor is integral to realizing the will of the gods, while later the poet talks of love in terms of lust and reproduction. Perhaps based on a work by Nicander of Colophon, commentators have focused on the passages referred to as the "Praises of Italy" and the closing epyllions to this work, which discuss the nymph Cyrene and the myth of Aristaeus as well as the tale of Orpheus and Eurydice. Written in honor of its author's patron Maecenas, the fourth and final book concerns beekeeping. FTP, name this didactic poem by Virgil ostensibly about agriculture.
Answer: Georgics
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This man, who was given the Indian name "Horse Chief of the Long Knives," fought alongside Captain Archibald Gillespie against Andres Pico at the Battle of San Pasquale. Named commander of the Army of the West by President Polk, he promulgated a famous "code" stabilizing conditions in New Mexico and granting equal citizenship to Californios. He quarreled with Robert Stockton and had John C. Fremont arrested after establishing himself as governor and commander-in-chief of California. FTP, name this cavalry commander of the Mexican War, an uncle of the Civil War general Philip and the namesake of two forts in Nebraska.
Answer: Stephen Watts Kearny
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This physical law may be used to modify the Freedman-Clauser experiments, and can be extended from its usual application to quantum spin systems. One form results in an equation with a term proportional to one-half times the speed of light times the permittivity of free space times the magnitude of electric field squared. Alternately, this equation may be set equal to the cosine-squared of the angle between the polarization direction of light and the transmission axis of the polarizer. FTP, name this law of optics which gives the intensity of light transmitted when a polarizer is placed in front of an incident beam.
Answer: Malus's Law
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This author writes of a man who needs to visit his sick mother but is prevented by silly obstacles in "The Face and the Image," and tells of a desperately hungry man charged with delivering the letters of a doctor before the post office closes in "A Whole Loaf," which are contained in his Twenty-One Stories. The author of the collection At the Handles of the Lock and the novel A Guest for the Night, one of his more famous novels concerns a man berated by his wife Frummet who at last discovers treasure after seeking dowry to marry off his daughters. FTP, name this author of the novels Yesteryear and The Bridal Canopy, a Nobel winner with Nelly Sachs and a major figure of 20th-century Hebrew literature.
Answer: Shmuel Yosef Agnon
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In one episode, a character debates whether he slept with Bobbi Bernstein at a hotel in Spain and fears that something bad will happen, like in the Three Dog Night song "Eli's Coming." In the last episode, Calvin Trager, the owner of Quo Vadimus, buys out Continental Corp and utters a line about getting out of the money-making business, a clear jab at the unjust cancellation of this show. Dana rushes back and informs the gang, after which Jeremy and Natalie go about their business. Briefly re-aired on Comedy Central, it was called the "best sitcom of the `90s" by two of its stars, Peter Krause and Felicity Huffman. FTP, name this Aaron Sorkin show on ABC about a TV program devoted to athletics.
Answer: Sports Night
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This battle saw the implementation of the horseshoe formation directed by the French strategist Letellieu, and commanders involved in it include Login Geiden, who was left with a small squadron when Senyavin departed for the Baltic. He fought alongside Henri de Rigny and Sir Edward Codrington, who won his final major victory here. It occurred about six months after the signing of the secret Treaty of London. After it, the losing force had its fortresses in the Morea seized, thus completing the defeat of Ibrahim Pasha and Mahmud II. FTP, name this 1827 battle in the Greek War for Independence, a naval defeat for the Ottomans at the namesake bay.
Answer: Battle of Navarino
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The autobiography of Frederick Locker Lampson is discussed in the second chapter of this work, "Circumscription of the Topic," which also contrasts the Stoicism of Marcus Aurelius with an anonymous 14th-century German work. The concept of "heterogenous personality" is discussed in a section on "The Divided Self," which precedes a discussion of the views of Edwin Starbuck and James Leuba, who quibbled with the author over this work's concepts of "mysticism" and "conversion." Consisting of twenty lectures delivered as the author's Gifford Lectures, FTP, name this 1902 text by William James which is a "description of man's religious constitution."
Answer: The Varieties of Religious Experience
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This man married his secretary, the Austrian-born Emilie Schenkl, and wrote a series of published letters to her. For a time, he went by the name Mohammad Ziauddin as a traveling insurance inspector, and was aided by a passport from Count Orlando Mazzotta. He formed a separate party known as the Forward Bloc and controversy still surrounds his supposed death in a plane crash over Taiwan, since there are reasons to suspect he was in Russia at the time. He set up a provisional government known as the Azad Hind from which this man, also known as Netaji, commanded the Indian National Army. FTP, name this Indian nationalist who opposed the British during World War II and advocated violence, unlike Nehru and Gandhi.
Answer: Subhash Chandra Bose (or Netaji before mentioned)
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This artist depicted Judith against a serene mountainous landscape in flowing red dress with a tree rising over her left shoulder. Little remains of the frescoes he painted for the exterior of the Fondaco dei Tedeschi or the German Warehouse, which is now the Post Office in Venice. Other works attributed to him include a canvas dubbed The Three Philosophers perhaps completed by del Piombo, a Madonna in his home town of Castelfranco, and the Sleeping Venus. His best known work features a huddled woman in white sitting on a rock across from an upright soldier in red posed against a threatening sky. FTP, name this Italian painter of The Tempest.
Answer: Giorgione or Giorgio Barbarelli (or Giorgio da Castelfranco before mentioned)
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The chapters of this novel are separated by the enigmatic quotations of Reverend Henry Callaway. After the main character is forced to ride coach on a plane and the hand of a teenage girl brushes against his thigh, he fondles her at length for the rest of the flight. The book ends with a procession to rebury an unknown dead man found in a field, with whom Solomon identifies after being beaten. Other characters include Bismillah, who is part of a family of Indian shopkeepers, and Jacobus, a crafty black overseer, but the main focus is on Mehring, a wealthy farm owner with a sense of racial superiority. FTP, name this novel by Nadine Gordimer whose title suggests a figure who loves the environment.
Answer: The Conservationist
 
2007 ACF Nationals Bonuses by Wayne State
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Identify the following from physical chemistry FTPE.,
[10] This law states that the vapor pressure of each chemical component in an ideal solution is dependent on the vapor pressure of the individual component and the mole fraction of each component in the solution.
Answer: Raoult's law
[10] This quantity is a calculation of the tendency of a substance to prefer one phase of matter over another. The phase with the lowest value of this quantity will be the most thermodynamically favorable.
Answer: fugacity
[10] This equation describes the relationship between changes in chemical potential for components in a system. It relates the number of moles and the incremental increase in chemical potential to the entropy, temperature, volume and pressure.
Answer: Gibbs-Duhem equation
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The main plot follows an Aguaruna Indian girl named Bonifacia who doesn't take to being a nun and instead becomes a whore adopting the name La Selvatica. FTPE:,
[10] Name this 1966 novel, in which the title brothel is rebuilt after burning to the ground.
Answer: The Green House (or La Casa Verde)
[10] The Green House is an early work by this Peruvian better known for Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter.
Answer: Mario Vargas Llosa
[10] This earlier Vargas Llosa work is set at his alma mater, the Leoncio Prado military school, and sees a cadet nicknamed the Slave tattle on a gang led by Jaguar after Cava steals an exam.
Answer: The Time of the Hero (or La Ciudad y los Perros)
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Name these 19th-century Italian operas, FTPE:,
[10] In this opera by Umberto Giordano, the title character duels with fellow revolutionary Gerard for the hand of Maddalena.
Answer: Andrea Chenier
[10] This opera which includes the Anvil Chorus features the gypsy Azucena and Manrico, who is the brother of the Count di Luna.
Answer: Il Trovatore (or The Troubador)
[10] This verismo opera sees the main character, who was based on an 18th-century French actress, die after kissing poisoned violets.
Answer: Adriana Lecouvreur
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They were named for named for a kingdom in southern India ruled by the Wodeyar dynasty. FTPE:,
[10] Name this series of four wars ending in 1799. At the end, the British defeated Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan and annexed much of their land.
Answer: Mysore Wars (or Anglo-Mysore Wars)
[10] The Mysore Wars must not be confused with this series of three wars fought from 1746 to 1763 between the British and French over the eastern coast of India.
Answer: Carnatic Wars
[10] This man commanded a force in the last Mysore War and became governor of Seringapatam and Mysore, but is better known for leading the victorious forces at the Battle of Waterloo.
Answer: Arthur Wellesley, the 1st Duke of Wellington (accept either))
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Answer the following about Wales, FTPE.,
[10] This city is traversed by the Rivers Taff and Ely, and is the capital of Wales.
Answer: Cardiff
[10] The Severn River flows into this channel which separates Wales from southern England. It is named for a British city nearby which has a floating harbour.
Answer: Bristol Channel
[10] The westernmost point of Wales is separated from Ireland by this channel, which is the southern exit of the Irish Sea into the Atlantic Ocean.
Answer: St. George's Channel
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Name these Sinclair Lewis novels, FTPE.,
[10] This sordid tale is about a woman born in Waubanakee, Illinois who goes east to Point Royal College for Women, sleeps with a New York judge named Barney Dolphin, and fights for suffrage and prison reform.
Answer: Ann Vickers
[10] This novel is the story of Carol Kennicott, who marries a doctor and moves to the small town of Gopher Prairie.
Answer: Main Street
[10] In this 1947 novel set in Grand Republic, World War II veteran Neil and his wife Vestal are bigots who ultimately discover that their family genealogy can be traced to a black man named Xavier Pic.
Answer: Kingsblood Royal
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Answer the following about cellular transport, FTPE.,
[10] Along with COP I and COP II, this protein coats transport vesicles, assembling into basketlike lattices. Regions of the plasma membrane containing receptors taken up by endocytosis have so-called pits coated by this protein.
Answer: clathrin
[10] COPII-coated vesicles participate in transport to the Golgi apparatus from this organelle.
Answer: endoplasmic reticulum or ER
[10] Unlike kinesin, this motor protein moves microtubules toward the minus end. With tubulin and nexin, it forms the nine plus two arrangement in the axonemes of cilia and flagella.
Answer: dynein
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Answer the following about Hegelians in the 19th century, FTPE:,
[10] A school of American Hegelians, which was led by William Torrey Harris and Henry Conrad Brokmeyer, promulgated its views from this Midwestern city.
Answer: St. Louis
[10] This author of "Theses on Feuerbach" who soon broke with the Young Hegelians quotes Hegel's idea that all great historical facts and personages appear twice at the beginning of his "Eighteenth Brumaire."
Answer: Karl Marx
[10] In the first of the Untimely Meditations, Nietzsche attacks this German theologian and philosopher who became famous for his 1835 book The Life of Jesus Critically Examined.
Answer: David Strauss
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He discussed the lessening reliance on exchange of currency and the de-synchronization of institutions in his recent book Revolutionary Wealth, which was written with his wife Heidi. FTPE:,
[10] Name this sociologist whose other works include War and Anti-War and The Third Wave.
Answer: Alvin Toffler
[10] The Third Wave was the sequel to this 1970 work by Alvin Toffler, which posited that information overload would contribute to the title phenomenon, resulting from too much technological change in too little time.
Answer: Future Shock
[10] Another important futurist is this Harvard sociologist who wrote about The Coming of Post-Industrial Society in 1973, while his most famous work described The End of Ideology.
Answer: Daniel Bell
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He painted Archimedes as a toothless Spaniard with a long beard, and his The Clubfooted Boy is in the Louvre. FTPE:,
[10] Name this 17th-century painter dubbed Lo Spagnaletto, who is best known for his canvas The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.
Answer: Jose de Ribera (or Jusepe de Ribera)
[10] Like Ribera, this painter did a noted Adoration of the Shepherds, along with scenes of the life of St. Peter Nolasco for a convent in Seville, The Apotheosis of St. Thomas Aquinas, and a St. Serapion.
Answer: Francisco de Zurbaran
[10] Both Zurbaran and Ribera were inspired by this earlier artist of the recently discovered Dormition of the Virgin and the less-recently discovered View of Toledo.
Answer: El Greco (or Domenikos Theotokopoulos)
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Name these Sons of Liberty, FTPE.,
[10] This doctor and leader of the Massachusetts government drafted the Suffolk Resolves, sent Paul Revere on his mission, and supposedly declined the command at Bunker Hill, where he died from a musket ball to the head.
Answer: Joseph Warren
[10] This organizer of the Boston tea party founded the Sons of Liberty as such with Hancock, and also brewed some beer.
Answer: Sameul Adams (prompt on "Adams")
[10] This Barnstable patriot attacked the Writs of Assistance as Advocate-General, but is better remembered for allegedly saying that taxation without representation is tyranny.
Answer: James Otis
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Answer the following about Lev Landau, FTPE.,
[10] Landau built off his work on second-order phase transitions to describe a model of superconductivity which is named for him and this fellow Soviet physicist.
Answer: Vitaly Ginzburg
[10] In QED, the Landau pole is the point at which this value blows up as a function of the energy of virtual photons being exchanged. Denoted alpha, it characterizes the strength of electromagnetic interaction.
Answer: fine structure constant
[10] The Landau-Hopf theory is an incorrect explanation of this phenomenon, which posits that a fluid develops increasing numbers of Fourier modes.
Answer: turbulence
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He composed the poem "Pax Gulielmi" in honor of the Peace of Ryswick and wrote a "Letter From Italy" to Charles Montagu. FTPE:,
[10] Name this author of the play The Drummer who wrote "those who paint them truest praise them most" to conclude his poem "The Campaign."
Answer: Joseph Addison
[10] Joseph Addison is better known for this 1713 play, a tragedy in five acts set at Utica.
Answer: Cato
[10] Addison is even better remembered for starting this newspaper with Richard Steele after he had contributed to the Tatler.
Answer: The Spectator
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Name these battles of World War I, FTPE.,
[10] This battle fought from October to November of 1914 saw Falkenhayn attack the lines at Menin Road in dogged trench warfare against the French.
Answer: First Battle of Ypres (prompt on "Ypres")
[10] Falkenhayn was eventually replaced by Hindenburg and Ludendorff in this battle, which lasted for most of 1916. French commanders during it included Henri Petain and Robert Nivelle, who declared "They shall not pass."
Answer: Battle of Verdun
[10] The Battle of Caporetto is sometimes considered the twelfth battle of this river in modern Slovenia; the battles at this location were fought from June 1915 to November 1917.
Answer: Isonzo River
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Answer this bull crap about Greek myth, FTPE.,
[10] A white bull was sent to this king by Poseidon as a sign of support for his rule, but he refused to sacrifice it and his wife Pasiphae was struck with lust as punishment.
Answer: Minos
[10] This daughter of Nycteus was tormented by Dirce, the wife of King Lycus, until she fled. Her sons Amphion and Zethus took revenge by tying Dirce to the horns of a mad bull.
Answer: Antiope
[10] Pliny the Elder was the first to spot this creature which roamed Ethiopia as a bull covered in scales. As its Greek name indicates, it only looks downward because of its heavy head, which is fortunate as its gaze is deadly.
Answer: Catoblepas
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They were formed in response to the decision of the fourth Rashidun to negotiate with a governor of Syria. FTPE:,
[10] Name this first Islamic sect, which still exists as the modern-day Ibadis.
Answer: the Kharijites
[10] The Kharijites formed in the aftermath of this indecisive 658 battle, in which the Umayyads and Hashimites fought to a draw.
Answer: Siffin
[10] This husband of Muhammad's daughter Fatima was the caliph whose interest in arbitration really annoyed the Kharijites, and he was assassinated by one of them at Kufa.
Answer: Ali
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Answer the following about numbered things in Buddhism, FTPE.,
[10] Jealousy will get you reborn into this one of the six realms, named for the group of wicked warlike deities. The same word is used in Hinduism for the group opposed to the devas.
Answer: asuras
[10] The first of these teaches that all of life is suffering and the last provides the way to end that suffering.
Answer: Four Noble Truths
[10] These are the five aggregates or bundles that compose the ego of a person, including form, feeling, perceptions, concept and consciousness.
Answer: skandhas (accept khandhas)
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Answer the following about a Harlem Renaissance author, FTPE.,
[10] His first volume of verse, Color, was released in 1923, while his prose works include My Lives and How I Lost Them and One Way to Heaven.
Answer: Countee Cullen
[10] In this work Countee Cullen ponders God's intentions and decides that it is a curious thing to "To make a poet black, and bid him sing."
Answer: "Yet Do I Marvel"
[10] This volume of poetry, which includes such works as "Threnody for the Brown Girl" and "From the Dark Tower," aroused the ire of black intellectuals because of a perception that Cullen had abandoned his focus on the politics of race.
Answer: Copper Sun
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An X-ray detector on the BeppoSAX satellite observed these in 1997, and their afterglows have been more recently studied by the Swift satellite. FTPE:,
[10] Name these brief but intense emissions of high-energy photons classified as being of long or short duration.
Answer: gamma ray bursts (or GRBs)
[10] The afterglow spectrum of GRBs can be modeled by this type of radiation, emitted by electrons orbiting in a storage ring with the acceleration of charged particles through magnetic fields in a curved path.
Answer: synchrotron radiation
[10] GRBs were first detected by this set of U.S. satellites launched in the 1960s to ensure compliance with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. An advanced generation of them contained bhangmeters, and they became responsible for a nuclear incident during the Carter administration.
Answer: Vela satellites
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He appointed the first Constable of France Alberic and was opposed by men like Ivo of Chartres. FTPE:,
[10] Name this fourth Capetian king of France, the son of Henry I, who ruled from 1060 to 1108 when he was succeeded by his son Louis VI.
Answer: Philip I
[10] Pope Urban II didn't much care for Philip I after his repudiation of Bertha of Holland, and so he excommunicated him at this 1095 council, which also called the First Crusade.
Answer: Council of Clermont
[10] This woman, Philip's mother, ruled briefly while serving as regent for him. She was the daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, the great ruler of the Kievan Rus.
Answer: Anne of Kiev

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