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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 ACF Nationals Tossups by MIT
Average difficulty: 6Average quality: 4Category: History
One ruler of this dynasty negotiated the Peace of Amasya with a western neigbhor. A later leader hired Sir Robert Sherley, who restructured the army into the divisions of ghulams, tofongchis, and topchis. This dynasty came to power by defeating the Ak Koyunlu, or White Sheep, and, after it won the Battle of Merv, this dynasty's founder used Shaibani's skull as a goblet. Shortly before its fall, this dynasty's capital was seized by Mahmud Khan, the leader of the Ghilzai; earlier, Selim the Grim had captured another of this dynasty's capitals by winning the Battle of Chaldiran. Its court at Esfahan was established by Shah Abbas I, while its founder ruled from Tabriz as Ismail I and came to power with the backing of the Qizilbash. For 10 points, name this dynasty which made Iran a Shia state and was ultimately overthrown in 1736 by Nadir Shah and the Afsharids.
Answer: Safavid Dynasty
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One polity featured in this series remembers the fourteenth-century defeat of Baron Staszrvitch with the motto, ``Eih bennek, eih blavek.'' That place uses Cyrillic orthography but has a language closely resembling the Marols dialect of French. Mineral water near Klow and uranium around Sprodj figure into this series, which at one points depicts an elaborate plot by the Iron Guards to depose King Muskar XII in favor of Musstler, the dictator of Borduria. King Ottokar's Sceptre is protected by the title character during an adventure in Syldavia, while his other adventures often involve the detectives Thomson and Thomson, the near-deaf Professor Calculus, or a man with a repertoire of nonsensical insults, Captain Haddock. For 10 points, name this comic series created by Herge in which the dog Snowy also tags along with the namesake teenage Belgian reporter.
Answer: The Adventures of Tintin [or Les Aventures de Tintin]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In one of this man's novels, the narrator's face becomes scarred after being splashed with liquid oxygen, and he decides to seduce his wife wearing a realistic mask. In one of his plays, a miner is murdered and the heads of two unions investigate. Besides The Face of Another and Pitfall, this man wrote a play in which the titular object contains the ancestors of a character's husband, The Suitcase, and a novel in which the main character discovers radishes growing on his shins, Kangaroo Notebook. A man decides to wear a cardboard box over his head at all times in his The Box Man, while Professor Katsumi writes a computer program that predicts children will be genetically engineered to live in the ocean in his Inter Ice Age 4. In another of this man's novels, Niki Junpei is trapped in a pit by the titular widow. For 10 points, name this Japanese author of Woman in the Dunes.
Answer: Kobo Abe [or Kimifusa Abe]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Some of his most recent work, such as the Luxury Hotel, the Hesperia Tower, and the remodeling of Las Arenas, which converted an old bullring into a mall, has been done in Barcelona. His civic commissions include a structure whose primary components are three egg shaped vessels that recall Kentish oast-buildings and now houses the law courts of Bordeaux. He also oversaw the construction of a building primarily made up of cylinders and glass to house the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. Closer to home, he counts the Senedd building for the National Assembly for Wales and the Lloyd's Building in London as successes, though the Millenium Dome turned out to be another matter. His breakthrough project was completed in 1976 and relies on color coding to highlight the exposed heating and air conditioning funnels running throughout. For 10 points, identify this British architect who designed the Centre Pompidou with Renzo Piano.
Answer: Richard Rogers
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In DNA, these are speculated to open a transcription bubble for RNA polymerase, and, in alpha-helix proteins, a variety results from self-trapping of quanta of the amide-I vibration via interaction with soft longitudinal phonons. These Davydov quasiparticles were thought to be responsible for transport of energy from ATP, but W. C. Kerr showed that the original model cannot work at biologically relevant temperatures, while the Kerr effect allows these to appear in optical materials. In the Sine-Gordon equation, these are ``kink'' and ``anti-kink'' solutions, and Adam Cohen showed in 2003 how they can describe DNA hairpins in high AC fields. For 10 points, name these nondispersive wave solutions to nonlinear equations, first observed as ``waves of translation'' in a Scottish canal.
Answer: soliton
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
A revered leader of this party was a Baptist minister who established a provincial health care system that earned him the name "father of socialized medicine in" the country where this party operates. This party has part of its origins in the Non-Partisan League of North Dakota and in labor unions, as reflected in the fact that labor unions are given one quarter of its convention delegates. A major victory for this party was the surprise 1990 election of Bob Rae, but after a recession sapped their popularity, they dropped into third place in the 1995 elections in Ontario. Once led by the winner of a CBC poll for "Greatest Canadian," Tommy Douglas, this party is now headed by Jack Layton and has exerted influence during the recent string of minority governments, despite competing for the leftist vote with the Greens. For 10 points, name this Canadian political party, currently the fourth-largest in Parliament after the Liberals, Conservatives, and Bloc Quebecois.
Answer: New Democratic Party [or NDP; or Nouveau Parti Democratique]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The forests in this province were used to train Japanese troops for jungle warfare during World War II. During the 1980's, tax incentives to attract foreign investments were put in place here, making it the largest of its country's Special Economic Zones. The country which rules it claims that the Paracel Islands are part of this province. Just to the southeast of this province is Monkey Island, and it contains two large inland bodies of water, the Songtoo and Niululing reservoirs. In 1950, Communist landings here, launched from the nearby Leizhou Peninsula, deprived the Nationalists of one of their last possessions outside Taiwan. For 10 points, name this province, an island on the Gulf of Tonkin, the southernmost in China.
Answer: Hainan
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One character in this play speaks of a man who forbade a horse-groomer from greasing the teeth of his horses in order to teach him how to do so. Another scene sees the protagonist declare that a woman who "wants wit in a corner" "has it nowhere." A scene in this work, in which one character describes his china collection, is discussed by in a later play by the same dramatist that includes the characters of Olivia and Eliza. In another scene in this play, a group of women, including Lady Fidget, meet to drink, during which it is revealed that every member of the group is having sex with the same man. One subplot involves Alithea, who is originally engaged to Sparkish, but, after being caught in a compromising situation, leaves him for Harcourt. Another character in this play pretends to be a eunuch. Pinchwife brings Margery, the titular character, to London, after which she has an affair with Harry Horner in, for 10 points, what play by William Wycherley?
Answer: The Country Wife
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This effect is behind the arrangement of polystyrene nanoparticles in hexagonal lattices and straight lines on silicon dioxide, and it can occur in layers that are too thin to exhibit Rayleigh-Benard convection. It also leads to instability in Langmuir monolayers, and, according to Pearson, those instabilities occur when its namesake's number is greater than eighty. This effect is responsible for the unusual deposition of solutes at the center of an evaporating drop of liquid, and for the stability of soap films. James Thompson first described this effect in a paper explaining that a gradient in alcohol content causes droplets to form above the surface making tears of wine. For 10 points, name this effect in which liquid flows according to differences in surface tension.
Answer: Gibbs-Marangoni effect [or Marangoni convection]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One story involving these mythological beings describes how a dog, a pheasant, and a monkey accompanied a boy born from a peach to their island and defeated them. Persons representing these creatures are symbolically driven away to welcome the start of Spring during the holiday Setsubun. Two of their kind ride around in a chariot of fire and assist Emma-Daio, the Buddhist God of the Underworld, by collecting people's souls. Primarily opposed by Shoki and usually shown wearing the skin of a tiger, they form a group of creatures also referred to as the bakemono, along with such other malevolent spirits as the kappa and the tengu. Usually represented as cruel and lecherous, for 10 points, identify these giant horned demons of Japanese mythology.
Answer: The oni
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This thinker distinguished between theories about the actual world, or "models of," and theories about theoretical worlds, or "models for." This social scientist described the "Doctrine of the Exemplary Center" in a book which uses the figures of Lyusi and Kalidjaga to represent different forms of religious belief. This anthropologist defined descriptions of cultural events that use the particular language of those events as "local knowledge." He argued that anthropological relativism is based on data and warned against retreating into provincialism in his lecture "Anti-Anti-Relativism." This anthropologist defined religion as a "system of symbols" in Religion as a Cultural System, and used Gilbert Ryle's example of the distinction between an involuntary twitch and a deliberate wink to illustrate his concept of "thick description." For 10 points, name this anthropologist who used the Balinese cockfight to explain his concept of "deep play."
Answer: Clifford Geertz
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One author from this country described the freezing of Mientus's face as the result of a "duel of grimaces" with Siphon. That writer from this country spent two decades in Argentina attempting to make a Spanish translation of one of his novels and composing an account of his exile entitled Trans-Atlantyk. That writer from this country included the story ``The Rat'' in his Memoirs of a Time of Immaturity and also described the suitor of Zutka, a thirty-year old man named Johnnie, who is abducted by his old schoolmaster, Professor Pimko, and returned to the classroom. This country is home to the author of Kosmos, Pornografia, and Ferdydurke, as well as the author of patriotic historical fiction such as Without Dogma, The Deluge, and With Fire and Sword. For 10 points, identify this homeland of the man who wrote the Roman-set religious novel Quo Vadis?, Henryk Sienkiewicz, as well as Witold Gombrowicz.
Answer: Poland
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
His landscapes include The Valley of the Loue in Stormy Weatherand The Torrent, which depicts a stream in the Jura mountains. He painted a young woman nodding off at the wheel in The Sleeping Spinner, while Meyer Schapiro suggested that he was influenced by images d'Epinal, prints circulated in the countryside, in an essay on this man and ``popular imagery.'' That influence can be seen in the frieze-like composition of Enterrement and in his self-styling as the Wandering Jew in The Meeting. An extrovert, he depicted himself in numerous works such as Self-portrait with a dog and Self-portrait as a desparate man. He created a painting of two naked women cavorting in Sleep and he called his close-up of Jo Hiffernan's genitals The Origin of the World. Two young girls play next to a man sitting on a step in a portrait of his friend Proudhon, who also appears along with Champfleury, George Sand, and himself, in a huge painting subtitled An Allegory of the Last Seven Years of My Artistic Life. For 10 points, name this painter of The Artist's Studio and The Stonebreakers.
Answer: Gustave Courbet
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The cobalt ion is a competitive inhibitor of the CorA system for transporting this ion across cell membranes. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are thought to work by displacing this ion in the active site of the hammerhead ribozyme. In yeast, a defect in MSR2, which transports this ion into the mitochondria, leads to abnormal RNA splicing. Unlike the AMPA receptor, the NMDA receptor is blocked by this ion, and its voltage-dependent removal allows a similarly-shaped ion to enter the cell. This ion also functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerases, so its chloride salt is added to PCR mixtures. For 10 points, name this divalent cation at the center of the porphyrin ring in chlorophyll.
Answer: magnesium cation [or Mg2+ or Mg++]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This work quotes Montaigne on how much easier it is to accuse than to excuse and Engels on the shift from a regime based on community ownership to one on private property; a shift which its author claims coincided with the application of tools, the domination of nature, and subsequent social differentiation.This work asserts that the determinism of psychoanalysis must be rejected in Part I, which is divided into three chapters, ``Biology,'' ``Psychology,'' and ``History.''Part II, On the Master Slave Rebellion, argues for an existentialist perspective to understand how the supremacy of one group developed.Its Introduction disputes the nominalism of Dorothy Parker's contemporary call for equality and outlines this work's true goal, which is to explore how the concept of ``the eternal feminine evolved.'' For 10 points, identify this book that posited the evolution of woman as ``the other,'' a 1949 work by Simone de Beauvoir.
Answer: The Second Sex
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
A Communist group in this country once assassinated the chairwoman of its Red Cross because she was the widow of a detested former president. Forces of this country, which was the subject of the Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation, were killed during an outnumbered stand at the Battle of Tirad Pass after a constitution for this country was ratified at the Malolos Congress. A war fought in this country saw one general order "kill everyone over the age of ten" and lingered on as the Moro Rebellion. This country was also the site of the Balangiga Massacre, during a war in which the Taft Commission acted as its legislature. The Tydings-McDuffie Act made this country independent, over thirty years after the Macabebe Scouts acted at Palanan to help Frederick Funston capture Emilio Aguinaldo. For 10 points, name this country which rebelled for independence, first against Spain and then against the United States, decades before it was ruled by Ferdinand Marcos.
Answer: Republic of the Philippines [or Republika ng Pilipinas]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This composer's works for piano include a Fantasia on a theme of Hummel as well as the songs ``The Pretty Girl No Longer Loves Me'' and ``The Sea Princess.'' This composer relied extensively on syncopation and dotted rhythms in his Symphony No. 1, in E flat major. In another work, composed in D major, this composer represented himself as the cello and his wife Ekaterina as the first violin. That piece, the second of his two string quartets, preceded this man's Petite Suite, which was edited and orchestrated by Glazunov. Although he died before he could complete a third symphony, he did finish a certain ``musical picture,'' for the anniversary of Alexander II, that sought to depict a caravan moving across the deserts of an exotic title location. For 10 points, identify this composer of the Polovtsian Dances, Prince Igor, and In the Steppes of Central Asia.
Answer: Alexander Borodin
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In one of this man's novels, Evelith Strange must decide whether to leave her social position for love and whether to accompany Aristides back to his home country. In another, Angus Beaton loves Alma Leighton, who is his rival for the position of illustrator. In addition to writing about what would happen before the ``real grasshopper'' could be appreciated, this man is responsible for such works as The Lady of the Aroostook and The Minister's Charge. Another of his works sees a one-armed socialist beaten to death by police and Conrad killed by an errant bullet while trying to intervne. He also wrote a novel in which Ben Halleck is unsure of whether he should propose and Marcia retreat to her father's home in Equity, Maine, following the escape to Arizona of Bartley Hubbard. This man also wrote about Basil March publishing the magazine ``Every Other Week'' during a streetcar strike and the love triangle between Tom Corey and the sisters Irene and Penelope Lapham. For 10 points, name this author of A Modern Instance, A Hazard of New Fortunes, and The Rise of Silas Lapham.
Answer: William Dean Howells
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This treaty led to a sixteen-year period in which Venice controlled the Peloponnese, and it compelled Poland to withdraw from Moldavia. The Hungarian nationalist Imre Thokoly was deposed as prince in the wake of this treaty. Its Russian portion was supplemented in the following year by a treaty which transferred Azov, and it exempted an area defined by the Tisza, Mures, and Danube rivers, the Banat of Temesvar, from one provision. In addition to the namesake town and the surrounding region of Vojvodina, Transylvania and Hungary also changed hands under this agreement, sixteen months after Eugene of Savoy's victory over Mustafa II at the Battle of Zenta. For 10 points, name this agreement signed between the Austria-led Holy League and the Ottoman Empire, who lost territory, in 1699.
Answer: Treaty of Karlowitz
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
These entities are described by the Dupuit assumption, which says that they are characterized by horizontal transport. That assumption can be used to develop the steady-state Thiem equation for these systems, which relates their transmissivity to their specific storage, but is less useful than the non-equilibrium Theis equation. Their pressure properties can be tested using straddle packers, and the perched variety of these occur in an area known as the vadose zone. Prominent examples of these include the Guarani and the Floridan, and their cross-sectional area can be multiplied by conductivity in a key application of Darcy's Law, often used to describe the confined type of these, which are surrounded by two impermeable layers. Bounded by a piezometric surface, for 10 points, name these beds of rock which store groundwater for wells.
Answer: aquifers
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This man is the namesake of a formula relating the Euler characteristics of two surfaces when one is a ramified covering of the other with Hurwitz. He names a theta function whose expansion begins with a t over 2 log of t over 2 pi term together with Siegel, with whom he also names a formula approximating his namesake function. With Christoffel, he names a curvature tensor which is central in his namesake geometry, where all tangent spaces feature smooth inner products. With Roch, he names a theorem giving the dimensions of certain spaces of meromorphic functions, and the fact that any open set can be holomorphically mapped to the unit disk is his namesake mapping theorem. Also naming the conjecture that a certain function has no zeroes with real part one half, for 10 points, identify this German mathematician with a namesake zeta function and hypothesis.
Answer: (Georg Friedrich) Bernhard Riemann
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Clorinda Minor took a group of them to Jerusalem, while Joshua Vaughn Himes helped to popularize their beliefs in publications including The Voice of the West and Signs of the Times.Their beliefs originated with the founder's experience of a miracle at the Battle of Plattsburg and a series of sixteen articles in the Vermont Telegraph, where its founder discussed his rooted interpretation of prophecy by citing such books as Numbers 14:34. Featuring such leaders as Joseph Bates and Ellen White, they met at Albany after incorrectly predicting that, according to Daniel 8:14, a new millennium would begin on October 22, 1844, an event that never happened and has subsequently been called ``The Great Disappointment.'' For 10 points, identify this religious denomination founded by William Miller that believes in the imminent second coming of Christ on a certain day of the week.
Answer: Seventh Day Adventist(s) (accept reasonable equivalents; prompt on ``Millerites'')
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The losing side at this battle outnumbered the eventual victors but had an artillery disadvantage and was exhausted after making a long march from Sodbury. The losing side had wanted to cross the Severn to meet up with their allies in Wales, which had become necessary after another ally's defeat and death at the Battle of Barnet. The Duke of Somerset blamed his failure to flank the victor's left at this battle on Lord Wenlock, and apocryphally killed Wenlock in a fit of rage. That act, the failure to join the forces of Jasper Tudor, and the flanking of the loser's right by cavalry under Richard, Duke of Gloucester, led to the collapse of the loser's lines and the death of Somerset, the Prince of Wales, and many other of Queen Margaret's forces, who took refuge in the nearby abbey. For 10 points, name this 1471 battle which saw the final defeat of the Lancastrian supporters of King Henry VI.
Answer: Battle of Tewkesbury
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In this novel, a shopping trip for a wedding dress is interrupted by a bottle of Zubrowka, and Sophie, who is unable to recover from the deaths of her husband and her little boy, disappears. Kosti, who works in the coal mines, urges the main character to seek spiritual answers, and the Benedictine Father Ensheim urges that character to go to Benares and Madura. Gray Maturin's headaches are cured by the main character of this novel, who gained his skills of hypnotic suggestion from Shri Ganesha in India. After Gray's stockbroker business fails, he and his family move to Paris, where they encounter the main character. Isabel had earlier dumped this novel's protagonist Larry when he returned traumatized from the war, delayed their wedding, and moved to Paris. For 10 points, name this Somerset Maugham work which ends with Larry Darrell pursuing the life that pleases him.
Answer: The Razor's Edge
2009 ACF Nationals Bonuses by MIT
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Some fast algorithms split a problem into pieces, solve the pieces, and then put them together again. For 10 points each:,
[10] This divide-and-conquer algorithm sorts items by first splitting into two halves, recursively sorting the halves, and then combining the pieces using its namesake operation.
Answer: Merge Sort
[10] Applying naive divide-and-conquer to matrix multiplication still gives order n cubed time, but this algorithm, which exchanges one of the multiplication operations for 18 additions, improves runtime to around n to the 2.8.
Answer: Strassen's Algorithm
[10] This generalization of the Karatsuba algorithm involves splitting each number into k pieces, evaluating two polynomials at 2k + 1 points, and then interpolating the results to find the coefficients of a relevant product polynomial.
Answer: Toom-Cook [accept Toom-3]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Name these Spanish poets, for 10 points each.,
[10] This Golden Age poet, the main proponent of the ``culteranismo'' style, is known for his long poetic works such as Solitudes and The Fable of Polyphemus and Galatea.
Answer: Luis de Gongora y Argote
[10] The works of this member of the Generation of 98 include Campos de Castilla, a collection of essays titled Juan de Mairena, and an elegy for Francisco Garcia Lorca, ``The Crime was in Granada.''
Answer: Antonio Machado
[10] This other member of the Generation of 98 wrote poetic works such as the four part The Christ of Velazquez and Ballads of Exile, though his chief works may be the nonfiction The Tragic Sense of Life and the novel Abel Sanchez.
Answer: Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
For 10 points each, answer the following about proposed amendments to the US Constitution.,
[10] Although the case Pace v. Alabama had declared anti-miscegenation laws Constitutional, Seaborn Roddenbery proposed an anti-miscegenation amendment in 1913. Such an amendment would have prevented this 1967 decision which overturned Pace v. Alabama.
Answer: Loving v. Virginia
[10] This amendment, an attempt to deal with the slavery question, would have amended the Constitution to prevent further amendments pertaining to slavery.
Answer: Corwin Amendment
[10] In 1938, Indiana representative Louis Ludlow proposed an amendment which would have required a national referendum for this action, which such figures as Gerald Nye and Robert Wood were attempting to prevent at that time.
Answer: declaring war [accept going to war, etc.]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
They were named for an Oath first signed in 1557. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify these groups of Scottish Presbysterians, whose leaders over the years included John Welch and Richard Cameron, and who aimed to stand united in defense of their faith.
Answer: Covenanters
[10] The National Covenant of 1638 aimed to unite the Scots against this Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I, who sponsored the High Church ``Beauty of Holiness'' campaign and made Oxford a royalist stronghold.
Answer: William Laud
[10] Laud had issues with folks beside the Covenanters. He notably imprisoned this Puritan preacher and author of the Historiomastix in 1633. Although shorn of his ears, he would later enter Parliament and eventually became keeper of records at the Tower of London.
Answer: William Prynne
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
He started the year in Norfolk after winning Minor League Player of the Year honors in 2008. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this catcher in the Orioles system, widely regarded as the best or second-best prospect in baseball.
Answer: Matt Wieters
[10] The Yankees are touting this Texan as their future centerfielder. He was the Double-A Eastern League's postseason MVP in 2008.
Answer: Austin Jackson
[10] This other AL East team demoted pitcher David Price to Triple-A after a rough spring.
Answer: Tampa Bay Rays [accept Rays but not Devil Rays]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Name these things relating to recombinant DNA technology, for 10 points each.,
[10] Bacteria and yeast can be transformed via genes introduced on these vectors, which are circular pieces of double-stranded, extra-chromosomal DNA.
Answer: plasmid
[10] Tissue-specific knockouts can be achieved by creating a "floxed" construct, where a gene is flanked by parallel loxP sites, and expressing this enzyme under an appropriate promoter. It catalyzes recombination at the loxP sites to excise the gene.
Answer: Cre recombinase
[10] This is the cross-shaped intermediate structure that forms during homologous recombination. Its resolution can result in either crossing over or reversion to the original configuration.
Answer: Holliday junction
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
One of the title figures holds a green cloth to cover his nudity while the other sits atop a white horse. For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this 1599 work, from a series for the Chapel of Saint Joseph in Toledo. It depicts the titular man of god dressed in black and gold armor as he attempts to help someone less fortunate than himself.
Answer: Saint Martin and the Beggar
[10] This artist, who trained under the Cretan Michail Damaskinos before coming to Spain, painted Saint Martin and the Beggar, as well as the portrait of Fray Hortensio Felix de Paravicino.
Answer: El Greco or Domenikos Theotokopolus
[10] El Greco painted this scene numerous times throughout his career. In it an angry son of God threatens to whip a crowd of certain people if they don't leave the titular location.The 1572 version was notable for the portraits of Titian, Clovio, and Michelangelo that line the bottom of the canvas.
Answer: Christ driving the money changers from the temple (accept reasonable equivalents such as "money lenders" or "money traders")
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Presidents of Finland have accomplished more than looking like Conan O'Brien. For 10 points each:,
[10] This septuagenarian general with a namesake "line" led Finland's troops during its Civil War, the Winter War, and World War II.
Answer: Carl Gustaf Mannerheim
[10] This second post-war president continued the policies of neutrality begun by his predecessor, Juho Paasikivi. In reaction to his sometimes autocratic tendencies during his 26 year rule, the powers of the president have been curtailed since he left office in 1982.
Answer: Urho Kekkonen
[10] Mannerheim's predecessor Risto Ryti was sentenced to ten years of hard labor at farcical "War Responsibility Trials" led by this chief of the Allied occupation of Finland. This Soviet official led the defense of Leningard and was also responsible for the strict censorship of "Western" and "decadent" art in the USSR, targeting figures such as Akhmatova and Shostakovich.
Answer: Andrey Aleksandrovich Zhdanov
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
She was known as the goddess "Who giveth birth, but was herself not born of any." For 10 points each:,
[10] This Egyptian mother goddess was usually depicted as a white vulture. Her cult was centered at Karnak, and she took as adopted sons the war god Menthu and moon god Khonsu.
Answer: Mut
[10] This is the name given to female hindu deities in general, but is usually applied specifically to Shiva's consort in her many forms, including Durga, Kali,and Parvati.
Answer: Devi
[10] Occasionally portrayed holding a child in her arms, this mother goddess, the "snake woman" of Aztec myth, helped Quetzacoatl create humans out of the ground bones of previous generations.
Answer: Cihuacoatl
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
An example of the title objects is pawned by Floyd, who is arrested while walking from his mother's funeral in this play. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this drama in which Floyd is paid for the hit ``That's All Right'' and leaves his girlfriend Vera before returning to Chicago to set things right.
Answer: Seven Guitars
[10] Seven Guitars is a work in the ten-part Pittsburgh Cycle by this playwright.
Answer: August Wilson
[10] The title character of this Wilson play tries to provide a life for his mother Ruby and his expectant wife Tonya. He and his friend Mister sell stolen refrigerators in effort to save ten thousand dollars and open a video store.
Answer: King Hedley II
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It claims that long-range perturbations would destroy two-dimensional systems with continuously broken symmetries. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this theorem of statistical physics that is called the Coleman theorem when applied to quantum field theory.
Answer: Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem
[10] One consequence of the Mermin-Wagner theorem is that systems that obey the XY model do not undergo normal second-order phase transitions. Instead, they undergo these transitions, in which the normal orderly phase transition is destroyed by the transverse Goldstone modes.
Answer: Kosterlitz-Thouless transition
[10] Spontaneous symmetry breaking gives mass to the W and Z bosons by the action of this still undiscovered particle of the Standard Model.
Answer: Higgs boson
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about a piece of music and its creator, for 10 points each.,
[10] Made up of six parts, including ``The Cemetery'' and ``The Unknown Island,'' this setting of Theophile Gautier poems was first published in 1841 with a seasonal title.
Answer: The Nights of Summer or Summer Nights or Les Nuits d'Ete
[10] Summer Nights was composed by this Frenchman who may be better known for his Damnation of Faust and Romeo and Juliet.
Answer: Hector Berlioz
[10] Berlioz composed this work one year before Summer Nights. Itwas dedicated to commemorate those who died in the 1830 revolution.
Answer: Funeral and Triumphal Symphony or Symphonie funebre et triomphale
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This concept was introduced in the book Human Nature and the Social Order. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this concept, the process of developing a personal image on the basis of reacting to the imagined judgments of other people.
Answer: the looking-glass self
[10] This University of Michigan sociologist believed that sociology should proceed through "sympathetic introspection" and theorized the "looking-glass self."
Answer: Charles Horton Cooley
[10] Cooley was a precursor to this sociological movement, a microsociological perspective which stresses everyday relations between individuals. Its advocates include Herbert Blumer and Erving Goffman.
Answer: symbolic interactionism
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The Great Northern Expedition of the 1730's and 40's provided some of the first European knowledge of the far reaches of Siberia. For 10 points each:,
[10] Dimitry started at the mouth of the Lena River and proceeded east by dog sled to the Pacific. His cousin, Khariton ended his expedition by exploring the Taimyr Peninsula. Together they name this nearby sea, sometimes instead named for Adolf Nordenskjold.
Answer: Laptev Sea
[10] It took Ovtzin three years to make it the few hundred miles east from the mouth of the Ob to the mouth of this large river, whose drainage basin includes the cities of Ulaan Bataar and Irkutsk.
Answer: Yenisei River
[10] Vitus Bering founded this city, now the capital of Kamchatka, to use as a base for his exploration of the Northern Pacific and Alaska.
Answer: Petropavlovsk
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He was executed in 408, leaving his protege Honorius in charge of the empire. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this barbarian general who joined with Theodosius to win the Battle of the Frigid River and defeated Radagaisus' Ostrogoth army, leaving him in effective control of Rome.
Answer: Flavius Stilicho
[10] Stilicho was a member of this group, which sacked Rome under the leadership of Gaiseric in 455, a few decades after they besieged Hippo.
Answer: Vandals
[10] Following the death of Stilicho and Honorius, Valentinian III came to the throne, but much power was wielded by this sister of Valentinian. She was exiled to a nunnery in Constantinople after plotting to kill the emperor, and her letter to Attila was the official pretext for the Hun invasion of the West.
Answer: Honoria
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He described Chavel, who tries to protect Janvier's family after Janvier sells his life in place of Chavel's, in his novel The Tenth Man. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author of "The Destructors" and A Burnt-Out Case.
Answer: Graham Greene
[10] In this Greene novel, there is a leak in the African section of MI6, and Maurice Castle's partner is ``disposed of.'' Castle does what he can to help Davis and Daintry, but feels loyalty to the Communists for having helped his wife escape South Africa.
Answer: The Human Factor
[10] To supplement his income as a vacuum salesman in this novel by Greene, James Wormold pretends to control a network of agents in Cuba. After sending London a circuit diagram of a vacuum cleaner, he takes a picture of a list of enemy spies, but it is overexposed and useless.
Answer: Our Man in Havana
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His works include The Humanist Controversy and "Lenin and Philosophy." For ten points each:,
[10] Identify this foremost structuralist Marxist, a French theoretician who pioneered such concepts as the ideological state apparatus, interpellation or ``hailing'', and overdetermination.
Answer: Louis Althusser
[10] Like many other impenetrable Continental philosophers, this student of Althusser draws upon mathematics, specifically set theory, in his magnum opus Being and Event.
Answer: Alain Badiou
[10] Divided into two sections, "Exurge" and "Nature," this seminal work bandied about such terms as logocentrism and differance, and was created by another student of Althusser's, Jacques Derrida.
Answer: Of Grammatology
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As opposed to phosphorus, ylides containing this element form betaine intermediates that decompose into epoxides instead of alkenes. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this element, present in thiols and thioethers.
Answer: sulfur
[10] This sulfur-containing compound is a common solvent in organic reactions. It reacts with oxalyl chloride in the Swern Oxidation, and at least one crazy book claims that a solution of this free radical scavenger and hydrogen peroxide can cure herpes.
Answer: DMSO or dimethyl sulfoxide
[10] Oxygens in many organic compounds can be replaced with sulfur using this reagent, which contains a four-membered sulfur-phosphorus ring in the center.
Answer: Lawesson's reagent [prompt on LR]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It features such chapters as "The Tragedy of Love" and "Barred from the Revolution," for 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this work published between 1921 and 1922, a novella that ends with the title figure, a pathetic bully who constantly seeks spiritual victories, being carted off to his execution for participation in the Hsinhai Revolution
Answer: The True Story of Ah Q
[10] The True Story of Ah Q was written by this Chinese writer whose other works include "The New Year's Sacrifice" and the story of a man who believes he is being held by cannibals, "The Diary of a Madman."
Answer: Lu Xun or Zhou Shuren
[10] Lu Xun explicitly titled his 1923 address, aimed at confronting the modernization of Chinese society, after this European protagonist of an 1879 work.
Answer: Nora Helmer (prompt on Helmer)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It included a call for "all classes, high and low" to "unite to carry out vigorously the plan of government" and repudiated "evil customs of the past." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1868 declaration.
Answer: The Charter Oath [or Imperial Oath Of Five Articles; or Gokaj=o No Goseimon]
[10] The Charter Oath was promulgated by this emperor, whose rule also saw the establishment of a Diet and the modernization of the Japanese military.
Answer: Emperor Mitsuhito [or the Meiji Emperor]
[10] This founder of Waseda University was finance and foreign minister of Japan, among other roles he served during the whole of the Meiji period. During World War I, he was the prime minister, in which role he joined with Kat=o Takaaki to formulate the Twenty-One Demands before his cabinet was brought down by the =Oura scandal.
Answer: Okuma Shigenobu
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It was to be performed by a huge orchestra, mixed choir, and various sense instruments, and was also to include olfactory and visual components. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this seven-day long experience set in the foothills of the Himalayas that, according to its composer, would end in a rapture and the replacement of humanity with ``nobler beings.''
Answer: Mysterium
[10] This composer of the White Mass and Black Mass piano sonatas dreamt up the Mysterium.
Answer: Alexander Scriabin
[10] This Scriabin work, its composer's Opus 60, is based almost entirely on permutations of the composer's mystic cord and has very little to do with its mythological namesake.
Answer: Prometheus: The Poem of Fire
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This poet wrote about a poor woman who freezes to death while using a musical instrument to magically create clothing for her son. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author of ``The Ballad of the Harp-Weaver'' and the one-act play Aria da Capo.
Answer: Edna St. Vincent Millay
[10] In this Millay poem, the narrator describes how ``Into the earth sank I / Full six feet under ground did lie.'' She begins to die, but, after realizing she will never see the sky again, prays to God to be reborn.
Answer: ``Renascence''
[10] This Millay sonnet states that only one Greek has directly observed the titular figure, while others ``stare at nothing, intricately drawn nowhere'' and a few fortunate ones ``have heard her massive sandal set on stone''.
Answer: ``Euclid alone has looked on Beauty bare''
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
For 10 points each, identify the following in solid state physics.,
[10] In this phenomenon, with sufficiently strong local disorder in a metal, the mean free path becomes comparable to the Fermi wavelengh, resulting in the loss of diffusive conduction and therefore a metal-to-insulator transition.
Answer: Anderson localization
[10] This other metal-to-insulator transition results from a competition between the energy lost to lattice deformation and the energy gained upon opening up a bandgap. Pedagogically, it is often illustrated by a 1D chain of hydrogen atoms.
Answer: Peierls instability
[10] These sets of three numbers are used to identify atom planes in a crystal structure and are ubiquitous in solid-state physics.
Answer: Miller indices
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The nascent French Second Republic's guarantee of a "right to work" ultimately played a part in destabilizing that government. For 10 points each:,
[10] The right to work was to be guaranteed by National Workshops, workers' organizations paid by the government for public works projects, a project championed by this French socialist and historian.
Answer: Louis Blanc [do not accept Louis Blanqui, a different person]
[10] The closing of the National Workshops after they became economically unfeasible served as one of the sparks for this bloody Parisian uprising. It is named for the same month that saw an "offensive" by the Kerensky government during World War I and the freeing of slaves in Texas.
Answer: June Days
[10] The uprising of the June Days was put down by this general, who was then made head of state. In the Presidential election that fall, he was defeated handily by Louis Napoleon.
Answer: Louis-Eugene Cavaignac

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