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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 ACF Nationals Tossups by Harvard and Chicago B
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During World War II, resistance movements in this country included the Legality Party. Abdyl Ypi was unable to attend the Congress of Lushnje, which reformed this country, because he was assassinated by the puppet government which ruled from Durres. This modern state declared its independence in the Vlore Proclamation, shortly after which it was ruled for six months by the German prince Wilhelm zu Wied. Riven by conflict between the traditionalist bajraktars and the liberalizing forces led by Fan Noli, it was later oppressed by a secret police called the Sigurimi. Since 1990, events in this country have included the fall of Ramiz Alia's dictatorship and the bankrupting of most of its population during a 1997 wave of pyramid schemes. Invaded by Italy during World War II, this country was once ruled by King Zog. For 10 points, name this state which became an isolated outpost of the Communist world under its longtime ruler Enver Hoxha.
Answer: Albania
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At one point, it depicts four couples engaged in a quadrille. It ends in a forested area, after the contents of several pouches have been dumped on the ground. The title event is set in motion after a false telegraph communication is sent, telling another party not to make a stop for water at Red Lodge. Featuring Gilbert Anderson in various roles including as the tenderfoot dancer and as a wounded victim, this work's ending was referenced by Martin Scorsese at the end of Goodfellas, when Joe Pesci's character shoots a gun directly into the camera. Composed of 14 scenes, it is roughly ten minutes long and was not filmed in the American West. For 10 points, identify this 1903 work, primarily shot in Edison, New Jersey, along the Lackawanna Railroad, the first narrative film in history, directed by Edwin S. Porter.
Answer: The Great Train Robbery
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One work of this author describes the affairs of Aaron Greidinger and Aaron's true love, who hasn't grown since childhood due to a disease. He also wrote about a title possession of Calman Jacoby. In addition to Shosha and The Manor, this author wrote about the Messianic cult of Sabbatai Zevi, led by Gedalia and the girl Rechele. This man's brother wrote The Family Carnovsky and Steel and Iron. Another work by this man sees the acrobat and juggler Yasha Mazur have an affair with Magda Zbarski. Besides Satan in Goray and The Magician of Lublin, this author of the collection A Friend of Kafka is better known for a novel detailing the decline of Meshulam's family following his third marriage, and a story about the title husband of Elka who is made fun of by characters such as Rietze the Candle-dipper. For 10 points, identify this Jewish-American author of The Family Moskat and Gimpel the Fool.
Answer: Isaac Bashevis Singer
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Dodelson and Liguori showed in a 2006 paper that the vector field introduced in Bekenstein's relativistic version of this theory could play a role in generating the instability that produces large-scale cosmic structures. Mathematically, it results from a modification of Poisson's equation, and evidence against this theory came in 2006 when the Bullet Cluster was observed to exhibit gravitational lensing that evidently doesn't result from baryonic matter. It proposes that a function of unknown form denoted ``mu of a over a-zero,'' which approaches unity if the ratio is much greater than one, alters the law of physics traditionally used to calculate force. Proposed by Mordehai Milgrom to solve the problem of galactic rotation, for 10 points, identify this theory that is an alternative to Dark Matter.
Answer: MOdified Newtonian Dynamics
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At one point in this work, its author contrasts the laws of efficient causes with those of final causes and ultimately concludes that they must be in harmony. Its discussion of the means by which God obtains the greatest variety possible is followed by a reference to the work of Jerome Rorarius. Its final section discusses the role of pure love and the construction of a perfect government under God the architect. Composed of 90 sections, it has numerous parts devoted to the attainment of sensitivity by animals and humans, so that their spermatic animalcules may progress to the rank of reason. First published in 1714, Christian Wolff's doctrines would draw upon this work's discussion of entelechies or simple substances, as well as its author's previous treatise, The Theodicy. For 10 points, identify this essay that argued for the existence of namesake units of nature, a work by Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.
Answer: ``Monadology''
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In Bump Heads, 50 Cent tells Irv that he ain't this person, while in ``My Bitch,'' The Game calls this man the ``devil in the red dress'' and compares him to a woman who marries without a prenuptual agreement. In the book Married to the Game, Lydia Harris accused this man of scamming her out of hundreds of millions of dollars. A man claiming to be the business manager of Akon was arrested for severely beating this man during a 2009 NBA All-Star Game party. One story tells of this man dangling Vanilla Ice by the ankles from a twentieth story window, and he offered to post bail for Tupac if Tupac would sign with him, as had Snoop Dogg and Dr. Dre. For 10 points, name this founder of Death Row Records.
Answer: Suge Knight [prompt on Suge; or Marion Hugh Knight, Jr.]
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Overproduction of the epsilon subunit of one of these proteins counteracts the SOS response generated to nalidixic acid, while the epsilon subunit of a different one of these proteins is phosphorylated by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. The idling turnover reaction is catalyzed by the Klenow fragment of a third protein in this class, and a homolog of that fragment in a certain bacteria is called Klentaq. The delta subunit of these proteins complexes with PCNA and Rfc to form a complex that kicks out a complex containing the alpha subunit after a primer is formed. For 10 points, name this class of proteins that add nucleotides to the leading and lagging strands of DNA during DNA replication.
Answer: DNA polymerases [accept DNA polymerase III before ``Cdc28'']
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Key reconnaissance for this battle was done by Lieutenant Colonel Sir Redvers Buller. Prior to this battle, Evelyn Wood's forces were renamed the Flying Column. Garnet Wolseley was supposed to replace the leader of the British in this battle, and it was started to delay that turnover. Shortly before this battle, the son of Napoleon III, Louis, was killed by the eventual losers, angering Lieutenant General Lord Chelmsford. The winners in this thirty-minute battle approached its site through the White Mfonzi valley, and they pursued the ruler of the losing side after destroying his royal Kraals, partially out of revenge for losses suffered at Isandlwana. For 10 points, name this 1879 battle that resulted in the capture and exile to England of Cetshwayo, the decisive battle of the Anglo-Zulu War.
Answer: Battle of Ulundi
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Its artist interviewed some of the principals in preparation for this painting, which features a cloudy, dark sky on the upper right side of the canvas. On the left a man in a Green coat and a sash made out of beads bends towards the central group. Another figure's embroidered hat lies in front of him as he clenches his fists, while another man clutches a large flag. Completed two years after its artist's more conventional depiction of Agrippina Landing at Brundisium, the artist defended his decision to depict ``the modern garb of war.''This, however, did not exclude its artist from taking historical license, for neither the wounded Robert Monckton nor the pensive and crouching American Indian were there when the titular event occurred. For 10 points, identify this 1770 painting that depicted a certain British commander being killed at the Battle of Quebec, a work by Benjamin West.
Answer: The Death of General Wolfe
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In addition to his early Cantiques spirituelles, this author created a character who decides to go to bed in his judge's robes one evening, and later he is put to sleep by the impassioned arguments another character makes defending Citron, a dog that had eaten a chicken. That character, Dandin, tries to climb out a window to go to court in this author's only comedy, which closes with the marriage of Leandre and Isabelle. In another play by this author, Roxane attempts to marry the title character in order to dethrone Amurat. This author of some biblically inspired works about Esther and Athalia wrote the plays The Litigants and Bajazet. He also wrote about a character who is urged to murder another by Hermione, who then betrays him, explaining that she'd been distraught that Pyrrhus had wanted to marry the title character. Another of his plays is about a character whose love for Aricie leads him to declare that he will leave Troezen, only for his stepmother to fall in love with him. For 10 points, identify this author of Andromache and a play based on Euripedes's Hippolytus, Phedre.
Answer: Jean Racine
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Ortony, Clore, and Collins developed a computational model of these phenomena. Rosalind Picard is a leading proponent of programming computers to recognize these phenomena. According to Solomon and Corbit's opponent-process theory, these phenomena disrupt homeostasis and are inversely proportional to their opposites. Robert Plutchik constructed a "wheel" of these entities and argued that they evolved biologically, in contrast to Carroll Izard, who thought they were hardwired into humans and identified ten major ones. Based on his studies of the Fore tribesmen, Paul Ekman argued for six universal ones. According to the Cannon-Bard model, these phenomena precede physiological reactions. They arise from the combination of arousal and cognition according to the two-factor theory developed by Singer and Schachter. For 10 points, identify these phenomena, examples of which include anger and joy.
Answer: emotions [or feelings]
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Columbanus stressed its importance concerning commotions of the mind, while in The History of Sexuality, Michel Foucault wrote that this practice is imbued with relations of power and that its goal is submission rather than freedom. Its early adherents include John Chrysostom, who discusses it as an earthly manifestation of Christ in his On the Priesthood, and Tertullian, who argued for selective applications of it. In Lamentabili Sane, Pius X condemned the theory that it was a modern development, tracing its origins to the Book of John, via the Council of Trent. Supposedly instituted by Jesus after his first post-resurrection appearance, it is required before receiving communion. For 10 points, identify this sacrament of the Catholic faith whereby one divulges his or her sins in the hopes of being absolved.
Answer: to confess or confession [accept variations such as seeking absolution; prompt on an answer that mentions ``penance'' before it is said]
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One reaction by this name closed the A ring in Mukaiyama's total synthesis of Taxol, and proceeds by a radical mechanism, in which a reducing metal like magnesium generates ketyl radicals by a single-electron mechanism. Another reaction by this name produces multisubstituted tetrohydrofuran derivatives when preceded by Prins cyclization, and uses acid-catalyzed dehydration to shift an alkyl group and form, in its simplest case, tert-butyl methyl ketone. The namesake molecule of both reactions can be formed from two molecules of acetone in the ``coupling'' of this name. For 10 points, a coupling reaction and a rearrangement are both named after what vicinal diol?
Answer: pinacol [accept pinacol coupling until ``Prins'']
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At one point in this novel, the dog Teru has ten puppies, and the protagonist has a dream about beards. The protagonist copes with the deaths of his friends Tatsumi and Kitamoto, and at the end of the novel he forgets how to tie a tie. Natsuko Iwamura becomes the secretary in place of Tanizaki Eiko in this novel, and the protagonist's daughter Fumiko beats her husband and travels to Shinano before Toriyama's funeral. The final scene of this novel sees the protagonist suggest going to the country and looking at the maple trees, while earlier his son Shuichi cheats on his wife Kikuko with a war widow, Kinuko, who goes to the country to have Shuichi's child. For 10 points, name this novel in which Yasuko and her businessman husband Shingo cope with aging and the marital problems of their children, written by Yasunari Kawabata.
Answer: The Sound of the Mountain [or Yama no Oto]
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During this man's time as the head of the Board of Economic Warfare, he came into conflict with Commerce Secretary Jesse Jones over the planting of cryptostegia in Haiti. A scandal involving this man was the discovery of his ``Dear Guru'' letters to Nicholas Roerich. This man described World War II as ``a fight between a slave world and a free world'' in his speech, ''The Century of the Common Man.'' This man's father was Secretary of Agriculture under Harding and Coolidge, a post this man also held. In 1948 this editor of The New Republic coupled with Glen Taylor and was cross-endorsed by the Communist Party, but finished behind Strom Thurmond as well as the major candidates as the Progressive Party's Presidential candidate. He thus lost to a man who had replaced him in 1944, Harry Truman. For 10 points, name this man who served as the second vice-president under Franklin Roosevelt.
Answer: Henry Agard Wallace
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Three times in this work, the music suddenly stops. Its second movement introduces a gentle oboe solo, while it opens with an orchestral depiction of an urban landscape which is interrupted by a clarinet solo and the beginning of a group of sections that its creator identified as ``decoy games.'' Its composer was inspired to begin this work while reading Menyhert Lengel's namesake tale, in which a young girl is forced to wave at passersby from a window. In this musical adaptation, it is the girl's seductive dancing that results in the quick robbery of an old rake and a young man, which occurs before three loud trombone crashes symbolize the entrance of a more formidable, foreign character. Written on the heels of its composer's The Wooden Prince, cymbals mark the three consecutive unsuccessful attempts on the titular figure's life. For 10 points, identify this one act ballet named for a supernatural man from China, a work by Antonin Dvorak.
Answer: The Miraculous Mandarin
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The protagonist of this novel receives some funding from a comical suitor, the Laird of Dumbiedikes, and watches the death of two characters near Haribee Brow. One of those characters, who earlier had captured her, is hanged, and the other is her daughter, Madge Wildfire. The grandfather of the the protagonist's betrothed had once assisted the ancestor of the Duke of Argyll, allowing Reuben to give her a letter. One historically inspired character in this novel fired into a crowd at the hanging of Andrew Wilson, and that character is killed by a mob led by the protagonist's future brother-in-law dressed as a woman. Early on, the protagonist's sister is unable to show that she did not kill her illegitimate child, landing her in the title location, Tolbooth Prison, with John Porteous. For 10 points, identify this novel about the journey to London in search of a pardon undertaken by Jeanie Deans, a work by Sir Walter Scott.
Answer: The Heart of Midlothian
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According to NMR relaxation experiments, its Hamiltonian consistently dominates the ZFS Hamiltonian, and it may on rare occasions be observed along with a diamagnetic shift. David Akers established that its occurrence in dyonium explains away what appeared to be a magnetic monopole. Its molecular form occurs in diatomic molecules at sunspot-like temperatures and results in antisymmetric Stokes profiles, while its incomplete form occurs when the eigenvalues of a certain matrix cross each other instead of spreading linearly. Only occurring when the orbital and spin contributions to angular momentum cannot be considered coupled because the spin-orbit interaction is dwarfed by the magnitude of the external magnetic field, for 10 points, identify this strong-field variant of the Zeeman effect.
Answer: Paschen-Back effect
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An inscription of this man claims that Gyges of Lydia was able to defeat the Cimmerians only after sending ambassadors to this ruler. The severed head of Te'uman hangs in a garden in a relief depicting this man, who defeated Humman-Haldash III before definitively shattering the Neo-Elamite state. Like Shulgi, he boasted of being able to read and write, and his son Sin-Shar-ishkun deposed the usurper Sin-Shumu-lisher, who had in turn deposed another of his sons, Ashur-etil-ilani. After the revolt of his brother Shamash-Shum-ukin, he installed Kandalanu as vassal ruler of Babylon. The latter part of his reign saw Psammetichus I reestablish the independence of Egypt. The successor of Esarhaddon, for 10 points, identify this last major king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, known for collecting an immense library of cuneiform tablets.
Answer: Ashurbanipal
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This region was initially inhabited by the Arikara people. One legend relates that Henri LeBeau dreamed of a stream and grapevines while falling asleep in this region and upon waking dedicated his life to making jewelry. The Conn family led an extensive exploration in this region around Sylvan Lake, located near the Needles. Cities in this region include the home of one of the world's largest motorcycle rallies, as well as the home of Ellsworth Air Force Base. Containing the world's second longest cave system, Jewel Cave, its highest point is Harney Peak, and, in addition to Rapid City, it contains the location of the deaths of Calamity Jane and Wild Bill Hickok, Deadwood. For 10 points, identify this region of western South Dakota, a mountain range which is notable for Sturgis, Custer State Park, the Crazy Horse monument, and Mount Rushmore.
Answer: Black Hills
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The commander-in-chief of this polity's army is the subject of a memorial designed by Bertel Thorvaldsen. This polity's army defeated General Pahlen at the Battle of Zedtiltz, and had earlier won the Battle of Raszyn as part of an invasion of Austria. Nominally led by Frederich Augustus I of Saxony, this polity was created by an agreement signed in the Nemen River on a raft by France and Russia, the 1806 Treaty of Tilsit. After its demise, most of this polity was given to Russia, which turned it into the ``Congress Kingdom.'' For 10 points, name this Napoleonic puppet state centered on the capital of Poland.
Answer: Grand Duchy of Warsaw [or Ksiestwo Warszawskie; or Duche de Varsovie; or Herzogtum Warschau; or Varshavskoi Gerchogstv; prompt on Poland before Nemen is read and don't accept it after]
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Two generalizations of its continuous formulation are related by a Weitzenbock identity, while the discrete version of this operation evaluated on a graph vertex sums the difference between the function value at that vertex and all of its nearest neighbors. Under conditions of chemical equilibrium, it vanishes when applied to the density of a quantity like concentration, and a generalization of it is found in a relativistic version of the Schrodinger equation, the Klein-Gordon equation. Earnshaw's theorem invokes it to show that an electrical force derived from a potential function must have zero divergence, and when it is evaluated on Minkowski space, it is called the d'Alembertian. For 10 points, identify this elliptic operator which vanishes for harmonic functions, the divergence of the gradient, named for a Frenchman.
Answer: Laplacian [or Laplace operator]
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One of his sons was born from a lotus and represented the morning sun. Another of his sons, who was worshipped in Upper Egypt as an incarnation of Apedemak, was also known as the ``Lord of the Massacre'' and was represented as a man with a knife and the head of a lion. At some point, this deity absorbed the characteristics of the green skinned, ram headed, god of the risen land and silt, Tatenen. Also syncretized with the funerary god, Sokar, his consort is usually identified as Sekhmet, and his offspring appropriately includes the great architect Imhotep. Usually depicted as a mummified man grasping a scepter composed of the ankh, the was, and the djed, he was often accompanied by the great bull Apis and was primarily worshipped in the city of Memphis. For 10 points, identify this Egyptian creator god.
Answer: Ptah
 
2009 ACF Nationals Bonuses by Harvard and Chicago B
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Diaconcescu et al. showed that these compounds can self-assemble on the surface of a silver atom, and, like crown ethers, they can form ``cages'' that encapsulate a metal atom. For 10 points:,
[10] Name these compounds typically produced via the Kratschmer-Huffman method.
Answer: fullerenes [or buckminsterfullerenes; be nice to Andrew Hart and ``anti-prompt'' on nanotubes or buckyballs]
[10] This 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition functionalizes a fullerene by reaction with an azomethine ylide. One study used a glycine analogue to make nanotubes soluble in acetone.
Answer: Prato reaction
[10] Fullerenes can act as dienophiles when reacting with cyclopentadiene in this reaction.
Answer: Diels-Alder reaction
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This work, its composer's Opus 22, was derived from an ``industrial ballet'' introduced in 1930. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this work which ostensibly concerned a soccer player falling in love with a fascist, whose most oft performed sections include part three, the Polka, and the accordion heavy final section, Russian Dance.
Answer: The Age of Gold
[10] This composer of the Ballet Suite The Age of Gold may be better known for his 15 Symphonies, including one based on the poems of Yevtushenko, Babi Yar.
Answer: Dmitry Shostakovich
[10] This work, composed in 1966, which interpolates the song ``Pretzels, who'll buy my pretzels?'' ends with a barcarolle that features ``clock work'' percussion and was dedicated to Rostropovich.
Answer: Cello Concerto No. 2 in G Major
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John of Plano-Carpini and William of Roebueck both left accounts of their travels in this empire. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this empire to whose leader Andrew of Longjumeau was sent by Innocent IV.
Answer: the Mongol Empire
[10] Andrew of Longjumeau was sent on a second embassy to the Mongols by this king of France, who launched the seventh crusade and received a recently discovered letter from Hulagu.
Answer: Louis IX accept St. Louis
[10] Abaqa, one of the rulers of this frequently pro-Frankish Khanate centered on Persia and founded by Hulagu, attempted to form an alliance with Louis IX against the Mamluks.
Answer: Ilkhanate
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For 10 points each, identify these works of Stephen Vincent Benet.,
[10] In this version of the Faust legend, New Hampshire farmer Jabez Stone sells his soul to Satan in return for good fortune. The titular politician defends him in court in front of a jury of notorious American characters.
Answer: "The Devil and Daniel Webster"
[10] Benet also penned this post-apocalyptic short story that takes its title from Psalm 137. Its original title was "The Place of the Gods."
Answer: "By the Waters of Babylon"
[10] Charlie Daniels was inspired to write ``The Devil Went Down to Georgia'' after reading this Benet poem which notes that ``Hell's broke loose in Georgia'' several times. It tells the story of how a country bumpkin wins a violin contest at a county fair.
Answer: "The Mountain Whippoorwill: Or, How Hill-Billy Jim Won the Great Fiddlers' Prize"
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Identify the following islands in the Great Lakes, for 10 points each.,
[10] This island is the largest freshwater island in the world. It separates the North Channel from the rest of Lake Huron.
Answer: Manitoulin Island
[10] Located in northern Lake Superior, copper artifacts on this island have been found dating back 5700 years.
Answer: Isle Royale
[10] The largest island in Lake Michigan, this island was the site of the only monarchy to ever exist on United States soil. It was created by the followers of James J. Strang, a claimant to Joseph Smith's position as leader of the Mormon faith.
Answer: Beaver Island
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For 10 points each, identify these solar events.,
[10] Associated with proton storms, these explosions frequently correspond to sunspot activity.
Answer: solar flares
[10] These events, in which stars shed large amounts of plasma from a certain layer, frequently accompany flares. Models of them include reconnection and twisted flux rope models; two of the former are the ``tether-cutting'' and ``breakout'' models.
Answer: coronal mass ejection [or CME]
[10] These phenomena, observable in the hydrogen alpha band, emerge when a coronal shock wave hits the chromosphere, and are commonly associated with solar flares and therefore with CMEs.
Answer: Moreton waves
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Name these colonial governors of Virginia, for 10 points each.,
[10] This man served as governor from 1727 to 1749. His most important action was passing the Virginia Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730 which greatly improved the quality of tobacco coming out of the state.
Answer: William Gooch
[10] Marylanders feared that this governor would lead an army of slaves into Maryland during the revolutionary war. There is also a 1774-1775 war with natives named for this man.
Answer: John Murray, Lord Dunmore (accept either)
[10] This man, best known for being governor of the Dominion of New England, also served as governor of Virginia and Maryland in the late 17th century.
Answer: Edmund Andros
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For 10 points each, answer the following questions about a certain English writer.,
[10] This Lake Poet is remembered for works like ``Thalaba the Destroyer.''
Answer: Robert Southey
[10] This famous anti-war poem by Robert Southey begins with the discovery of a skull by Kaspar and Peterkin.
Answer: ``After Blenheim'' [or ``The Battle of Blenheim'']
[10] In this 1821 poem Southey commemorated the death of George III. Byron later wrote a similarly titled satirical poem as a reply.
Answer: "A Vision of Judgment"
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Part 2 of this work argues for an exhaustive enumeration of instances of phenomena, including negative instances that fail to confirm a held belief. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this 1620 work of philosophy subtitled ``or True Directions Concerning the Interpretation of Nature.''
Answer: Novum Organon or Novum Organum
[10] In Chapter 19 of the Novum Organum Francis Bacon outlines these four phantoms that ``beset men's minds.'' They include those of ``the Tribe,'' ``the Marketplace,'' ``the Theater,'' and ``The Cave.''
Answer: idols or eidolon
[10] In the first part of the Novum, Bacon discusses the beliefs of this pre-Socratic philosopher who argued against polytheism and the contemporary belief in the virtue of athletics. Plato treated this Ionian as the founder of the Eleatics.
Answer: Xenophanes of Colophon
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Name these American architects, for 10 points each.,
[10] This man used a neo-gothic style while designing his Woolworth Building and he also designed the Saint Louis Public Library and the Supreme Court building.
Answer: Cass Gilbert
[10] This Boston born architect created the first monument commemorating the American Revolution with his column on Beacon Hill, but is better known for designing the Massachusetts State House and fitting it with its gilded dome.
Answer: Charles Bulfinch
[10] This man is often considered the first American architect, and he created many buildings in South Carolina before designing the U.S. Patent Office building and the Washington Monument.
Answer: Robert Mills
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The Athenians lost most of their northern land empire early in the Peloponnesian War at this clash. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 424 BC battle, which saw the Athenians, under their commander Hippocrates, defeated in Boeotia as they withdrew from a temple of Apollo they had sacrilegiously fortified there.
Answer: Delium [or Delios]
[10] The Boeotians initially planned to allow the Athenians to retreat, but this commander of the Boeotian forces, famous for being among the first to use combined arms tactics in battle, convinced them to attack.
Answer: Pagondas of Thebes
[10] Following the battle, the Boeotians were able to drive the Athenians from the nearby eponymous city using a curious device resembling a flamethrower. The description of the flamethrower comes to us from this historian, an Athenian commander who was sent into exile following his tardy defense of Amphipolis.
Answer: Thucydides
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He wrote a laudatory poem Scipio, as well as the Euhemerus and the drama Thyestes. For 10 points each:,
[10] This early Roman poet is most famous for his 18 book Annals which chronicled the history of Rome in verse from the fall of Troy until the author's time in the early second century.
Answer: Quintus Ennius
[10] Ennius's Hedyphagetica, "on eating well", was likely the first Latin poem to use this Greek meter, also used in his Annals, as well as the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Answer: dactylic hexameter (prompt on hexameter)
[10] Ennius' Latin epic predecessors, such as Livius Andronicus and Naevius wrote in this poorly understood native Roman meter, which shares its name with a Roman god.
Answer: Saturnian Meter
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Herniation of the epithelial cells of this organ can cause Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this organ, which stores bile and releases it into the common bile duct via the cystic duct.
Answer: gallbladder [accept cholecyst, but do not reveal]
[10] The gallbladder releases bile in response to this hormone, a hunger suppressant secreted by the duodenum.
Answer: cholecystokinin [or CCK]
[10] CCK is produced by these small intestine cells, whereas the K cells produce gastric inhibitory peptide and the S cells produce secretin.
Answer: I cells
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This sin is divided into Rububiyah, al-Asma was Sifat, al-Ibadah, and al-Ashgar varieties. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Islamic sin which you commit when you associate Allah's powers or attributes with other beings, such as by being a Polytheist.
Answer: al-shirk [prompt on ``sin of association'']
[10] Despite the Islamic prohibition on idol worship, which is seen as shirk, according to legend Mohammad originally included these much disputed verses in the Koran, which seemed to authorize the worship of pre-Islamic goddesses.
Answer: Satanic Verses
[10] For a final 10 points, name any of the three goddesses allegedly mentioned in the Satanic Verses, whose worship in modern Islam would be considered shirk.
Answer: Allat or al-Uzza or Manat
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One of the title characters of this work, Frances Carter, was originally planned to have a pheasant painted in her lap. For 10 points each;,
[10] Name this portrait of a newlywed couple, which features the tower of St. Peter's Church in Sudbury in the background.
Answer: Mr. and Mrs. Andrews
[10] This artist created Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, and also painted Jonathan Buttall in his portrait, Blue Boy.
Answer: Thomas Gainsborough
[10] Sometimes called ``The Morning Walk,'' this Gainsborough painting shows the title couple strolling through a park while a Spitz dog walks alongside on the lower left.
Answer: Mr. and Mrs. William Hallett
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Answer some questions related to optics and shapes, for 10 points each.,
[10] Composed of two right triangle prisms with perpendicular optical axes, this type of prism is used to create two linearly polarized light rays from either polarized or unpolarized light.
Answer: Wollaston prism
[10] This diffraction pattern occurs when a circular aperture is uniformly illuminated. Its central element is surrounded by concentric dim rings. This feature defines the smallest size point to which you can focus a beam of light, even with a theoretically perfect lens.
Answer: Airy disk
[10] If you shine light at an opaque circular obstacle, you get a bright spot directly behind it, named either for a Catalan physicist or for a man whose support for an exclusively particle theory was ruined by this feature's evidence in support of Huygens's principle.
Answer: Arago spot or Poisson spot
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It tells the story of a woman sent from her aunt Atie's house to her mother Martine in New York, and has a child, Brigitte, after eloping with Joseph. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this novel about Sophie Caco.
Answer: Breath, Eyes, Memory
[10] This collection discusses the father of Guy, who makes Lili a widow by jumping out of a hot-air balloon, in "A Wall of Fire Rising." Other stories in this volume include "Caroline's Wedding" and "Children of the Sea."
Answer: Krik? Krak!
[10] This Haitian author chronicled the life of Amabelle Desir and her difficulties living in the repressive Dominican Republic in The Farming of Bones and also wrote Breath, Eyes, Memory; The Dew Breaker; and Krik? Krak!
Answer: Edwidge Danticat
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Greeks use xematiasma to cure this affliction, while people in Iran and Iraq cure it by burning aspand seeds on charcoal. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this affliction which Muslims ward off by wearing a hamsa, which is caused by a malevolent gaze.
Answer: evil eye [or clear-knowledge equivalents; there are huge number of foreign names for the evil eye, too many to list here]
[10] This UC Berkeley professor of anthropology argued that the evil eye is almost always associated with dryness, and its cure with wetness, in his essay "Wet and Dry."
Answer: Alan Dundes
[10] In "Wet and Dry," Dundes argues that many cultures believe that this kind of animal is immune from the evil eye because of its association with water. Since the Talmud states that these animals are unaffected by the evil eye, Sephardic Jews use images of these creatures to ward it off.
Answer: fish [or clear-knowledge equivalents]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
A soot-red one of these creatures is said to reside in Hel, but his name is unknown. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this creature, the most famous of which in Norse mythology is arguably Gullinkambi, who will make some noise right before Ragnarok.
Answer: rooster [or cock]
[10] Other notable roosters in Norse myth include this creature who lives in the forest of Galgvidr in Jotunheim with the cheerful giant Eggther. This rooster also shares his name with this dwarf who killed Kvasir alongside his buddy Gjallar.
Answer: Fjalar
[10] The top of the Tree of Mimir, which is probably the same as Yggdrasil, is home to Vithofnir, a rooster who can only be harmed by this sword forged by Loki and kept in a bowl by Sinmara.
Answer: Laevatein
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This battle saw the defeat of Admiral Nils Ehrenskiold by his counterpart Fyodor Apraksin. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1714 naval battle from the Great Northern War, the first major victory anywhere for a Russian fleet.
Answer: Battle of Gangut
[10] The Russian fleet in the Great Northern War was based at Reval in modern-day Estonia, which is also home to the site of this 1700 Russian defeat, the first major battle of the war.
Answer: Battle of Narva
[10] The alliance that fought Sweden during the Great Northern War was organized by this Livonian adventurer, who brought them together at the 1700 Treaty of Preobrazhensky.
Answer: Johann Reinhold Patkul
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The perfringens species of this genus of bacteria is the most common cause of gas gangrene, and the difficile species is a common cause of colitis. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this genus of bacteria that also includes the species tetani, which causes tetanus.
Answer: Clostridium
[10] C. tetani works by producing toxins that attack these proteins important in the process of membrane fusion, which come in vesicle and target varieties.
Answer: SNAREs [or Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptors; or SNAP receptors; prompt on SNAP]
[10] Clostridium also includes the bacteria that causes this disease. It acts similar to tetanus but attacks SNARES in a way that causes paralysis.
Answer: botulism

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