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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 ACF Nationals Tossups by Editors 5
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At one point, its author states that the youth must be socialized by rejecting sports. It also argues that culture is reciprocal and discusses the intellectual's struggle with being ``out-of-date.'' It focuses on the distrust between those who live in towns and those who live in the country in its section on ``spontaneity's'' strengths and weaknesses. Its preface, which condemns ``old mother countries'' as exploitative and praises the author as another Engels, was written by Jean Paul Sartre. Featuring such chapters as ``The Pitfalls of National Consciousness'' and ``The Colonial War and Mental Disorders,'' it was written during the Algerian struggle for independence. For 10 points, identify this work which argues that revolutionary violence is the way for the title group to prevail, a work by Frantz Fanon.
Answer: The Wretched of the Earth or Les Damnes de la Terre
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An estate surrounded by woods can be seen in the background of this work, which was commissioned by Taddeo Contarini and also features a fig tree in the foreground. Previous names for this painting include ``figures'' and, more in line with the current name, ``geometers and mathematicians.''One of its subjects wears an ornate gold necklace, red robe, and a turban, while another, seemingly the oldest, holds a parchment which he may have removed from his gold cloak. Although the rocky path on the left is well lit, much of the canvas is taken up by dark cave that beckons the youngest of the title figures, who is seated and holds compass and a slate in his hands. Owned by the same family that purchased its artist's previous work, The Tempest, for 10 points, identify this 1506 work by Giorgione featuring the titular number of thinkers.
Answer: The Three Philosophers
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About halfway into this work, the narrator is instructed to recall the lead actor's height in a contemporary production of Crebillon's Xerxes by a gentleman he once met in a library at the Rue Montmartre. It compares the skills needed to succeed at chess with those required by whist and, at one point, reproduces a full excerpt from the Gazette des Tribunaux. It begins with a quote from Thomas Browne asserting that even the most puzzling questions are not beyond all conjecture and ends with a visit to the Prefect to secure the release of Adolphe Le Bon, who had been apprehended near the scene at Quartier St. Roch. It is through a process its author dubs ``ratiocination'' that the protagonist determines who was responsible for the mangled corpses of a mother and daughter named L'Espanaye. While the story features a bevy of witnesses who attest to the culprit's nationality, the protagonist deduces that the true killer at the house on the titular street was a recently captured Orangutan. For 10 points, identify this 1841 short story that featured the debut of the detective C. Auguste Dupin, a work by Edgar Allan Poe.
Answer: The Murders in the Rue Morgue
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The Tetris Algorithm can be used to perform a range query on the universal type of these data structures, which make use of a Z Order Curve. A function which compares only the first k bits of data can be used to implement the space-saving prefix type of these data structures, while the regular type places elements to the left and right of a median node during the split portion of data insertion. A. A. Toptsis developed a variant of this data structure which increased the density of certain components within it to two thirds from another variant's one half, the so called star variety. In that latter variant, records are only stored at the leaf level, that is, the plus variety of this data structure, which is used to implement the NTFS file system. Developed by Ed McCreight and Rudolf Bayer, it is a more generalized form of a 2-3 tree. For 10 points, name this data structure, a type of self-balancing tree often used to implement databases.
Answer: B-Tree [or B Minus Tree]
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This city's position at the midpoint of two bridges four miles apart, Oldbridge and Bewley, enabled its defenders to protect its curtain walls as well as the West Gate and St. Lawrence Gate from Phelim O'Neill during the Eleven Years War. A later battle here culminated in the losing commander being beaten to death on St. Michael's Mount with his own wooden leg after that man, Arthur Aston, claimed that ``he who could take'' this place ``could take Hell.'' Over a thousand survivors of the initial breach of the walls here were caught and killed in St. Peter's Church. Most of the losers were deported to Barbados after the literal decimation of its defenders in 1649, two months before a similar action at Wexford. For 10 points, name this fortress on the Boyne where forces of Oliver Cromwell committed a notorious massacre.
Answer: Drogheda [or Droichead Atha]
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During this politician's election campaign, management of the personalized account system of pensions became a non-issue, despite the opposing candidate being a billionaire and brother of the system's earlier organizer, Jose Pinera.An important health and defense advisor in the Concertacion coalition, she was rewarded with a ministry position in the administration of Ricardo Lagos. She was tortured before being exiled to Australia after her father died of a heart attack, which this woman's father suffered in captivity for his resistance to the rise of Pinochet. For 10 points, name this agnostic and Socialist divorcee and pediatrician, elected the first female President of notably catholic Chile in 2006.
Answer: Veronica Michelle Bachelet Jeria
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During an eastern theater of the war which led to this action, members of two ethnic groups were hung from trees with a dog and the slogan "all of one faith" was written on the tree. One polity affected by this event lost half of its annual tax revenue when the Bochnian salt mines were transferred as part of it. The treaty formalizing this event specifically omitted Toru'n but included Podolia and Galicia. This event was made possible following a victory at Lanckorona by Suvorov over the Confederation of Bar, which had attempted to depose Stanislaw II. Twenty years after this occurrence, an invitation from the Confederation of Targowica led to a similar event. For 10 points, name this 1772 action orchestrated by Frederick II and Catherine the Great, which came before two other divisions of a certain country.
Answer: The First Partition of Poland [prompt on partial answer]
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The 18-coefficient tensor used for calculations of this effect can be simplified to 4 independent values if Kleinman symmetry is present, and it is most complex in the case of triclinic crystals. This effect allows perovskite to be used for photon-induced electric field poling and can also be used as a shutter for Q switching in a laser. Cells that utilize this effect are most often created with potassium dehydrogenated phosphate or lithium niobate. Those cells will cause polarization rotation if they are not aligned parallel or perpendicular to the light beam, and are used in voltage-controlled retarders. For 10 points, identify this effect in which an electric field creates a linearly proportional birefringence, unlike the similar but quadratically proportional Kerr Effect.
Answer: Pockels effect [or electro-optic effect]
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According to one story, it was this deity, not Indra, who killed Vritra. In honor of this deity, grandmothers make a pentagram sign with honey on the tongue of newborn babes. In one story, it was the welling up of a great wave during the Churning of the Sea that brought this deity to life. In Bengal, plums are often eaten during this deity's namesake puja.Sometimes identified with Vach, offerings are made to this deity by schoolchildren before classes, as this deity was often credited with inventing the alphabet. According to one legend, this eight armed deity is born from the body of Gowri and forms a trinity with Kali and Lakshmi in the Devi Mahatmya.More commonly depicted dressed in white with a veena, or stringed instrument, in one her four arms, she is usually shown sitting on a lotus or riding the swan Hamsa. For 10 points, identify this Hindu goddess of music and learning, the consort of Brahma.
Answer: Saraswati or Sarasvati
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It begins with the author discussing the status of angels who walk among us in Isaac Watt's essay ``The Remnants of Time,'' and cites admiringly to Joseph Butler's The Analogy of Religion. The fifth section refers to a discussion of Leopold von Ranke by Macaulay and debates Transubstantiation. That section also focuses on a refutation of previous works which argued for a via media, a religious path between two extremes, and is called ``The Position of my Mind since 1845.'' Its composition was provoked by a remark in Macmillan's Magazine that its author did not consider ``truth'' a ``necessary virtue.''Released serially, this response to Charles Kingsley touched on the author's foundation of Tracts for the Times, but really focused on his conversion from Anglicanism to Catholicism, and took its title from Latin for ``A defense of one's life.'' For 10 points, identify this spiritual autobiography by John Henry Newman.
Answer: Apologia pro vita sua
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One queen during this dynasty inspired a fad for the Tzitzakion, a Turkish robe worn by that queen's Khazar ancestors. Early events during this dynasty included the defense of the capital against Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik and a victory at Akroinos against another Arab army. This dynasty was founded when the commander of the Theme of Anatolikon revolted in the name of the deposed Anastasius II against the usurper Theodosius III. The second ruler of this dynasty was nicknamed Copronymus after defecating in his baptismal font. The first ruler of this dynasty issued the law code known as the Ecloga and feuded with Patriarch Germanus over the veneration of religious images. For 10 points, identify this Byzantine dynasty which included Constantine V, the empress Irene, and its namesake founder, the iconoclast Leo III.
Answer: Isaurian dynasty [or Saurian dynasty]
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At one point in this novel, a couple assembles a boat in the middle of the Hotel Liberty. In another scene, the narrator describes the transformation of Jacksonburg to Marxville. Its final pages reveal the futures of such principal characters as the sometime friends Corker and Pigge, as well as the Madagascar bound Katchen. Additionally, the sycophantic Mr. Salter ends up happily editing Home Knitting. This prognostication occurs in the third section of the novel called The Banquet, which opens with the protagonist's triumphant return to England, only to have another character steal his glory and pitch an all-women expedition to the South Pole. The novel opens with the section The Stitch Service, describing a case of mistaken identity as Lord Copper seeks out the author of the nature column, Lush Places, and sends him to cover a potential civil war in Ishmaelia.Depicting the intense competition between the Daily Brute and the Daily Beast, it was based on the author's own experience working for the Daily Mail and was written before its author's Brideshead Revisited. For 10 points, identify this 1937 work about William Boot navigating the British newspaper industry, by Evelyn Waugh.
Answer: Scoop
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Tiburon Island is part of this state and is located near San Jorge Bay, while the Pinacate peaks and the Cerro Colorado tuff cone are prominent landmarks in this state near the Great Altar Desert. Mesa del Campanero is located near the homeland of the Yaqui people, who are located in this state, and their namesake river is used for irrigation in this state, particularly around the town of Ciudad Obregon. Puerto Penasco is one of this state's major tourist destinations, as its location on the Sea of Cortez makes it attractive to American tourists. Hermosillo is the capital of, for 10 points, which Mexican state located just south of Arizona that shares its name with a major desert?
Answer: Sonora
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The Omi/HtrA2 and DIABLO families of proteins binds to enzymes that inhibit these proteins, one of which processes the transcription factor SATB1 in activated T cells. Abnormally high concentrations of one of them are found in polycystic kidney disease, and two others cleave the huntingtprotein in Huntington's disease. Granzyme B activates multiple proteins in this family. One of them is recruited by FADD, and another by a cytochrome c/Apaf-1 complex. Numbers 8 and 9 are the ``initiators'' of their namesake cascade, which occurs at the death-induced signaling complex. CED-3, which performs their function in C. elegans, is a homolog of ICE, or number 1 of these enzymes. For 10 points, name these proteases that play a critical role in apoptosis.
Answer: caspases [or cysteine-dependent aspartases]
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The second section opens with a couple dancing the tango before they are interrupted by the entry of the Sergeant. The image of a new plantain shoot withering to give sap to an older part of the plant foretells the passing of a young man, who returned from studying medicine in England to see that a certain ritual is carried out. Based on a 1946 event, during the final scene, an aristocratic woman and her husband, the meddling District Officer, are confronted by the ``mother of the market'' and asked about the honor of the white man.Its publication featured an Author's Note that warned against reducing the conflict to a ``clash of cultures'' as previous critics had done with the author's novel Season of Anomy. Set in Oyo, it ends when the title figure, ashamed at his earlier cowardice and the loss of his son Olunde, strangles himself, thus fulfilling the royal custom. For 10 points, identify this work about the struggles of Elesin Oba, who, as chief of the monarch's stables, is expected to commit suicide, a play by Wole Soyinka.
Answer: Death and the King's Horseman
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The Blandford-Znajek process can only occur in this area, and plasmas in this region will generate Alfven waves that emit energy outward via the Poynting flux. Superradiance is the spontaneous emission of positive-energy photons in this region, and, under certain conditions, negative phase velocity propagation can occur here. One interpetation of this defines it as the area in which it is impossible for a particle to move on an integral curve of a Killing vector. Small relativistic jets can form in this area since it is undergoing the Lense-Thirring effect, and it only exists when a Kerr metric is present. Penrose processes take place in, for 10 points, what ellipsoid region outside of a black hole from which energy and mass can be extracted?
Answer: ergosphere
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McCallum and Nelson added a term regarding expected future income in order to fully optimize this model and apply it to business cycles. Don Patinkin modified this model by substituting the aggregate supply function, and Robert Mundell introduced foreign trade to it. The Lucas critique argues that it cannot be used to predict the effects of a change in government economic policy. Construction of it may begin with a ``cross'' popularized by Alvin Hansen, for whom this model is sometimes named. The liquidity trap occurs if one of the curves in this model is nearly horizontal. For 10 points, name this macroeconomic model that plots equilibrium curves for both goods and money, elucidated in the 1937 paper ``Mr. Keynes and the Classics'' by John Hicks.
Answer: IS-LM model
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Originally begun as a Fantasie, it eventually assumed a three movement structure with a ``cyclic'' theme. Its final section includes a movement marked by a rowdy peasant dance and is marked Anime. It begins with an atmospheric tremolo played by an English horn that spreads with an infectious lift to the woodwinds, and is meant to recall a shepherd's tune the composer heard on his walks through the countryside. The composer's decision to incorporate certain instruments echoes the decisions of his teacher Cesar Franck. Completed in 1886, it was inspired by the composer's trip to a villa in Faugs from where he could glimpse the highest peak of the nearby Alps. For 10 points, identify this work for piano and orchestra, the masterpiece of Vincent D'Indy.
Answer: Symphony on a French Mountain Air [or Symphonie sur un chant montagnard francais or Symphonie Cevenole]
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This man's government reclaimed for the state the al-madbut lands formerly held by tax farmers. His teenage son Toussoun was dispatched to the Hejaz to reclaim Mecca and Medina from a Wahhabist insurgency. This victor at the Battle of Nizip introduced the farming of cotton to his country and annexed Syria, only stopping in the face of European opposition. Earlier, he sponsored Tahir Pasha's losing fleet at the last battle fought between wooden ships, Navarino. He came to power when he was put in charge of three hundred soldiers who were to fight the French occupation, and within seven years this Albanian was named w=al={i} by Selim III. For 10 points, name this governor who established an effectively independent Egypt.
Answer: Muhammad Ali [or Mehmed Ali]
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At one point the speaker admits his contradictory tone when he asserts that his call to is always full of ``get away.'' In another of these poems, the speaker notes that humans ``don't love like flowers'' and that ``memory climbs into our arms.'' In yet another selection, the speaker discusses the ``cheap winter hats of fate'' made by the milliner, Madame Lamort. Although the first one celebrates the accomplishments of a brokenhearted 16th Century poet in publishing her Rime, the second to last of them is more pessimistic as it compares the ``half-certainty'' of a bird to an ``Etruscan soul.'' That poem, the eighth, is dedicated to Rudolf Kassner and is preceded by another, containing a description of acrobats tumbling, inspired by Picasso and dedicated to Frau Hertha Koenig. This cycle of poems, which was ultimately completed in 1922, begins with the speaker asking, ``If I cry out, who would hear me through the Angel orders?'' and was named for a castle in Trieste. For 10 points, identify this collection of ten poems, whose subtitle marks them as ``property of Princess Marie von Thurn und Taxis-Hohenlohe," a work by Rainer Maria Rilke.
Answer: The Duino Elegies
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Among this man's early work was a study of an enzyme in the pathway used to convert squalene to cholesterol, and he developed a synthesis of (1,5) dienes using reductive coupling of allylic alcohols. He later used those allylic alcohols and a namesake titanium tartrate catalyst in a reaction co-discovered with Tsutomu Katsuki. This advocate of a type of chemistry involving rapid synthesis of easy-to-make molecules, ``click chemistry,'' used a cinchona ligand and an osmium-based catalyst to form vicinal diols from alkenes. Along with William Knowles and Ryoji Nonori, this man received the 2001 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on chirally catalyzed oxidation reactions. For 10 points, name this chemist now at The Scripps Research Institute, who has namesake asymmetric dihydroxylation and epoxidation reactions.
Answer: K(arl) Barry Sharpless
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In 2006, the instigator of this Supreme Court case, Moreton Rolleston, concluded an eleven-year appeals process against a malpractice verdict that saw him representing himself while in manacles at age eighty-eight. The test of whether the regulation has a "real and substantial relation to the national interest" was developed in the opinion for this case by Justice Clark. It was decided the same year as a similar case, Katzenbach v. McClung, which examined Ollie's Barbecue in Birmingham. This decision, which pointed out the facility's proximity to Interstates 75 and 85, hinged on whether the commerce clause was sufficient grounds for Title II of the Civil Rights Act. For 10 points, name this 1964 case in which prohibitions on discrimination in places of public accomodation were upheld over the objections of a Georgia lodging-house operator.
Answer: Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States [or United States v. Heart of Atlanta Motel]
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This artist's most notable work can be found in a building designed by Camillo Pastrucci called the Palazzo Massimo. Charles Townley brought a copy of one of this artist's works to London, and that piece now bears his name. Adolf Furtwangler argued that the depiction of certain locks of hair, so reminiscent of the Cassel Apollo, marks a particular head of Perseus in this man's work.An armless nude putting one foot forward and now housed at the Lateran Museum is known as his Dancing Satyr. According to Pliny, he was taught by Ageladas of Argos and created such works for the Acropolis as Athena and Marsyas, as well as a figure so lifelike it was said to have attracted a bull. In addition to his bronze cow, he depicted contemporary athletes including the runner Ladas. His most famous work depicted a man bent over and about to release a namesake projectile. For 10 points, identify this ancient sculptor of the Discobolos.
Answer: Myron of Eleutherae
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In one section of this novel, a commander has to hang his friend for stealing coins from a derailed train, while, in another, a woman described as having "a moon face" helps a man trapped in a cellar with two vicious dogs to escape. It begins with a different women reminiscing about her decision to return to Washington, D.C., and that woman had originally fled her previous existence after her beau, Mr. Delaney, was found guilty of fraud and crossed the border. The second chapter depicts the exhumation of a man who'd traveled with a copy of Don Quixote and a Colt .44 to join men like Colonel Frutos Garcia in their struggle. Much of the novel revolves around a love triangle between the teacher, Harriet Winslow, the General, Tomas Arroyo, and the title figure, who consistently reflects on the war stories he has written in the past. Inspired by its author's interest in his real life subject's disappearance during the Civil War, it was composed after Terra Nostra and The Death of Artemio Cruz. For 10 points, identify this novel whose potentially pejorative title refers to Ambrose Bierce, a work by Carlos Fuentes.
Answer: The Old Gringo
 
2009 ACF Nationals Bonuses by Editors 5
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This kingdom was victorious at the battle of Ngasaunggyan against the Mongols, and earlier absorbed the Mon people under the leadership of Anawratha. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this kingdom of Burma, eventually supplanted by the Ava dynasty.
Answer: Pagan kingdom
[10] This second major important Burmese empire was founded by King Mingyinyo near the end of the Ava dynasty.
Answer: Toungoo dynasty
[10] This political party, which eventually became the State Peace and Development Council in 1997, seized power in 1988 under the leadership of Saw Maung.
Answer: SLORC or State Law and Order Restoration Council
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Answer the following about the Kaaba, for 10 points each.,
[10] Literally meaning ``inviolate zone,'' this term denotes the restricted area around the Kaaba into which only Muslims may enter. It may extend in some directions as far as 12 miles.
Answer: haram
[10] Worn hollow by centuries of veneration, this item is held together by a wide silver band and is ritually kissed by Muslims during the hajj.
Answer: The Black Stone or Al Hajar as-Aswad
[10] This Islamic creed is embroidered onto the black and silk gold curtain that covers the Kaaba. It reads, ``There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.''
Answer: Shahadah
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It begins ``The rain set early in to-night'' and was first published under the general title Madhouse Cells. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this 1836 poem in which the narrator describes strangling a woman he adores with her yellow hair.
Answer: ``Porphyria's Lover''
[10] With ``Porphyria's Lover,'' Robert Browning anticipated this later dramatic monologue, in which the narrator provides the reader with a tour of his art collection, including Fra Pandolf's painting of the now dead titular figure.
Answer: ``My Last Duchess''
[10] This work, first published in Browning's Men and Women, is composed in rhyming couplets, and its title may refer to the Roman Campagna. Its speaker notes that only ``a single little turret remains'' where a great city once stood, but that his paramour waits for him there.
Answer: ``Love Among the Ruins''
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Answer some questions about sound changes in Indo-European, for 10 points each.,
[10] This division shows what happened to the Proto-Indo-European velars, labiovelars, and palatovelars. It is named for two different ways to say ``a hundred''.
Answer: Centum-Satem isogloss/division/whatever [accept in either order]
[10] Similar to Lachmann's Law for Latin, this law, whose details are still disputed, states that, in Balto-Slavic languages, Proto-Indo-European short vowels before voiced stops became lengthened, while aspirates after short vowels became voiced stops.
Answer: Winter's Law
[10] This subfamily is broken up into Q- and P- groups based on what happened to the Proto-Indo-European labiovelars in one scheme, and Insular and Continental groups in another. Its members include Breton, Manx, and Welsh.
Answer: Celtic languages
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Klaus von Klitzing discovered this in 1980 in a silicon MOSFET. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this effect in which a conductivity with certain discrete values is generated by a magnetic field.
Answer: quantum Hall effect
[10] This factor, denoted v, can be either an integer or a fraction. In the integer case, the effect can be explained by Landau quantization.
Answer: filling factor
[10] Laughlin explained the existence of fractional filling factors by considering a quantum fluid that breaks electrons into fractional "quasiparticles". These quasiparticles must be this type of particle, defined as one that obeys neither bosonic or fermionic statistics.
Answer: anyons
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This poet, whose first book was called The Path of the Conquistadors, was executed in 1921. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this Russian who founded the Guild of Poets in 1905, and whose individual works include ``Abyssinian Song'' and the collections Pearl and Pillar of Fire.
Answer: Nikolai Stepanovich Gumilev
[10] For a time, Nikolai Gumilev was married to this poetess, whose own publications include the collections The Rosary, The Willow Tree, and her masterpiece, ``Poem without a Hero.''
Answer: Anna Akhmatova
[10] Both Gumilev and Akhmatova were founding members of this school of poetry, whose clarity and precision was a reaction to the decadence of the Symbolists.
Answer: Acmeism or Acmeist
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Identify the following about some VH1 reality shows, for 10 points each.,
[10] Composed of contestants from other VH1 shows like Flavor of Love and Rock of Love, this show hosted by C.J. Jackson posits that those contestants, like Season 1 winner Hoopz, were really motivated by the titular capitalist leanings.
Answer: I Love Money
[10] The "strutting, preening, over confident alpha-males" on this show were told that they were appearing on a program called "Mr. Awesome". Instead, Trina Dolenz dishes out relationship advice to dudes like M.E.G.A. and Mastuflex.
Answer: Tool Academy
[10] On this show's website, you can find a list of Hottest Ladies including Madonna and Alicia Keys, as well as the time period's Biggest Summer hits "featuring Sisqo and Christina."
Answer: I Love the New Millennium
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His first exhibition of paintings was held at the Daniel Gallery in 1915. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this artistic polymath who created ready-mades such as Gift, essentially a flatiron with some tacks in it, and invented a namesake technique that produced images by placing objects on sensitized paper in a dark room and exposing them briefly to light.
Answer: Man Ray or Emmanuel Radnitzky
[10] In this film, a collaboration with Duchamp, Ray depicted whirling animated drawings, or Rotoreliefs, alternated with French puns.
Answer: Anemic Cinema
[10] In 1934, Ray photographed this fellow artist, primarily known for her fur-covered tea cup, in a series of nude pictures.
Answer: Meret Oppenheim
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It is unknown how many of these treaties there actually were, but there were at least two political and one commercial. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this set of treaties, signed in 1703, that allied Portugal with Britain during the War of the Spanish Succession and allowed Britain to import cheap Portuguese wine while selling their textiles to Portugal.
Answer: Methuen Treaty [or Metheun Treaties]
[10] In the first Methuen Treaty, Portugal insisted that this Austrian Archduke become a viable claimant to the Spanish throne. He later succeeded to the throne of Austria after the death of Joseph I.
Answer: Charles VI [prompt on Archduke Charles]
[10] The dissolution of the Ostend Trading Company and the renunciation to sovereignty over Lorraine were just two of the concessions Charles VI had to give to get other European powers to accept this document, which stated that, in the absence of a male heir, he would be succeeded by his daughters.
Answer: Pragmatic Sanction of 1713
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They occur intermittently in bolsons, and are sources of evaporite minerals like borax. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these often-temporary lakes, which appear in desert basins and result in sabkhas or flats after they evaporate.
Answer: playa lakes
[10] Arid environments usually have this type of soil characterized by accumulation of calcium carbonate in the A-horizon. CF Marbut delineated the boundary in the U.S. between these soils and pedalfers.
Answer: pedocals
[10] Arid environments are also typified by the appearance of this dark brown or red, often shiny, coating on the surface of rock which results from a mixture of clay minerals with manganese and iron oxides.
Answer: desert varnish
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Identify the following Dutch landscape painters from a description, for 10 points each.,
[10] Although he was primarily associated with paintings based in and around the city of his birth, Dordrecht, he also drew the occasional cow or three.
Answer: Aelbert Cuyp
[10] This painter's river scenes, such as River View of the Valkhof, never had the same impact as the works of his more famous nephew, Jacob.
Answer: Salomon van Ruisdael
[10] This one-time pupil of Jacob van Ruisdael may be best known for 1689's Avenue at Middleharnis.
Answer: Meindert Hobbema
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It opens with the title figure yearning to leave her little town of Hohen-Cremmen. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this 1894 novel about a woman who suffers through an unhappy marriage to Baron Geert von Innstetten and has an affair with the dashing Major Crampas.
Answer: Effi Briest
[10] This realist author of such works as Trials and Tribulations and Cecile wrote Effi Briest.
Answer: Theodor Fontane
[10] This fellow German greatly admired Fontane's Effi Briest, and its influence can be seen in a work about the decline of Johann Buddenbrook's family.
Answer: Thomas Mann
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It can be derived by multiplying both sides of the MacLeod equation by the molar mass of a compound. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this property of a substance, first introduced by Samuel Sugden, which gives a rough measure of molar volume.
Answer: parachor
[10] The parachor is equal to the molar volume at temperatures for which this property is equal to one. The Eotvos equation gives its temperature dependence, and it is related to pressure by the Young-Laplace equation.
Answer: surface tension
[10] Along with Shields, this Scottish chemist modified the Eotvos equation to state that surface tension is proportional to the quantity critical temperature minus current temperature minus six. He also received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of five noble gases.
Answer: Sir William Ramsay
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
These plants store carbon dioxide in the form of oxaloacetic acid. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this group of plants that have evolved a spatial separation between the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis, which include corn and crabgrass.
Answer: C4 plants
[10] C4 plants contain this enzyme in their mesophyll cells in place of RuBisCO, which fixes carbon dioxide to form oxaloacetic acid. It also fixes carbon dioxide to its namesake molecule in CAM plants.
Answer: PEP carboxlyase [or phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase]
[10] C4 plants exhibit this specialized kind of anatomy in which radially-oriented mesophyll cells form a wreath-like structure around each vascular bundle.
Answer: Kranz anatomy
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Challenges faced by this monarch included a Welsh rebellion led by Aelfgar and being shipwrecked and held hostage by Guy I of Ponthieu. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Anglo-Saxon monarch who met his end at the Battle of Hastings.
Answer: Harold Godwinson [or Harold II or Harold Godwineson; prompt on "Earl Harold"]
[10] This younger brother of Harold Godwinson defected from his elder sibling after Harold supported the Morkere faction rebelling against him in Northumbria. He'd later die with Harold Hardraade at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.
Answer: Tostig, Earl of Northumbria
[10] Prior to Stamford Bridge, Tostig and Harold Hardraade won a victory over Morkere and his brother at this site near the city of York and the small stream Germany on September 20th, 1066.
Answer: Battle of Gate Fulford [or Battle of Water Fulford]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about a work of political philosophy and its author, for 10 points each.,
[10] Begun in 1604, but not published until 1864, this book, which advocated freedom of the seas as a ``law of nature,'' was inspired by Portuguese efforts to limit trade in the West Indies.
Answer: Concerning the Law of Prizes or De jure praedae
[10] Later, Chapter 12 of Concerning the Law of Prizes was published as a stand alone book, but this Dutch thinker remains better known for the doctrine of ``just war'' he advocated in On the Law of War and Peace.
Answer: Hugo Grotius
[10] In this 1627 work, Grotius argued for an elimination of religious conflict among the various sects of the titular religion.
Answer: Concerning the Truth of the Christian Religion or De veritae religionis
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Late in his career, a spat with President Grant over the annexation of the Dominican Republic got him removed from the position of Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Massachusetts senator who gave the notable "Crime Against Kansas" speech in 1856.
Answer: Charles Sumner
[10] Sumner's beating was prompted by insulting this South Carolinian and Calhoun-protege who co-sponsored the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the cousin of Preston Brooks.
Answer: Andrew Pickens Butler
[10] South Carolinian Laurence M. Keitt, who "made sure the licks were laid on" by Brooks, earlier grabbed the throat of this Pennsylvania Speaker of the House from 1861 to 1863 after calling this man a "Black Republican puppy".
Answer: Galusha Aaron Grow
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Several major forts, including Pharwala and Rawat, were built in this strategically important area, and it is bordered by the Margalla Hills and Jhelum River. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this plateau in the heartland of Pakistan which is also home to the ancient university of Taxila.
Answer: Podwar Plateau (or Potwar or Pothohar)
[10] This planned city, designed by C.A. Doxiadus, is located on the Podwar Plateau and includes attractions like the Shah Faisal Mosque.
Answer: Islamabad
[10] This military town adjacent to Islamabad is the headquarters of the Pakistani armed forces and contains nearly three million residents.
Answer: Rawalpindi
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Every other chapter of this work is presented in the form of an old newspaper column written by one of the central characters. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1990 novel in which a lawyer named Galip searches for his missing wife Ruya, who he believes is hiding with her half-brother Jelal.
Answer: The Black Book[or Kara Kitap]
[10] The Black Book was written by this Turkish novelist, who described the adventures of an Italian captured by pirates and given as a slave to Hoja in The White Castle.
Answer: Orhan Pamuk
[10] This Pamuk novel's first section is narrated by the murdered miniaturist Elegant Effendi. It takes place during the reign of Murad III and other characters include the concubine Hayriye and the Jewish peddler Esther.
Answer: My Name is Red [or Benim Adim Kirmizi]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
You can use these to exactly describe the board game Chutes and Ladders. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this type of stochastic process bearing the namesake's eponymous property, which states that the conditional probability distribution is dependent only on the current state and not past states.
Answer: Markov chains
[10] If the transition probability matrix of a Markov chain has multiple identical rows, then it is known as this man's ``scheme''. This man's namesake distribution has expected value equivalent to the parameter.
Answer: Jacob Bernoulli
[10] This most popular probability distribution is sometimes named for Gauss and resembles a bell curve.
Answer: normal distribution
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following about beer in mythology, for 10 points each.,
[10] Before this Egyptian sky goddess completed her destructive mission as the Eye of Ra, or Sekhmet, Ra flooded the bloody fields with beer. When this goddess drank the beer she quickly fell asleep and mankind was saved.
Answer: Hathor
[10] After plying Vainamoinen with beer, this goddess of the dead had her son create a net to trap the heroic bard forever. Vainamoinen changed into an otter, swam through it, and escaped.
Answer: Tuonetar
[10] This frost giant owned an enormous cauldron that Thor and Tyr went to fetch in order to brew beer for all of the Aesir.
Answer: Hymir
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This fictional character is ultimately saved from asphyxiation by Augusta, a seamstress. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this father of Kathleen and Rosamund who misses his dead friend, Tom Outland, and can't stand his job at as Chair of European History at Hamilton University.
Answer: Godfrey St. Peter [prompt on just last name, unless they say Professor St. Peter]
[10] Godfrey St. Peter is the main character in this American author's 1925 novel The Professor's House. Other works by this author include The Song of the Lark and My Antonia.
Answer: Willa Cather
[10] This Cather heroine has an affair with Frank Ellinger, a womanizer from Denver, and by the end of A Lost Lady has left the ostensible protagonist Niel Herbert behind in Sweet Water.
Answer: Marrian Forrester [accept either name]

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