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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 ACF Nationals Tossups by Editors 3
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The protagonist of this work imagines inventing an anti-hypochondriacal poultice so that his name can be printed on medicine boxes, and later he regrets killing a black butterfly with a towel. While going to have his watch repaired, the protagonist meets his former lover Marcella. After establishing a trust fund for his lover's maid, the main character loses his chance at a political career when his fiancee marries Lobo Neves instead. After the death of his illegitimate child by Virgilia, the title character is shocked by a new watch that he receives in the mail from his old schoolmate Quincas Borba. Dedicated to ``the first worm that gnawed on the cold flesh of my corpse,'' for 10 points, name this novel by Joachim Maria Machado de Assis.
Answer: The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas [or Epitaph of a Small Winner; or The Posthumous Memories of Bras Cubas; or Memorias postumas de Bras Cubas]
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One of this thinker's students developed activity theory along with Rubinstein. This thinker distinguished between primary defects caused by heredity and secondary defects caused by a person's social environment, and argued that the apex of knowledge was decontextualization, or the ability to transfer a skill into a new context. This psychologist asserted that egocentric speech leads to advanced thought, and postulated the importance of assistance from More Knowledgeable Others. Steven Toulmin called this thinker the "Mozart of Psychology," and his ideas were promulgated by his students Leont'ev and Luria. Scaffolding is based on the ideas of this psychologist, who postulated a space between a person's actual level of development and his or her potential area of development. For 10 points, name this Russian psychologist whose book Mind in Society introduced the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development.
Answer: Lev Vygotsky
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This empire was the site of a heretical movement that legalized polygamy and opposed the use of crucifixes, Antonianism, led by native prophet Donna Beatrice. It declined following a loss at the Battle of Mbwila. A long civil war in this empire was ended by an agreement to alternate the kingship between the Kimpanzu and Kinlaza. Other problems befell it in 1568, when this empire was occupied by the Jagas, and its ruler Alvaro I had to seek foreign help to reconquer its territory. Its capital was at a city renamed Sao Salvador under colonization, which has since reverted to its original name of Mbanzaa. Founded by its first "mani," Lukeni lua Nimi, this land was Christianized in 1491 but was ultimately absorbed into the Portuguese colonial empire following a souring of relations with Angola. For 10 points, name this empire which existed from 1390 to 1914 in southwest Africa and shares its name with two modern-day countries.
Answer: Kingdom/Empire of Kongo
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These entities can be described using Kroger-Vink notation. The Howie-Whelan theory was developed to account for them, and Kikuchi lines are used to select conditions under which to image them. The Brouwer diagram plots the log of the change in their concentration against temperature or partial pressure of oxygen. Wadsley ones occur due to randomly spaced shear planes, and linear ones can be classified using Volterra's method. The most common ones are named after Frenkel, in which an ion migrates to an interstitial site, and Schottky, in which both cations and anions are missing completely. Divided into stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric varieties, for 10 points, name these places in a lattice that contain misplaced atoms.
Answer: crystal defects [prompt on crystals until "lattice"]
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He memorably declares that he never loses at cards before he first sets foot in Martey's and uses the bathroom. Later he is involved in an elaborate exchange of clothes, primarily rain coats and hats, as the police try to pin him down. His eccentricities involve drinking only Evian, wearing white gloves, and carrying about an enormous ring of car keys. He keeps a bird in his room and, although he cares for his long time girlfriend and accomplice Jane, by the end of the film it is clear that he has fallen for Valerie, the piano player, who it turns out Olivier has hired him to kill. His story opens with a long take of him smoking in bed accompanied by a quote from a text invented by the director of the film in which he appears, The Book of Bushido. Played by Alain Delon, for 10 points, identify this fictional hit man with a warrior's code, the namesake of a 1967 film by Jean Pierre Melville.
Answer: Le Samourai or Jef Costello (either name is acceptable)
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This novel's protagonist is given a golden cigarette case after a three day love affair with the loud Nande Azerdo, and earlier he unsuccessfully attempts to hook up with Elsa under the assumed name of Pearson J. Thomas. While in Berlin, the protagonist is upset that his wife does not want to return home to see his new grandson from his daughter Emily, and earlier that protagonist attempts to refute some of Ross Ireland's criticisms of America. The protagonist flees England after Major Lockert makes advances on his wife, and returns to Paris after his wife gets too close to Arnold Israel. The protagonist, whose company was bought out by the U.A.C., ultimately ends up with Edith Cortright while Kurt von Obersdorf refuses to marry his wife Fran.For 10 points, name this novel by about the European travels of the titular Zenith auto executive, by Sinclair Lewis.
Answer: Dodsworth
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In one story, this mythological figure, who was often depicted in the company of a bird and a squirrel, asks Nera to speak to the dead on Samhain. This figure's marriage is described in a section of the Book of Lecan known as the ``Cath Boinde,'' which also reveals how this figure acquired the court of Cruachan.Killed by a man with a slingshot while bathing in a pool, this figure was succeeded by one of seven sons, Maine Athramail. In the most well known story about this figure, whose lust earned her the epithet ``the friendly-thighed,'' she seduces Fergus Mac Roiche in an attempt to win an argument with her husband, Ailill; an event that precipitates an attack on Ulster and the theft of the Brown Bull of Cooley. For 10 points, identify this queen of Connacht whose forces kill Cuchulainn.
Answer: Medb or Maeve
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One majority opinion by this man upheld the arrest of Irving Feiner following inflammatory remarks he made in Syracuse, New York. This man was joined by Justices Reed and Minton in a dissent that cited Lincoln's naval blockade of the South to argue for the party represented by Secretary of State Charles Sawyer. He used reasons like the necessity of keeping electronic devices secret in his majority opinion denying Air Force reports to widows of civilian crash victims in United States v. Reynolds. He also wrote a majority opinion holding that certain individuals were trying to overthrow the government and that the Smith Act was constitutional in Dennis v. U.S, a landmark anti-Communist opinion. Dying before his court could rule on Brown v. Board of Education, for 10 points, name this former Secretary of the Treasury whom Truman appointed as a replacement for Harlan Fiske Stone as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1946.
Answer: Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson
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A variation of this algorithm which preserves the natural ordering does not perform a merge if an original node exists between two merged nodes and is named for Hu and Tucker. Faller, Gallagher, Knuth, and Vitter all worked on a modification to this algorithm which allowed it to operate in one pass, the so-called dynamic or adaptive form of it. The length limited version of this problem is reduced to the Coin-Collector problem in a generalization of it known as the Package-Merge Algorithm. It is more efficient than a similar technique named for Shannon and Fano, and the selection of the locally smallest two nodes at each step makes it a Greedy Algorithm. Using a binary tree to create prefix-free codes so that the most frequently used symbol has the smallest code, for 10 points, name this type of lossless data compression named for an MIT Computer Scientist.
Answer: Huffman Coding
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This man entered cultural life by publishing a revision of Aratus's poem Phaenomena. During his time as commander of eastern provinces, this man elevated Zenon to the throne of Armenia as Artaxias III. At the death of Augustus, this man put down a mutiny among the troops in Pannonia, and he later supervised coastal operations during a campaign against Dalmatia. When he became commander of the eastern provinces, he was criticized for breaking the Augustan law against high-ranking Romans entering Egypt without permission. Plancina, the wife of the Syrian governor Piso, was soon thereafter accused of poisoning him, following his 19 A.D. death in Syria. This father of Agrippina the Younger and Caligula was, with his wife, Agrippina the Elder, viewed as a rival to Tiberius. For 10 points, name this likely successor to the Imperial throne who was nicknamed for his exploits across the Rhine.
Answer: Germanicus Julius Caesar [or Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus; don't prompt on or accept anything else]
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One man with this last name built a vacuum line used to separate germanium hydrides, and headed the lab in which Hoogsteen pairing was discovered. That man was the first to determine the structure of glycine and alanine, and co-names a molecular model in which atoms are represented as spheres with radii proportional to van der Waals radii along with Pauling and Koltun. A second man with this last name co-names an enantioselective reduction of ketones via the namesake catalyst along with Bakshi and Shibata, and co-names a reaction in which terminal alkynes are created from aldehydes along with Fuchs. He also developed a method in which molecules are dissected into smaller and smaller parts until they are broken down into simple building blocks, a technique he termed ``retrosynthetic analysis.'' For 10 points, give the common last name of these American chemists with first names Robert and Elias.
Answer: Corey [accept Robert Brainard Corey or Elias James Corey]
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They eventually split into two factions, primarily over the question of communal land ownership. One of those factions, the Sons of Freedom, would lead a series of nudist strikes.The major element in their life was ``the gathering,'' at which large passages of the Book of Life would be read, and their leaders included a man named Silva and Peter Verigin who commanded a namesake rebellion. It was their refusal to be conscripted that led to their exile from the land they'd been given by Alexander I around the Sea of Azov. Originally called ``Christians of the Universal Brotherhood,'' after they burned their weapons in an 1895 protest, their struggle and eventual emigration to Canada was supported by Leo Tolstoy. For 10 points, identify this Russian religious sect whose supposedly heretical beliefs led to them being given a name that translates as ``Spirit Wrestlers.''
Answer: The Dukhobors or Doukhobars
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The Meitner-Hupfeld effect is a deviation from this formula in heavy elements. The first experimental confirmations of this were made by Louis Gray, and studies of it by Chung-yao Chao led to the discovery of the positron. Mathematically, one side of it can be expressed as the product of the fine structure constant, Compton radius, and several terms containing the ratio of the photon energy before and after collisions, and, for low energies, it reduces to the classical Thomson equation. For 10 points, identify this formula that was the first experimental proof for Dirac's relativistic electron theory, which gives the differential cross section of a photon scattered by an unbound electron.
Answer: Klein-Nishina formula
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The third section begins in the F sharp minor key and introduces the theme of a musical conversation. The second, more melancholy movement, inspired by laments sung during Holy Week, pairs the featured instrument with an English horn and is marked Adagio. Its opening begins by alternating between a 6/8 signature and accompanying passages in and was based on traditional folk dances such as the fandango. Often performed alongside its composer's later success, Fantasy for a Gentleman, this work for guitar and orchestra was adapted by Miles Davis in his Sketches of Spain. For 10 points, identify this 1940 composition named for the location of Philip II's spring resort, the masterpiece of Joaquin Rodrigo.
Answer: Concierto de Aranjuez
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In 2001, this man fought three consecutive times with John Ruiz, earning one win, one loss, and one draw. The Atlanta mansion of this boxer was foreclosed upon in June 2008 despite the fact that, as recently as 2003, he was paid five million dollars to lose to James Toney. After his first attempt at a title unification fight in 1999 ended in a draw at Madison Square Garden, he lost the rematch eight months later, handing all his belts to Lennox Lewis. He had earlier defeated such reigning champions as Buster Douglas, Riddick Bowe, and Michael Moorer, though he may be best known for his eleven children or for a 1997 bout which referee Mills Lane awarded him on TKO. For 10 points, name this boxer who won his second consecutive fight with Mike Tyson after Tyson bit off part of his ear.
Answer: Evander Holyfield
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Though the first of these conflicts ended bloodlessly due to a settlement engineered by Niklaus Manuel, the second one soon erupted after a dispute over a 2500-crown reparation payment led to a blockade. In the period between these two conflicts, an invasion by Giangiacomo Medici was turned back by the same man who defended Valais in the second of these wars, Hans Franz Nageli. The second one included the battles of Saint Gall and Schaffhausen, where the forces of Jorg Goldli were defeated. The first of these conflicts ended with an agreement by the Christian Union to cease allying with Austria, and the second erupted during a dispute over forced conversions in Thurgau. Named for a monastery that straddled the Zug and Zurich, these conflicts erupted in 1529 and 1531. For 10 points, name these wars between Catholic and Protestant cantons, in which Huldrych Zwingli was killed.
Answer: Kappel Wars
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The protagonist of this work is unhappy with his black brother, the son of his widowed mother by their provider Zayde. One character in this work induces a seizure in a bailiff by praying, and the protagonist eats the cheese out of mousetraps and drills a hole in the bottom of a wine jug. The protagonist works for the aforementioned seller of indulgences after being clubbed by a priest for stealing bread. In another instance, the protagonist has his head knocked against a statue by his master, an old blind man. Named for the river over which he was born, the protagonist gains an influential government post due to some new clothes and is given a wife by the archpriest of Salvador. For 10 points, name this anonymously written picaresque novel.
Answer: Lazarillo de Tormes
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This artist painted numerous nude images of Betalo Rubino, but also painted her in costume as a Dancer of Dehli. This man adopted Hardesty Maratta's twelve basic color system later in his career; this switch brightened his subsequent portraits appreciably when compared to such earlier works as his Gypsy series and Laughing Boy. His admiration for Degas was evident in such works as Dancer in a Yellow Shawl and his portrait of Madame Voclezca as Richard Strauss' Salome.His theories were eventually collected in The Art Spirit, some years after this student of Thomas Anshutz moved from Philadelphia to New York where he made his name. It was his decision to spurn the National Academy of Design that led him to organize a breakthrough show at the Macbeth Gallery in 1908, that exhibition featured such like minded artists as William Glackens and George Luks. For 10 points, identify this American painter, perhaps best known as the leader of ``The Eight.''
Answer: Robert Henri or Robert Henry Cozad
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In it, the author debunks the work of Antonio Maffei on the relationship between ``crooked feet'' and sleep. It also argues that Joseph Spence's translations are intolerable to any reader of taste, and opens by ruminating on the depiction of grief and the need to temper violence for the sake of beauty.Its ultimate conclusion, which follows a comparison of Virgil's Shield of Aeneas versus Homer's description of the Shield of Achilles, recalls an earlier argument made in the 1757 essay ``Main Principles on the Fine Arts and Sciences,'' by the author's close friend, Moses Mendelssohn. Concerned with delineating the limits of representation, it was written primarily as a response to the ideas of Johann Winckelmann. For 10 points, identify this 1766 work of aesthetic philosophy that takes its name from a statue depicting a Trojan priest being strangled by a serpent, written by Gotthold Lessing.
Answer: Laocoon: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry
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This capital city of Henry the Illustrious in the early 13th century saw the training of a significant number of troops at its Albertstadt prior to World War I. Frederick the Great recognized Francis I as Holy Roman Emperor in a treaty named for this city that ended the Second Silesian War. Home to many rulers of the Wettin line, the May Rising here marked the last of the Revolutions of 1848 and saw the attempted ousting of a king who ruled from this city, Frederick Augustus II. A battle named for this city saw the garrison of Laurent Gouvion-Saint-Cyr relieved by a long march by Napoleon, marking the emperor's last victory in Germany. The Marshall Inquiry condoned a decision by Arthur Harris to attack this "Florence on the Elbe" by the RAF and US Army Air Force. For 10 points, name this traditional capital of Saxony, notably firebombed in February 1945.
Answer: Dresden
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The poet used intentionally archaic language in the first two cantos of this work as a tribute to Edmund Spenser. The title character ambles into the land of Cintra while taking a horseback journey through Portugal, and muses on cruelty while watching a bullfight in Spain. After deciding that Albanians are noble savages, the central figure of this work falls in love with the German woman Julia and dies in Rome. The second half of this work nearly ignores the title figure, at first setting him aside for an extended description of the sorry present state of Greek culture, and then admitting that the ruse of an authorial stand-in had run its course. For 10 points, name this narrative poem which introduced a certain type of ``hero,'' a travelogue of a Romantic youth in Europe by Lord Byron.
Answer: Childe Harold's Pilgrimage
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Three classes of cells found in this system were classified by Dogiel, and this system extensively expresses the protein CART. The rotavirus NSP4 may activate this system, which is destroyed in Chagas' disease. The loss or underdevelopment of cells in this system leads to Hirschsprung's disease, and it is divided into Auerbach's plexus and Meissner's plexus. Inflammation of cells in this system is thought to cause the dysmotility associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and it is primarily responsible for controlling secretion, adsorption, and peristalsis associated with digestion. For 10 points, name this largely independent part of the autonomic nervous system, the ``brain in the gut.''
Answer: enteric nervous system [or ENS]
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This area has a six hundred percent variance in rainfall from one side to the other, as measured at Bahia Felix and Rio Grande. Lennox, Picton, and Nueva are among the disputed members of this group, which is supposed to be divided by a line stretching from Cape Espiritu Santo. The largest island of this group is a triangular mass containing Monte Sarmiento and found to the north of the Beagle Channel. Including the noted southerly city of Ushuaia, this archipelago is separated from the mainland by the Strait of Magellan. For 10 points, Cape Horn is found on the southern side of what group of islands shared by Argentina and Chile?
Answer: Tierra del Fuego
 
2009 ACF Nationals Bonuses by Editors 3
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This work was inspired by a poem in which a girl dreams that the rose she'd worn to a ball comes to life, for 10 points each.,
[10] Identify this rondo brillant for piano which was written in 1819 and includes a quiet coda that interrupts the many waltzes it incorporates.
Answer: Invitation to the Dance or Aufforderung zum Tanz
[10] In addition to Invitation to the Dance, this German composed that crazy opera Der Freischutz.
Answer: Car Maria von Weber
[10] This one act singspiel concerns the title figure, a debtor, who along with his wife, Fatime, try to outfox the Caliph.
Answer: Abu Hassan
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Answer the following about a contemporary work of philosophy, for 10 points each.,
[10] This book, first published in 2000, argues that the sovereignty of nation states is at an end and that global capitalism, which now rules as the titular entity, will be undone by the rise of the ``multitude.''
Answer: Empire
[10] Before their collaboration on Empire, Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt produced The Savage Anomaly, a study of works like Tractatus Theologico-Politicus by this 17th Century thinker.
Answer: Baruch Spinoza
[10] Empire also owes a debt to this French philosopher, whose own works included The Logic of Sense and the collaboration Anti-Oedipus.
Answer: Gilles Deleuze
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For the last decade of the second century BCE, this man was in a proxy war with his mother, as each backed different claimants to the Seleucid throne. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Macedonian line king who was deposed from the Egyptian throne twice but reclaimed it for a third time in 88 B.C.E. by marrying his own daughter, Berenice III.
Answer: Ptolemy IX Soter II [or Ptolemy Lathyrus; or Ptolemy the Chickpea; accept Ptolemy Soter II; do not accept Ptolemy Soter; prompt on Ptolemy]
[10] Ptolemy IX was the second Macedonian king of Egypt to bear this epithet, meaning "savior," which was given to the original Ptolemy after he came to the defense of Rhodes against Antigonus.
Answer: Soter
[10] Before marrying his daughter, Ptolemy IX had married this sister of his. She shares her name with the daughter of Mark Antony who was made ruler of Cyrenaica, and she was later killed by forces of Tigranes of Armenia.
Answer: Cleopatra Selene [prompt on partial answer]
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Name these Indian writers, for 10 points each.,
[10] This Sanskrit poet is known for such plays as Vikrama and Urvasi and Sakuntala and the Ring of Recollection as well as the lyric poem The Cloud Messenger.
Answer: Kalidasa
[10] Setting many works in the fictional town of Malgudi, this novelist has composed such works as Swami and Friends, The Painter of Signs, and Under the Banyan Tree.
Answer: Rasipuram Krishnaswami Narayan
[10] This author of Raj also wrote a novel in which a retired bureaucrat is told many Indian folktales by such characters as the Jain monk Ashok and Tariq Mia, A River Sutra.
Answer: Gita Mehta
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For 10 points each, name these writers who penned works about the coming of spring.,
[10] This man defined Spring as ``indecision'' marked by how nature ``puts forth one hepatica at a time'' in his essay How Spring Came in New England. He also wrote part of a novel in which Laura shoots the bigamous Colonel Selby.
Answer: Charles Dudley Warner
[10] This poet wrote ``Here is heard an echo / Of the far sea / Though far off it be'' in her poem Spring Quiet. She also penned the Christmas carol In the Bleak Midwinter.
Answer: Christina Rossetti
[10] This English poet of America: A Prophecy relates how ``The sun does arise / And make happy the skies'' and how ``the old folk / They laugh at our play'' in his poem The Echoing Green.
Answer: William Blake
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The second part of this battle, fought at a namesake bridge, was preceded by a surprise attack at Gameza and the subsequent taking of Tunja. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this August 7th, 1819 battle that marked the final defeat of Spanish troops in New Grenada.
Answer: Battle of Boyaca
[10] This polity was founded in the aftermath of the Battle of Boyaca. Lasting until 1830, it was formally established at the Congress of Cucuta and saw Simon Bolivar serving as both president and dictator.
Answer: Gran Colombia [or Republic of Colombia; prompt on "Viceroyalty of New Grenada" but not just "New Grenada"]
[10] This co-commander with Bolivar at Boyaca would serve as the first Vice President of Gran Colombia. He may have been involved in an attempt to assassinate Bolivar in San Carlos in 1828, and disagreed with keeping Venezuela as part of the unified state.
Answer: Francisco de Paula Santander
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The Claisen rearrangement is frequently referred to as this reaction's oxa- variety. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this thermal isomerization of 1,5-dienes, a pericyclic reaction which ultimately shifts one sigma bond to the opposite position on the ring.
Answer: Cope rearrangement [prompt on Cope reaction; do not accept ``Cope elimination'']
[10] Hodge Markgraf compared this conversion of a primary amide to an amine via a notoriously long mechanism to ``that thing from Guys and Dolls: the longest-running floating craps game in New York.'' Like the Curtius Rearrangement, it involves the formation of an isocyanate intermediate.
Answer: Hofmann rearrangement [prompt on Hofmann reaction; do not accept ``Hofmann elimination'']
[10] Both Cope and Hofmann also name elimination reactions that violate this rule, which states that the major product of an elimination reaction is the more highly substituted product.
Answer: Zaitsev's Rule
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Answer some questions about differential geometry, for 10 points each.,
[10] For unit speed curves, this quantity is the norm of the second derivative of a curve and measures deviation from linearity or planarity.
Answer: curvature
[10] This concept, which greatly aids in calculating curvature, is the inner product on a tangent space of vectors tangent to a surface in 3-space.
Answer: first fundamental form
[10] The curve with the shortest distance between two points along a surface is one form of this, while another way of defining it is that a curve is one of these if its second derivative is zero or perpendicular to the surface at all values of time.
Answer: geodesic
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Dill Smiles attempts to stop Billy Beede from digging up a coffin to search for a rumored grave cache of diamonds and pearls in this author's only novel, Getting Mother's Body. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author who more usually writes plays, such as Fucking A and Topdog/Underdog.
Answer: Suzan-Lori Parks
[10] One of the principal characters in Topdog/Underdog is named after this historical figure, who is found "in Illinois" in a Robert Sherwood play and is anachronistically killed on television in Ishmael Reed's Flight to Canada. His process of "growing up" was described by Carl Sandburg.
Answer: Abraham Lincoln
[10] This play by Parks ask what will remain of African-American culture after the titular event, and culminates in "thuh garden of hoodoo it" after speeches by such characters as "Lots of Grease and Lots of Pork" and "Queen-then-Pharoah Hatshepsut."
Answer: The Death of the Last Black Man in the Whole Entire World
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This city is now the second-most populous with its name in America, as the one in Alamance County, North Carolina has surpassed it. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this city near the foot of Mount Mansfield.
Answer: Burlington
[10] Burlington is the largest city in this state, found on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain.
Answer: Vermont
[10] This river of southern Vermont rises in the environs of Bread Loaf Mountain and then flows through Sharon and Hartford in Connecticut, becoming a tributary of the Connecticut River there.
Answer: White River
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By the Bermuda Accord, data obtained by this project would be publicly released within twenty-four hours of acquisition. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this international project tasked with identifying all 30,000 genes and 3.1 billion nucleotide base pairs in the DNA of a certain organism, which was officially finished in 2003.
Answer: Human Genome Project [or HGP]
[10] Often produced using BACs and YACs, this is a set of chromosome fragments such that every nucleotide base pair on the chromosome is contained in at least one fragment. The publicly funded part of the Human Genome Project used these sets of fragments.
Answer: tiling path
[10] This relatively fast and inexpensive method of sequencing was developed by Celera and used to complete the last part of the Human Genome Project. In it, DNA is randomly broken into small fragments, whose consensus sequences are then aligned.
Answer: shotgun sequencing
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He was assigned to discover the source of the Mississippi. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this one-armed U.S. army lieutenant who wandered as far as the Front Range in Colorado and founded the city of Pueblo before turning south and being captured by Mexican troops when he left American territory in 1806.
Answer: Zebulon Montgomery Pike
[10] After breaching the Mexican border, Pike was escorted to a jail in this Mexican state, the largest by area, which is found north of Durango.
Answer: Chihuahua
[10] Pike died during the War of 1812 while participating in an attack on this city, which was renamed Toronto in 1834.
Answer: York
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Answer the following about some related paintings, for 10 points each.,
[10] Piero de la Francesca's 1463 version of this event depicts a defiant Christ, with one foot still on the sarcophagus, while the four guards are shown sleeping in the foreground.
Answer: The Resurrection
[10] This Haarlem-born artist's 1455 version of the The Resurrection depicts an angel sitting on top of the sarcophagus's cover on the right, a sleeping soldier on the bottom, and an astonished guard on the left. Christ rises in the middle of the painting with a cross in his left hand.
Answer: Dieric Bouts the Elder
[10] This artist's Resurrection, which was completed around 1475, depicts Christ, who holds a white banner with a cross, floating over a scene of confusion. Its painter completed it almost two decades before his Virgin and Child with Saints for the San Zaccaria altarpiece.
Answer: Giovanni Bellini
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Each of them ruled over a particular aspect of reality and collectively they opposed the Daevas. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify these ``holy immortals'' who were likely assimilated into Zoroaster's teachings as aspects of Ahura Mazda.
Answer: Amesha Spentas or Amashaspends
[10] Often represented by the cow, this Amesha Spenta, whose name meant ``Good Thought,'' reigned over useful animals.
Answer: Vohu Mano or Vohu Manah
[10] As the attendant deities of Ahura Mazda, the Amesha Spentas fight against this God who represented the principle of darkness and was sometimes know as Angra Mainyu.
Answer: Ahriman
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John Murray was upset at being the basis for the Marquis de Carabas in this novel, while Lord Alhambra is thought to be based on Byron. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this work in which the title character winds up in politics after being expelled from school and kills Cleveland in a duel before getting the heck out of England and bumbling around various German principalities.
Answer: Vivian Grey
[10] This author of a political trilogy comprising the novels Coningsby, Sybil, and Tancred wrote Vivian Grey.
Answer: Benjamin Disraeli
[10] Disraeli was in a circle of social novelists with such figures as this author of North and South and Mary Barton.
Answer: Elizabeth Gaskell
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Name these models of duopolies, for 10 points each.,
[10] This model occurs when two firms must set prices simultaneously, resulting in a perfect competition equilibrium where neither firm profits.
Answer: Bertrand Duopoly
[10] Under this model, a Nash equilibrium somewhere between perfect competition and monopoly occurs when both firms move simultaneously and anticipate each other's best response function.
Answer: Cournot Duopoly
[10] This kind of duopoly is similar to the Cournot duopoly, except that one firm chooses the quantity to produce before the other firm, allowing the second firm time to react.
Answer: Stackelberg Duopoly
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Name these people involved in the Soviet nuclear program, for 10 points each.,
[10] This man would lead the Soviet team that produced seaborgium shortly before the American lab. During World War II, he wrote a letter to Stalin noting that American scientists were no longer publishing articles on fission and urging the start of a Soviet uranium bomb research project.
Answer: Georgy Nikolayevich Flyorov
[10] This inventor of the "layer cake" bomb collaborated with Vitaly Ginzburg on the "Second Idea," thus inventing the hydrogen bomb independently of the Teller-Ulam discovery. He was later put under house arrest for his dissident activities, which earned him a Nobel Peace Prize.
Answer: Andrey Dmitriyevich Sakharov
[10] This German-born British citizen passed intelligence from Los Alamos to the Soviets through the Rosenbergs and was imprisoned in Britain in 1950.
Answer: Klaus Fuchs
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Answer the following about a star type, for 10 points each.,
[10] These are hot stars in cluster systems that appear to lag behind other stars in the cluster on an H-R diagram. They may be the remnants of a star collision.
Answer: blue stragglers
[10] Another consequence of the extreme stellar density in globular clusters are these types of neutron stars that are formed when the shedding of x-rays in their accretion disk causes an increase in angular momentum.
Answer: millisecond pulsars [or recycled pulsars; prompt on pulsars]
[10] The majority of millisecond pulsars and blue stragglers are found in this oft-studied globular cluster, the 2nd closest to the Earth.
Answer: 47 Tucanae [or NGC104]
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This man was also known as ``the Blind.'' For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this Greek theologian who taught universal salvation and was condemned in the 3rd Council of Constantinople, along with his mentor Origen.
Answer: Didymus
[10] Didymus's work On the Holy Spirit was translated into Latin by this Christian apologist perhaps best known for translating the Vulgate.
Answer: Saint Jerome
[10] Didymus was a follower of this patriarch of Alexandria, who was vindicated at the Council of Sardicca, and whose views were best expressed in his Discourses Against the Arrians.
Answer: Saint Athanasius
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This organization dropped both the words ``northwest'' and ``rifles'' from its name in order to placate the U.S. government. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this law enforcement group, whose first mission was to keep the Blackfoot Confederacy neutral during Louis Riel's uprising.
Answer: Mounties [or Royal Canadian Mounted Police]
[10] This protest march, which began in Depression relief camps in British Columbia and was opposed by Prime Minister Bennett, was violently suppressed by the Mounties in 1935.
Answer: The On to Ottawa Trek
[10] The On to Ottawa Trek fell into chaos at a ``riot'' named for this Western Canadian city. Because it was the Mounties' headquarters for the nineteenth century, it was where Riel was executed and is currently home to the Mounties' museum.
Answer: Regina
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The radical defrocked preacher Bratt convinces his union members to blow up the castle of factory owner Holger in this man's play Beyond Human Power, II. For 10 points each:,
[10] Namethis Norwegian playwright of Arne and The Fisher Maiden.
Answer: Bjornstjerne Bjornson
[10] Along with Jonas Lie, Alexander Kielland, and Henrik Ibsen, Bjornson formed this group of writers who invented the modern Norwegian drama.
Answer: The Four Greats [or De Fire Store]
[10] In this Ibsen play, the doctor Relling cynically wonders how long the sorrow of Hjalmar will last, and another character plans to marry the housekeeper Mrs. Sorby.
Answer: The Wild Duck [or Vildanden]
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During an April 2008 campaign stop, this man lost consciousness after an office worker threw a stress ball at his head from a window. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this British MP who was expelled from the Labour Party over his anti-war activities and support for Iraqi insurgents, and who told off Norm Coleman during a noted 2005 appearance before the US Congress by falsely claiming to have never profited from oil trading.
Answer: George Galloway
[10] Following his loss of Labour sponsorship, Galloway formed this alliance of the Socialist Workers Party and various Muslim organizations. Galloway was re-elected to Parliament by running against Labour's Oona King for this party.
Answer: Respect: The Unity Coalition [or Respect Party]
[10] Galloway founded this charity in 1998 to lobby against economic sanctions on Iraq. In 2007, the British Charity Commission found that it had benefitted from the "oil-for-food" scandal.
Answer: The Mariam Appeal
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Answer some stuff about gyroscopes, for 10 points each.,
[10] Gyros are generally mounted on one of these devices, a system of rings mounted on right angles such that the orientation of the rotor is nearly fixed.
Answer: gimbals
[10] Gimbal lock is a situation where these angles, which define the orientation of a 3-D rigid body with respect to a fixed reference frame, have ambiguous values. They are generally denoted by alpha, beta and gamma.
Answer: Euler angles
[10] To avoid the problem of ambiguous Euler angles, this number system, most famously elucidated by Hamilton, adds a fourth parameter to describe 3d rotations.
Answer: quaternions

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