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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 ACF Nationals Tossups by Editors 2
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Several secrets come to light in this play when a character remembers the burning of Caesarea. Chatillon laments that he has been freed but his king remains enslaved after a monarch is so impressed by the honor of a former captive in this play that he frees one hundred slaves upon receiving ransom for ten. The sultan ultimately orders Corasmin to free all the Christians before stabbing himself at the end. Misunderstandings began over a furtive letter sent by Nerestan, who learns that the title character is his sister and both are the children of Lusignan, the putative king of Jerusalem. For 10 points, name this play in which the title slave girl converts back to Christianity and ends her plans to marry Orosmane, a melodrama by Voltaire about the Crusades whose title figure once shared her name with an African country.
Answer: Zaire [or Zara]
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This man argued that all states should give up claims to western lands after accusing Governor Johnson of Maryland of trying to profit from recent land purchases made from Indians. A document written by this man said that slave importation was an "unnatural trade" and that "descendants not of the conquered, but of the conquerors" were speaking. In another document by this man, he praised "the great bulwarks of liberty" that "can never be restrained but by despotic governments" and stated "that it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love, and charity toward each other." That document also outlined the "right to uniform government,'' to bear arms, and to free speech. This master of Gunston Hall was the principal author of both the Fairfax Resolves and the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and thus refused to support the Constitution until a Bill of Rights was added. For 10 points, name this American independence figure who, due to his founding of Alexandria, became the namesake of a northern Virginia university.
Answer: George Mason
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One of this volume's pieces cites Kant's descriptions of gambling as ``a vulgar appeal to experience.'' It includes an analysis of Russian culture's debt to Origen, as well as an assertion that Marx was basically rewriting Eugene Sue, but the most peculiar piece ends with an appreciation of Spitzweg's painting The Bookworm and is titled ``Unpacking My Library.'' While the editor's note apologizes for the exclusion of the piece entitled ``Karl Kraus,'' this first translation of its author's works into English featured an introduction by Hannah Arendt that commented on his un-dialectical approach and reflected on his interest in the figure of the flaneur. Containing such essays as ``Theses on the Philosophy of History'' and ``The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,'' for 10 points, identify this most well known collection of essays by Walter Benjamin.
Answer: Illuminations [prompt on an answer like ``Benjamin's Essays'' or ``Essays by Benjamin'']
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Some now-defunct ways to achieve this action include the Rittman process and the Gyro process. The Alchlor process was an alternative to the expensive McAfee batch process to do this, which pioneered the use of aluminum chloride. The once commonly-employed Burton process was modified by the impact route and an innovation by Clark which connected stills in series to form batteries. Those methods were all supplanted by Eugene Houdry, who developed the first fixed-bed method for this, though more common today are fluid-bed or moving-bed procedures. Charles Plank and Edward Rosinski developed the first useful zeolite in this process, and natural and synthetic zeolites often serve as catalysts in the riser-type reactor employed in this process. For 10 points, name this procedure by which complex heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into lighter molecules, important in refining petroleum.
Answer: cracking [accept catalytic cracking; prompt ``refining petroleum'' and equivalents]
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A few months before this event, tensions were inflamed when the politically connected James Bentley was acquitted of a murder. Proponents of this event used slogans such as ``no property qualifications'' and ``annual goddamn elections,'' and many participants had been involved three years earlier in the Forest Creek Monster Meeting. This conflict turned violent with the murder of James Scobie, which prompted the Peter Lalor-led ``diggers'' to form the Ballarat Reform League. The roots of this conflict were in the ``licensing fees'' introduced by lieutenant governor Charles La Trobe. For 10 points, identify this 1854 standoff named for the hastily constructed fort of the gold miners, twenty of whom were shot after agitating for reforms in the colony of Victoria.
Answer: The Eureka Stockade [or Eureka Uprising, etc]
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The hydroelectric plants of Silver and Kakabeka Falls power the industrial landscape of this city. The early photosynthesizers represented by the Gunflint Fossils were first collected in the environs of the city by this name, which was previously known as Fort William when the headquarters of the North West Company were moved here from Grand Portage. Another feature by this name forms a coastline on Sibley Provincial Park and is the destination of the Current and Kaninstiquia Rivers. The home to Lakehead University, the city of this name absorbed Port Arthur in 1970 and is found about thirty miles northwest of Isle Royale. For 10 points, name this Ontario city which shares its name with the inlet of Lake Superior that it overlooks.
Answer: Thunder Bay [prompt on Lakehead before it is read]
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A parody of this poem mentions that "the PRB must keep the shady side" and is about a figure who is "getting his pictures, like his supper, cheap;" that parody was written by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Though it has fifteen lines, this poem otherwise is structured as a Petrarchan sonnet. Its placement of the title figure at Judgment Day is possibly based on the forty-second line of the first book of Paradise Lost. The title entity ``hath lain for ages'' and ``will lie until the latter fire shall heat the deep,'' when he will ``once by man and angels'' ``be seen.'' This poem describes the ``ancient, dreamless, uninvaded sleep'' of a creature that is covered in ``sponges of millenial growth and height'' and is ``battening upon huge seaworms'' as ``enormous polypi winnow with giant arms the slumbering green.'' For 10 points, name this poem by Tennyson, set ``far far beneath in the abysmal sea,'' about a legendary monster.
Answer: ``The Kraken''
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This problem is a type of membership problem, and, by formulation as a dynetic decision problem, it is neurally solvable. Rice's theorem was proven as a result of this, and Chaitin's constant is also sometimes named as this problem's probability. This problem is sometimes stated as a form of Hilbert's second problem. The first proof of this problem's undecidability, as well as that of the Decision problem, was published by Turing in a paper where he defined the Turing machine. One method of proving a quality on this problem relies on Cantor's theorem and the diagonalization of the results on input of a sequence of Turing machines. For 10 points, name this problem of determining whether a program and a certain input will run forever or finish.
Answer: Halting problem or HaltTM
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Although this figure attempted to commit suicide by hanging, an old nursemaid saved this figure and, during the Festival of Ceres, helped to coordinate the central event in this figure's life. According to one story, the patriarch of this figure's family, who had sent Agamemnon a beautiful breastplate before the Trojan war, killed himself after losing a lyre playing contest to Apollo. That death occurred after this figure was chased away from Cyprus and ended up at Sabo. As punishment for not performing her rites, the goddess of love had caused this daughter of Cenchreis and Cinyras to lust after her father. That incestuous union ultimately resulted in the birth of a child, who was initially placed in a box, but grew up to become Aphrodite's lover. Also known as Smyrna, for 10 points, identify this tragic mythological figure who gave birth to Adonis after the gods had turned her into a namesake tree.
Answer: Myrrha [accept Smyrna before it is said]
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An episiode of Top Gear clocked one of this company's flagship models as taking nineteen seconds to go from zero to sixty. In 2008, this company began phasing out its supermini model, which is not sold in the United States; both the i20 and a new electric version will replace the engine-driven Getz. This firm entered the international market with the Pony following a technology-sharing agreement with Ford that enabled it to develop assembly lines for the Cortina. Its first American car was the highest-selling debut import in history, the Excel, which was rebadged as the Mitsubishi Precis. This manufacturer of the Santa Fe SUV purchased Kia in 1998, giving it an eighty percent share of the South Korean market. For 10 points, name this automaker whose models include the Accent, Elantra, and Sonata.
Answer: Hyundai Motor Company [or Hyundai Kia Automotive Group]
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This process resembles the resistive ballooning mode of magnetized plasmas except the plasma pressure replaces rho. In this process, penetration distance is proportional to the Atwood number and gravitational acceleration, and the sonoluminescent bubbles created by snapping shrimp are destroyed via this process. It can be seen in delamination of lithosphere layers and in carbon detonation within a type 1a supernova, in which it displays its characteristic "fingers". For 10 points, identify this configuration where a more dense fluid lies on top of a less dense one, resulting in instability.
Answer: Rayleigh-Taylor instability
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This state aided the Thessalians in a war with Alexander of Pherae, defeating that tyrant at the less-heralded first Battle of Cynoscephalae. One military victory for this polity saw it deploy fifty ranks of troops on its left wing to match twelve for the opponent, inventing the "oblique order" to great success in a battle against Cleombrotus. Forces of this city orchestrated the Arcadians' founding of Megalopolis and reformed the state of Messenia after allying with a helot revolt in Sparta, but this polity, which was victorious at Tegyra, declined following the death of its greatest general at Mantineia. For 10 points, name this city which led the Boeotian League during the days of Pelopidas and Epaminondas and won at Leuctra before being defeated by Philip of Macedon at Chaeronea.
Answer: Thebes
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One of these works finishes with a movement marked Alla breve that is preceded by a brief cadenza. Another, written while its composer was still a student, opens with portentous horn declarations and a cascade of chords meant to evoke the pealing of bells. Yet another one of them is prefaced by eight stark chords at the beginning and includes a soaring second theme in E flat. That piece, which featured an ``Oriental'' second subject later popularized by the song ``Full Moon and Empty Arms,'' was completed soon after the composer began visiting the hypnotist Nikolas Dahl. Although the first one remained unfinished, by 1909 the third and final one had been completed. For 10 points, identify this set of works for a certain instrument by the composer of The Isle of the Dead.
Answer: Rachmaninoff's Concertos for Piano
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This thinker noted that aphasia can occur across either the syntagmatic or paradigmatic axis, and can involve either word combination or vocabulary substitution. He postulated the Gesamtbedeutung and Grundbedeutung, or invariant and contextually specific meaning, of morphological constructs, which he used to analyze his native language's case system in terms of directionality, marginality, and quantification. This man came up with six functions of communication, including context and code, in his expansion of Karl Buhler's Organon-model. One of his theories, put forth in Preliminaries to Speech Analysis, states that each phoneme can be described by possessing or lacking certain qualities. For 10 points, name this creator of the distinctive features theory of phonology, who, along with people like Rene Wellek and Nicholas Trubetskoy, was a leader of the Prague School of Linguistics.
Answer: Roman Osipovich Jakobson
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One character in this story annoys his family by spending his days at the home of La Blanche, while another discusses the cutting of fingernails with the turban-wearing Zandrine. While burning a layette and a velvet dress, that character finds a letter which thanks ``the good God for having so arranged our lives.'' The title character was abandoned at a pillar by some Texans who rode a canvas-covered wagon. Adopted by the Valmondes, that character later grows suspicious when she observes a quadroon using a fan, and later exiles herself into the swamp. For 10 points, Armand Aubigny turns out to be the one with black ancestry in what short story by Kate Chopin?
Answer: ``Desiree's Baby''
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He reflected on the fall of the ``New Jerusalem'' in the city of Munster in his Against the Blasphemy of Jan van Leyden, while the influential chapters ``The Time of Grace'' and ``The True Ministers'' can be found in his Foundation Book, which led to his persecution. Some sixty years after his death in 1561, his followers would release the Dordrecht Confession of Faith in an attempt to distinguish their beliefs from that of other Anabaptist groups, such as those who would splinter off under the leadership of Jakob Amman. For 10 points, identify this Dutch religious reformer, who gave his name to a church whose largest denomination is now in the U.S. and whose members refuse to bear arms and are known for their simple dress.
Answer: Menno Simons [accept either name; do not accept or prompt on ``Mennonites'']
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In 2000, Sohn et al. described a variant of this technique that uses capacitance as an alternative to more traditional measurements. This technique often uses propidium iodide and Hoechst dyes, and one important technique associated with it is known as compensation. One type of this technique was developed by Leonard Herzenberg, and its acronym is trademarked by Becton Dickinson, a leading producer of devices used in it. This technique is based on the concept of hydrodynamic focusing, which produces a single file of droplets, and a photodiode detects forward and backward scatter caused by fluorescently-labeled objects inside the droplets. For 10 points, name this technique most often used to sort cells based on physical characteristics.
Answer: flow cytometry [or FCM; or Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting; or FACSTM - FACS is the name of the trademarked technique, which is a specific kind of flow cytometry, so it's easier to just accept rather than "anti-prompt"]
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The original design included a statue of the Risen Christ, but this was later replaced by an orb and a cross. Its decorative details include lizards, vines, and a smattering of bees, in honor of its patron. Open tie rods connect two pairs of putti who lean over its front edge; one pair holds a book, while the other a set of keys. Originally conceived of by Carlo Maderno, its columns allow sight of another work by the same artist, the Cathedra Petri, a great gilt bronze chair. Rising at the cross section of the Latin Cross, more than 100 feet above the main altar, its dark, twisted, columns were derived from a set believed to have come from the Temple of Solomon. Commissioned by Urban VIII in 1623, for 10 points, identify this grand baroque canopy in St. Peter's Basilica, a work designed by Gianlorenzo Bernini.
Answer: Baldachinno
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In one of this author's novels, the title character is sent a ring by the "princess of the golden locks.'' He wrote a play in which a cheap landlady passes off rotten veal as curry and a Jewish schemer tries to collect investments for a fictitious silver mine until a rhetorically gifted stranger arrives at the boarding house to moralize the inhabitants. In addition to Paul Kelver and The Passing of the Third Floor Back, he wrote about a man who remembers burying two malodorous cheeses on a beach in another novel. That man has every disease except housewife's knee and treats himself by eating a one-pound steak and a pint of beer every six hours. This author wrote of that man's journey from Kingston to Pangbourne with Harris and George, as well as Montmorency the dog, in a work that was followed by a story set ``on the bummel.'' For 10 points, name this English humorist who wrote Three Men in a Boat.
Answer: Jerome Klapka Jerome
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Due to the insistence that these acts be ratified within four days, a secret set of minutes was prepared which included the legislative objections on them, while the published minutes showed a unanimous, unquestioned vote. The next year, the legislature was stripped of debating privileges and allowed only to vote under the ``Final Act,'' which strengthened these laws. The idea for these acts was formulated during demonstrations at the Wartburg Festival. Their provisions included establishing a secret police at Mainz, empowering the confederation Diet to censor all periodicals, and dissolving the ``youth associations'' at Jena and other universities. A response to Karl Sand's murder of August Kotzebue, they were agreed to by eleven ministers at a meeting in Bohemia. For 10 points, identify these 1819 laws written by Metternich, which restricted liberal and nationalist groups in German lands.
Answer: Carlsbad Decrees
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Lesser known works associated with this movement include ``Oriental'' by Stanton Macdonald-Wright and Patrick Henry* Bruce's reconfigurations of still lifes. The magazine linked with this movement was called Montjoie! and its development was precipitated by the formation of the Puteaux Group. One of its proponents referred to it as ``Simultaneity'' and his early works include a series of images depicting a certain monument as seen through refracted light. That series of Eiffel Tower paintings was followed by such works as A Window and Circular Forms: Sun and Moon, which are examples of this art movement's underlying theory that ``color alone is form and subject." Given its name by a 1912 Guillaume Appolinaire essay on cubism, Fank Kupka, Sonia Terk, and Jacques Villon, were all prominent members of, for 10 points, what art movement led by Robert Delaunay and named for a mythological singer.
Answer: Orphism (*accept ``Synchromism'' up to this point)
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This functional group is reduced in the Luche reaction. The Burgi-Dunitz angle is important in Anh's modification of the Felkin model, which involves the minimization of torsional strain of a transition state when molecules containing this functional group are nucleophilically attacked. If the desired product of a Meerwein-Pondorf-Verley reduction contains this functional group, then that reaction is known as the Oppenheimer oxidation. Molecules containing two of these functional groups are condensed in the Paal-Knorr synthesis, and one of its bonds is broken to form a betaine in the Wittig reaction. For 10 points, name this functional group that is attacked by a hydroxide ion in the Cannizzaro reaction and can be reduced to a hydroxyl group.
Answer: carbonyl group [do not accept or prompt on ``aldehyde'' or ``ketone'' as every clue is about the group itself and not a compound containing it]
 
2009 ACF Nationals Bonuses by Editors 2
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It states that the base 10 logarithm of a reaction rate is directly proportional to either pKa or pKb. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this law, which generally states that stronger acids and bases make better catalysts, with "strong" in this case referring to the tendency to accept or donate a hydrogen ion.
Answer: Bronsted catalysis law [prompt on partial answer]
[10] The coefficients of proportionality in the Bronsted catalysis law are alternatively named after John Leffler, whose name is sometimes appended to this man's postulate that a transition state will most closely resemble that of the intermediate closest to it on the reaction path.
Answer: George Simms Hammond
[10] The Bronsted catalysis law was extended by this man to a namesake linear free-energy relationship. With Evans, he showed that the activation energy of a series of single-step reactions was directly proportional to the enthalpy of each reaction in the series, and he also independently derived the Eyring equation.
Answer: Michael Polanyi [Polanyi's good enough, don't be an ass and prompt to distinguish him from his economist brother Karl]
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The idea for this initiative came from Lu Dingyi, and it was announced at the May 1956 Supreme State Conference. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this brief loosening of speech restrictions in China, which was named after the number of intellectual ``schools'' that flourished under the Zhou Dynasty.
Answer: Hundred Flowers Campaign/Movement [or Baihua yundong]
[10] Five percent of all work units were to be exposed under this reaction to the Hundred Flowers Campaign. It accused such figures as Ding Ling of being the namesake political type and exiled them under guidelines set forth by Mao in "On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People."
Answer: Anti-Rightist Campaign/Movement [or Fan youpai yundong]
[10] This Long March veteran and defense minister from 1953 on was removed from office in 1959 over his criticism of the Great Leap Forward and his advocacy of ``expertise'' over ``redness.''
Answer: Peng Dehuai [or Peng Tehuai; or Peng Dehua]
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He juxtaposed the plaster cast head of the Apollo Belvedere with a rubber glove in 1914 Le Chant d'Amour. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this painter whose Mystery and Melancholy of a Street was characteristic of an art movement he founded with Carlo Carro and Alberto Savinio.
Answer: Giorgio de Chirico
[10] This de Chirico work depicts two mannequins abandoned with other colorful objects in the center of a deserted city square in Ferrara.
Answer: The Disquieting Muses or Le muse inquetanti
[10] In this 1916 work de Chirico also chooses to depict mannequins. The two of them, meant to represent the titular mythological couple, face one another, while standing on a stage.
Answer: Hector and Andromache or Ettore e Andromaca
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This group broke up despite the success of their last two albums, The Art of Falling Apart and This Last Night in Sodom. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Leeds-based duo of Marc Almond and Dave Ball, whose two-part cover of "Tainted Love" and "Where Did Our Love Go" was the biggest hit of 1981.
Answer: Soft Cell
[10] ``Tainted Love'' was first recorded in the 60s by this rock-R&B fusion singer of ``Heartbeat,'' who wrote "My Mistake" for Marvin Gaye and Diana Ross.
Answer: Gloria Richetta Jones
[10] Gloria Jones also played keyboards in this early glam-rock outfit, which recorded songs such as "Bang a Gong (Get It On)" and "Children of the Revolution" under the leadership of Marc Bolan.
Answer: T.Rex
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His novels included All Men are Enemies and Death of a Hero. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this author who may be best known for the savage collection of satires Soft Answers and a work inspired by his then-wife, the Images of War.
Answer: Richard Aldington
[10] Richard Aldington was married to this fellow imagist, who published such works as Sea Garden and the novel HERmione.
Answer: Hilda Doolittle [accept H.D.]
[10] Another imagist, Amy Lowell, published this poetry collection in 1912. It is named for a titular structure which reflects light.
Answer: A Dome of Many Colored Glass
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His works, which advocated the importance of intra-faith marriage, included the late Instruction on Excommunication. These giants were eventually subdued by the Firbolgs, but continued to oppress Ireland with crushing tributes. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify these sea gods who were often described as having only one limb, and whose greatest leader, Balor, only had one eye.
Answer: The Fomorii or the Fomorians or the Fomors
[10] This figure was half-Fomorian as his father was the sea god Elatha. He is best known for marrying the goddess Brigid and briefly replacing Nuada as commander of the Tuatha de Danann, before being deposed for his tyrannical leadership style.
Answer: Bres
[10] Known by the alliterative epithet the ``long armed,'' this sun god replaced Bres as leader of the Irish Gods and then led the defeat of him and his Fomorian host at the second battle of Mag Tuireadh.
Answer: Lughor Lugus
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Answer the following about a work of philosophy that originally consisted of 8 books, for 10 points each.,
[10] It cites the example of Medea as a person who has been deceived, which makes her actions rational and therefore human. Perhaps the most notable section requires students to grapple with what is meant by prohairesis.
Answer: The Discourses
[10] Both this man's Discourses and their abridged version, the Encheiridion, were compiled by his student Flavius Arrian.
Answer: Epictetus
[10] The Discourses is filled with references to this earlier stoicist's works, including On Choice and On the Possibles. He was considered a follower of Cleanthes.
Answer: Chrysippus
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Identify some geometry problems and solutions, for 10 points each.,
[10] This theorem was famously divided into 1,936 cases, each of which was proven by a computer. It solved a long-standing problem as to the minimum necessary number of colors to properly color any map.
Answer: Four-color theorem
[10] This visibility problem's solution showed that any polygon with n vertices can be completely observed by the floor function of n over three guards or cameras.
Answer: Art gallery problem or Museum problem
[10] A common method for performing this action is "ear subtraction", while this type of decomposition can also be performed using "sweep lines".
Answer: polygon triangulation
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The title character is forbidden to marry the cook Ustinya by his father, who is angry at his purchase of a new pair of boots. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this short story about a young man who breaks a vessel of milk while being constantly overworked.
Answer: ``Alyosha the Pot'' [or ``Alyosha Gorshok'']
[10] This other short story recounts an attempt to find the road and avoid freezing to death by following some sledges carrying mail.
Answer: ``The Snow-Storm'' [or ``Metel'']
[10] ``Alyosha the Pot'' and ``The Snow-Storm'' are short stories by this Russian author, whose other works in that genre include ``Hadji Murad'' and The Kreutzer Sonata.
Answer: Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy
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His brother Alexey commanded the fleet during the Russo-Turkish war that ended in 1774. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this man who was involved in the Free Economic Society and the reform of the law code, a Russian officer who, as lover of Catherine the Great, engineered the coup to put Catherine on the throne.
Answer: Grigory Grigoryevich, Count Orlov
[10] This other human lover of Catherine was the governor-general of south Ukraine, which became the base of his conquest of the Crimea and construction of the Black Sea fleet.
Answer: Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin
[10] In addition to granting autonomy to the Crimea and transferring Azov, Kerch, and Yenikale, this 1774 treaty ending a Russo-Turkish war made Russia the protector of all Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, thanks to Alexey Orlov's convincing naval victories.
Answer: Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca [or Kuchuk Kainarji]
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It ends with a divertissement called ``Fete de la Cloche.'' For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this 1870 work which features a love triangle between Swanilda, Franz, and the title character, a mechanical doll.
Answer: Coppelia or La fille aux yeux d'email
[10] Coppelia and Sylvia were the best known ballets composed by this man, who also created the ``Bell Song'' aria in his opera Lakme.
Answer: Leo Delibes
[10] In this work, Delibes set the words of Alfred de Musset to music. Its namesake characters sing along to a castanet rhythm meant to evoke the titular Spanish setting.
Answer: Les Filles de Cadiz or The Girls of Cadiz
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The largest traditional battle he fought during his California campaign was at San Pasqual. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this commander who was sent to the west to counter Andres Pico during the Mexican War.
Answer: Stephen Kearney
[10] Meanwhile, the ``ninos heroes'' made their name in a futile defense of this hill outside Mexico City from Winfield Scott.
Answer: Chapultepec
[10] Following the capture of Saltilla, Zachary Taylor's campaign in Mexico concluded with a February 1847 defeat of Santa Anna at this battle.
Answer: Buena Vista
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One anecdote tells of how the author left Milan for Paris with 3500 francs, intending to kill himself when his money ran out. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this autobiographical work, which was followed by The Life of Henry Brulard.
Answer: Memoirs of Egotism or Memoirs of an Egotist
[10] Memoirs of Egotism was written by this novelist of The Red and the Black.
Answer: Stendhal
[10] This Stendhal character becomes an archbishop, impregnates Clelia Conti, and kills Giletti in a quarel over Marietta.
Answer: Fabrizio del Dongo [or del Dongo]
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One pioneer of its "ecological" form was John Crook, who looked at social organization and visual communication in weaver birds. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this branch of biology which studies animal behavior from an evolutionary standpoint, which takes its name from a book by E.O. Wilson.
Answer: sociobiology [or behavioral ecology; or evolutionary psychology]
[10] Among the early sociobiologists was this man, whose namesake rule states that passing along an altruistic gene is favored when the benefit received by those that benefit from the altruistic action is greater than the cost of the action to the altruistic individual divided by the coefficient of relationship.
Answer: William Donald Hamilton
[10] This hypothesis predicts that mothers in high status will both have more sons and preferentially invest their resources in them, while mothers with low status will both have more daughters and preferentially invest their resources in them.
Answer: Trivers-Willard hypothesis
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It was referred to as a "skeleton agreement" in a meeting with Grigorij Chicherin, but the proposed expansion of this treaty never took place. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1922 agreement of mutual recognition between Germany and the Soviet Union, which included a secret clause allowing German troops to train in Russia.
Answer: Treaty of Rapallo
[10] This German Democratic Party leader, who explained his plans for democratic socialism in The New Economy, was assassinated by anti-Semitic nationalists shortly after he negotiated the Treaty of Rapallo in his role as foreign minister.
Answer: Walther Rathenau
[10] The assassins of Rathenau belonged to one of these paramilitary organizations that were formed after the postwar reduction of the German army. Another one was responsible for the Kapp Putsch of 1920.
Answer: Freikorps
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The title entity is described as a ``permanent opium war'' which makes seeing reality impossible because it contains no reality itself. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this book which was a product of the Situationist International and was adapted into a film of the same name, and which claims that the construction of images is a capitalist plot that makes one unable to define one's position in class conflict.
Answer: The Society of the Spectacle [or La Societe du spectacle]
[10] This author of The Society of the Spectacle, who withdrew the film version after being accused of murdering Gerard Lebovici, later argued that a new ``integrated spectacle'' had arisen, prior to his 1994 suicide.
Answer: Guy Ernest Debord
[10] The main event analyzed in The Society of the Spectacle is the movement that occurred in France in May of this year, which included several strikes and university occupations in a demand for relaxed moral controls and higher wages.
Answer: 1968
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Shikantanza indicates an openness to achieving this state, for 10 points each.,
[10] Identify this concept from Zen Buddhism that has often been described, or translated, as the attainment of ``sudden enlightenment.''
Answer: satori
[10] This sixth patriarch of Chinese Zen described an analogue to satori, which he defined as the direct vision of ``one's own mind,'' in his work The Platform Sutra.
Answer: Dajian Hui-neng
[10] This Rinzai master, who lived well into the 18th century, collected such works as the Blue Cliff Records and systematized the reading of koans to prepare the mind for satori.
Answer: Hakuin Ekaku
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The protagonist of this novel has trouble communicating with her servants because she refuses to learn ``kitchen kaffir,'' and is challenged by being asked ``Did Jesus think it right that people should kill each other?'' For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this novel in which Dick's illness forces Mary to run her colonial farm, despite conflicts with the wise African employee Moses.
Answer: The Grass is Singing
[10] This author of ``Homage for Isaac Babel'' and The Golden Notebook wrote The Grass is Singing based on her own experience as a child in Rhodesia.
Answer: Doris Lessing [or Dorris May Taylor]
[10] Starting on a colonial farm and ending with the accidental nuclear bombing of Britain and the creation of a race of telepaths, this series of novels by Lessing includes Martha Quest, A Proper Marriage, A Ripple From the Storm, Landlocked, and The Four-Gated City.
Answer: Children of Violence
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[10] This thought experiment posited a method to measure noncommuting observables of particles, leading to the result that either quantum mechanics has hidden variables or that measuring quantum states can have non-local effects on other parts of the quantum system.,
[10] The resolution of this paradox, concluding that QM has no hidden variables and local realism can be violated, was demonstrated by this scientist in his namesake inequalities.
Answer:
[10] One type of "Bell inequality" is this type with a four-letter acronym. Experiments that test this inequality use a source that produces pairs of photons in opposite directions, which go through a two-channel polariser and then a coincidence monitor.
Answer: EPR paradox [or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox] John Stewart Bell
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Though African in appearance, the Hadimu and Tumbatu peoples on this island are partly descended from Persian settlers and thus call themselves ``Shirazi.'' For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this island, once part of Oman before becoming an independent sultanate, which united with Tanganyika to form a new country in 1964.
Answer: Zanzibar
[10] This smaller island is united with Zanzibar as a territory of Tanzania. Its port of Mkoani is the world's leading clove exporter.
Answer: Pemba
[10] Cloves may also be found at this archipelago in Indonesia, which was formerly known as the Spice Islands. Found east of Celebes, west of New Guinea, and north of the Arafura Sea, this group includes Morotai, Sula, Gebe, and Ambon islands among others .
Answer: The Moluccas [or Maluku]
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Name these recent British novelists, for 10 points each.,
[10] This author of The Magus and The Collector created Sarah Woodruff in The French Lieutenant's Woman.
Answer: John Fowles
[10] On Beauty and The Autograph Man are some of the later works by this author of 2000's White Teeth.
Answer: Zadie Smith
[10] This author of Lighthousekeeping broke through with a 1985 novel about a teeange girl evangelist who falls for a female parishioner, Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit.
Answer: Jeanette Winterson
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Answer the following about a work of art and its creators, for 10 points each:,
[10] This limestone and black basalt sculpture was originally projected out into Salt Lake by bulldozers. It reappeared in 2004 after being submerged for a number of years.
Answer: Spiral Jetty
[10] In addition to Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson may be most famous for this 1970 work on the Kent State University Campus that combines the titular location and twenty truckloads of earth
Answer: Partially Buried Woodshed
[10] This man, who helped Smithson lay out Spiral Jetty, is best known for a series of huge rolled steel sculptures collectively named The Matter of Time that was installed at the Guggenheim Bilbao in 2005.
Answer: Richard Serra
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This event resulted in the executions of William Russell, Algernon Sidney, and Thomas Armstrong. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1683 plot to ambush and assassinate Charles II on the way back from horse races at Newmarket.
Answer: Rye House Plot
[10] This illegitimate son of Charles II was implicated in the Rye House Plot, pardoned, and exiled to the Netherlands. When his father died two years later, he led a short-lived rebellion which ended in his beheading.
Answer: Duke of Monmouth [or James Scott]
[10] Previous attempts to keep Catholics off the English throne included the Exclusion Bill advocated by this member of the Cabal, which got him imprisoned in the Tower of London, where this Whig leader died shortly before the Rye House Plot.
Answer: Anthony Ashley Cooper [or First Earl of Shaftesbury]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
For 10 points each, name these parts of the tongue.,
[10] These small structures contain about 50 sensory cells, largely transmit information to the chorda tympani, and are responsible for the sensation of taste.
Answer: taste buds
[10] Taste buds are located on these specialized projections, which share their name with projections of the dermis into the epidermis.
Answer: papillae
[10] Literally being tongue-tied can occur if this tissue, responsible for anchoring the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity, extends too far anterior.
Answer: lingual frenulum

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