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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 ACF Fall Tossups by Yale B + Northwestern A
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One character on this series forces another to play Yahtzee with her before sharing advice. This show's title sequence includes scenes of two women praying, an adult baptism, and the disintegration of a fox into flies. This show is based on a series of books by Charlaine Harris. In this show's second season, one character infiltrates the Order of the Sun after the disappearance of Godric, the sheriff of Area Nine. Characters in this show include the maenad Maryann who is finally killed by the shape shifter Sam Merlotte after she takes control of the town of Bon Temps, Louisiana. For 10 points, name this HBO series about the telepathic barmaid Sookie Stackhouse and the vampire Bill Compton.
Answer: True Blood
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He studied philosophy under William of Champeaux and theology under Anselm of Laon, though he later came into conflict with both of his teachers. He described his ethical beliefs in Know Yourself, and was condemned for his nominalist doctrines at the Council of Soissons. He wrote an autobiographical work entitled Historia calamitatum. Though his book of biblical contradictions entitled Sic et Non was widely used to teach logic and dialectic, he is most famous for his love affair and ensuing castration. For 10 points, name this early scholastic and lover of Heloise.
Answer: Peter Abelard [or Pierre Abelard]
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The Rodrigues formula and Hermite polynomials figure into the analytic method for finding the wavefunctions of these systems. The allowed energies for these systems can be calculated using the ladder operators. A quantity determining peakedness for energy graphs of these systems is the dimensionless quality factor. Their behavior can be split into transient and steady-state motions when they are subjected to a sinusoidal driving force and a simple damping force, and they exhibit resonance at certain frequencies. For 10 points, name this kind of system whose periodic, sinusoidal motion is described by Hooke's law, examples of which include a mass on a spring and a simple pendulum.
Answer: simple harmonic oscillator [or SHO; prompt on "spring" or "pendulum"]
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This act was stated to have been created for the protection of the public in the case Spectrum Sports Inc v. McQuillan, while the case Rice v. Norman Williams co-created a two-step process by which courts would see if this act was pre-empting state laws. George Hoar helped draft this legislation, and it was based on an act named for Valentine passed in its namesake's home state of Ohio. A follow-up to this legislation was amended by the Robinson-Patman Act and included provisions about tying arrangements and price discrimination; that act was named for Clayton. For 10 points, name this piece of legislation that forbade the formation of monopolies, an early antitrust law.
Answer: Sherman Antitrust Act
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A 24 bar Overtura opens a work split from this man's thirteenth string quartet, his Grosse Fugue. Variations by this composer include a set of twelve for cello and piano on Handel's "See the Conquering Hero Comes" and a set of thirty-three on a waltz by the Austrian music publisher Diabelli. One work by this composer contains a subject in E-flat minor in its Grave introduction, and an oft-played piano work by this composer opens with E-D sharp-E-D-sharp-E-B-D natural-C. For 10 points, name this composer of the Moonlight Sonata, Fur Elise, and the Choral Symphony.
Answer: Ludwig van Beethoven
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The completely black bull Mnewis was regarded as an aspect of this god, who was served by the deity Mehen, and this god is the principal offspring of the ocean goddess Nu. This figure's children represent dryness and moisture, and his ba was the Bennu bird. He saved mankind from annihilation by creating 7000 jugs of beer mixed with pomegranate juice to distract the bloodthirsty Sekhmet. Syncretized with Horakhty, this god was the grandfather of Geb and Nut and father of Shu and Tefnut, and he staves off Apep every day while riding his barge. For 10 points, name this Egyptian god often combined with Atum and Amun, the chief solar deity.
Answer: Ra [or Re; accept anything that sounds like "rah" or "ray"]
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One character created by this author falls in love with the Italian Gemma Roselli after resuscitating her brother in Frankfurt. His only play is a comedy about Natalya Petrovna's attempts to wed her ward off so she can claim her son's tutor for herself. This author of The Torrents of Spring and A Month in the Country popularized a character type showcased by Goncharov's Oblomov in his Diary of a Superfluous Man. This author included such stories as "Khor and Kalinych" and "Hamlet of the Shchigrovsky District" in the collection A Sportsman's Sketches. He also wrote a novel in which Kirsanov worships the young Nihilist Bazarov. For 10 points, name this Russian author of Fathers and Sons.
Answer: Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev
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This ruler sought a military alliance with Mongol commander Eljigidei against the Khwarizmians, and later sent emissaries to Guyuk Khan and Mongke Khan, including the famous William of Rubruck. He was almost offered leadership of the Mamluk sultanate after the murder of the last Ayyubid sultan Turanshah, but was rejected in favor of his earlier enemy Baibars. Despite victories over Baibars at Damietta and Mansurah, he was finally defeated and captured after the Battle of Fariskur, thus ending that crusade. This ruler established the Parliament of Paris, and his faith led him to purchase the Crown of Thorns and construct Saint Chapelle. For 10 points, name this leader of the Seventh and Eighth Crusades, a thirteenth century king of France who was canonized as a saint for his piety.
Answer: Louis IX of France [or Saint Louis]
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The first act of this opera contains the arias "Quale insolita gioia nel tuo sguardo," and "Vieni, o diletta, appressati!" both of which are sung to the male lead, who goes to the temple of Vulcan to take up sacred arms. In one scene of this opera, a character sings "Ahime! Morir me sento!" as one character is sent to be buried alive, and two more famous arias from this opera sung by its leads are "Ritorna Vincitor" and one praising the title character as heavenly. This opera features Amonasro and the jealous Amneris, who pines for the love interest of the title Ethiopian princess. Radames loves, for 10 points, the protagonist of what Verdi opera?
Answer: Aida
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In prehistoric times, this river's delta was located in the Katawa Basin, and its namesake blind dolphin species is also known as the Bhulan. The capital of Baltistan, Skardu, lies at the confluence of the Shigar River with this body of water, which along with the Jhelum and Sarasvati formed part of the Seven Rivers of the Sindh Province. After flowing from Tibet, this river empties into the sea near Karachi after passing the ancient sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. For 10 points, name this chief river of Pakistan which was the site of one of the earliest civilizations.
Answer: Indus River [or Sindhu; or Harahauvati; or Abasin; or Nilou; or Sengge Zanbo]
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The jurist Bernardo di Quintavalle was the first to accompany this man, who impressed Melek el-Kamel by triumphing over the sultan's Muslim scholars in a trial by fire. This man was able to pacify the Wolf of Gubbio, and suffered a major illness in between campaigns set at Puglia and Perugia. Tommaso de Celano wrote the biography of this figure, who was gifted the mountain La Verna and was the subject of several Fioretti. This saint created an order containing the Poor Clares after he received the stigmata during a vision about the Feast of the Cross. For 10 points, name this patron saint of animals, an Italian saint from Assisi.
Answer: Saint Francis of Assisi
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Although sympathetic to the ultimate goals of this action, the British Colonial Secretary James Chamberlain did not agree with the planning and timing of this event which would "ruin him" if it succeeded. The British force lost 34 men before declaring the situation hopeless and surrendering to Commander Piet Cronje at Doornkop. After the failure of the raid, Kaiser Wilhelm II commended Paul Kruger on his victory, thereby worsening Anglo-Boer relations by recognizing the Transvaal Republic. For 10 points, name this ineffective raid which was intended to lead to an uprising of the Uitlanders, becoming one of the causes of the Second Boer War.
Answer: Jameson Raid
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A Modern Olympia. Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon inspired his The Large Bathers. Another of his paintings depicts two men in hats seated on opposite sides of a table, one of whom is smoking a pipe. For 10 points, who is this Post-Impressionist famous for The Card Players and several paintings of Mont Saint-Victoire?
Answer: Paul Cezanne
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This author included a short story about a husband and wife team that harvests babies for producing oil in his collection The Parenticide Club. This man wrote about a murderous chess playing robot in "Moxon's Master. This author wrote of a six year old deaf-mute playfully interacting with retreating soldiers before returning to find his parents and home burned in "Chickamagua." This man also wrote a short story in which a confederate sympathizer imagines an escape from certain death after being hanged from the title structure. For 10 points, name this author who introduced Peyton Farquhar in "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" and wrote The Devil's Dictionary.
Answer: Ambrose Bierce
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The Western and Eastern branches of this are separated by the San and Oslawa rivers while the Eastern and Southern branches meet at the Predeal Pass. Part of its western and northeastern Outer range is also known locally as the Beskids. Its Tatra range includes Gerlach Peak, the highest point in Slovakia. Separated from the Silesian and Moravian ranges by the March and Oder rivers respectively, this group only meets the Alps across the Danube at Bratislava. For 10 points, name this group of mountain chains whose namesake environmental convention was signed by Slovakia, Serbia, Hungary, Ukraine, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Romania.
Answer: Carpathian Mountains [or Carpathians; or Karpaty; or Carpati]
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This entity made a military pact known as the Tohopesate, and it was harassed by forces of Klaus Stortebeker, the leader of the Likedeelers, which were successors of pirates known as the Victual Brothers. After the humiliating Peace of Vordingborg, this entity defeated Valdemar IV of Denmark and forced him to sign the Treaty of Stralsund. The Peterhof in Novgorod and Steelyard in London are notable examples of Kontores established by this polity, although its power faded as the Swedish Empire lessened the importance of cities such as Visby and Lubeck. For 10 points, name this Northern European trading league which controlled the Baltic Sea.
Answer: Hanseatic League [or Hansa]
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The Hammett function replaces this quantity when activity coefficients become highly variable. Anthocyanins are biological compounds used to measure this quantity, and the Bohr effect for hemoglobin states that binding of oxygen is dependent on this quantity. Activity of lysosomes is determined by alteration of this quantity, which can be measured using cresol red or various alizarin compounds. One equation for determining this quantity sets it equal to the pKa plus the log of conjugate base over acid concentration and is named for Henderson and Hasselbalch. Measured by chemical indicators, for 10 points, identify this quantity given by the negative log of the concentration of hydrogen ions, whose value is less than 7 for acids.
Answer: pH [prompt on negative log of hydrogen until mentioned]
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Names of relations and names of the dead are among the "tabooed words" discussed in Chapter 22 of this work, and its discussions of the fire-festivals of Europe are inspired by the myth of the Norse god Balder. It begins by discussing the ritual murder of a priest of Nemi, and argues that the worship and sacrifice of the Sacred King of the Wood is central to most mythologies. It heavily influenced Joseph Campbell's The Hero With a Thousand Faces. For 10 points, identify this work that takes its name from an object used by Aeneas, a "study in magic and religion" by James Frazer.
Answer: The Golden Bough
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Denali makes use of a process termed para this to run x86 architecture on certain machines advanced by Popek and Goldberg. Examples of those machines described by this adjective include Java Runtime Environment, which sends commands and receives outputs from the Java software, and the memory of this type frees up RAM by moving unused physical memory to the hard disk. Certain entities described by this adjective are formed by reflections in all convex mirrors, and, when an object is within the focal length, converging lenses also lead to those images described by this adjective. For 10 points, identify this adjective, which contrasts with real images in optics and names a type of technology that simulates the feel of a fake alternate world called its namesake reality.
Answer: virtual [accept word forms like virtualization]
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The narrator of this work leaves a letter on a table for the servant Luke to deliver, but one character later admits to stealing and burning it, leading to speculation that stealing letters got him expelled from school. This work is presented as a manuscript written by an employee of Douglas' sister, and much of the criticism of this work debates the narrator's sanity in her revelation to Mrs. Grose that she saw her predecessor Mrs. Jessel hanging around the country estate of Bly. For 10 points, name this work in which an unnamed governess suspects Peter Quint of conspiring with the children Miles and Flora, a ghost story by Henry James.
Answer: The Turn of the Screw
2009 ACF Fall Bonuses by Yale B + Northwestern A
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John Botts introduced a motion of impeachment against this figure, and this man's secretary of state Abel Upshur was killed during an explosion on the USS Princeton. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Whig who presided over the addition of Texas to the union and came to power after the death of William Henry Harrison.
Answer: John Tyler Jr.
[10] John Tyler brought an end to the second of these conflicts. The first of these conflicts was ended by the Treaty of Payne's landing, while Osceola led the namesake Native American group in the second of these conflicts.
Answer: Seminole Wars
[10] Tyler notably did not send troops to quell this rebellion, which occurred in Rhode Island after Samuel Ward King declared martial law and refused to expand suffrage to non-landowners.
Answer: Dorr's Rebellion
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Identify some movies by Alfred Hitchcock, for 10 points each.,
[10] Hitchcock adapted a David Dodge novel for this film set on the French Riviera, in which Cary Grant plays John Roble, "The Cat," as he evades the police.
Answer: To Catch a Thief
[10] A Daphne Du Maurier story serves as the basis for this Hitchcock film, in which Melanie and Mitch wait out an assault by the title avians, who often crash into glass to fracture it.
Answer: The Birds
[10] In this Hitchcock film, Brandon and Philip murder David and store the corpse in a chest; that chest is later used as buffet table during a dinner party. Brandon and Philip both get arrested at its end for their trouble.
Answer: Rope
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Answer the following about the economist Merton Miller, for 10 points each.,
[10] One of Miller's doctoral students was Myron Scholes, who, along with this economist, names a model for pricing options.
Answer: Fischer Black
[10] The Miller-Modigliani theorem states that the value of one of these entities isn't affected by how it's financed, given an efficient market. Robert Coase wrote a paper on "The Nature of" these entities.
Answer: firms
[10] Franco Modigliani, the co-creator of the Miller Modigliani theorem, really didn't like this guy, the current prime minister of Italy. He also served as prime minister from 1994 to 1995 and 2001 to 2006.
Answer: Silvio Berlusconi
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It opens with the lines "The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold, And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this poem about a failed siege of Jerusalem described in the Second Book of Kings.
Answer: "The Destruction of Sennacherib"
[10] "The Destruction of Sennacherib" was written by this English romantic who fought in the Greek War of Independence. He also wrote "She Walks in Beauty" and Childe Harolde's Pigrimage.
Answer: Lord George Gordon Byron
[10] Byron's enormously popular satire about this figure described him as easily seduced by women instead of the other way around. He is also the subject of plays by Tirso de Molina and Moliere.
Answer: Don Juan
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Name these approaches to ethics, for 10 points each.,
[10] This approach states that the moral worth of an action is due to its contribution to overall happiness. Its proponents include Peter Singer and Jeremy Bentham.
Answer: utilitarianism
[10] Utilitarianism is a variant of this approach, contrasted with deontology, which judges actions by their effects. The argument from design is sometimes named for it.
Answer: teleology [or consequentialism]
[10] This approach claims that an action's morality is determined by the character of the agent performing it. Best seen in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, it is defended today by Alasdair MacIntyre.
Answer: virtue ethics
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Approximately three minutes and 20 seconds after this event, protons and neutrons began combining in the process of primordial nucleosynthesis. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this theory, whose name was coined in a 1949 radio broadcast to describe the rapid explosion of a singularity in the universe approximately 13.7 billion years ago.
Answer: Big Bang
[10] This cosmic process proposed by Alan Guth describes the period of rapid exponential expansion occurring about 10-36 seconds after the Big Bang. It helps explain why the universe appears flat and homogeneous.
Answer: cosmic inflation
[10] Estimated to occur about 377,000 years after the Big Bang, this period was characterized by the process of helium ions and hydrogen ions capturing electrons. By the end of this period, most atoms in the universe were neutral.
Answer: recombination
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One character in this film asks "What's the most you ever lost on a coin toss" and objects when Carla Jean Moss tells him "You don't have to do this." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Academy Award winning Coen Brothers film in which Javier Bardem plays the assassin Anton Chigurh, who starts a reign of terror with his cattle gun while trying to retrieve two million dollars from Josh Brolin.
Answer: No Country for Old Men
[10] In the Coen Brothers' Raising Arizona, Nicholas Cage plays H.I. McDunnough, who defeats this badass bounty hunter by pulling a pin from one of his grenades.
Answer: Leonard Smalls [or The Lone Biker of the Apocalypse]
[10] This early Coen Brothers film concerns a Hollywood scriptwriter played by John Turturro who writes a script for a wrestling movie after his neighbor "Madman Mundt" gives him a mysterious box.
Answer: Barton Fink
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Several sentences in this text begin with the words "Sanjay Uvachaa." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this subtext of the Mahabharata set in a battlefield during the Kurukshetra War, in which Arjuna is told adhere to dharma and to take up arms against his brethren.
Answer: Bhagavad Gita
[10] This figure, Arjun's charioteer, dispenses the advice and philosophy in the Bhagavad Gita. One bhakti movement named after this figure reveres him with the word hare [Ha-RAY].
Answer: Krishna
[10] The Hare Krishna chant originated in the Kali-Santarana text, which is one of these scriptures. These texts summarize the Vedanta teachings, and there are eleven principal ones.
Answer: Upanishads
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It includes Germinal, L'Assommoir, and Nana. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this twenty-novel cycle about the life of a Second Empire family began by Adelaide Fouque. It concludes with the novel Dr. Pascal.
Answer: Les Rougon-Macguart
[10] The Rougon-Macquart series is by this French author, who protested the government's handling of the Dreyfus Affair in a famous open letter.
Answer: Emile (Francois) Zola
[10] Name that open letter, which was published in the newspaper L'Aurore and denounced the pervasive anti-Semitism in the French government.
Answer: "J'accuse" [or I Accuse]
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This figure succeeded Charles Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer, and before becoming prime minister had a stint as secretary for home affairs. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this British prime minister who was in office during the end of the Revolutionary war.
Answer: Lord Frederick North [or second Earl of Guilford]
[10] Lord North was in power during this episode of anti-Catholic unrest, which occurred in response to the Papists Act of 1778. It was written about in Charles Dickens' Barnaby Rudge.
Answer: Gordon Riots
[10] Lord North made a motion calling for the expulsion of this radical politician, who was a namesake of a certain actor and assassin who worked in Ford's theatre.
Answer: John Wilkes
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Identify these named units associated with a magnetic field, for 10 points each.,
[10] This CGS unit of the B-field is equivalent to 10-4 kilograms per coulomb per second. Its namesake was responsible for two of Maxwell's equations, one for electricity and one for magnetism.
Answer: Gauss [prompt on G]
[10] Equivalent to the Gauss in a vacuum, this other CGS unit describes magnetic field intensity also known as the H-field. Its namesake discovered that compass needles are deflected near a current-carrying wire.
Answer: Oersted
[10] This SI-derived unit of magnetic field, symbolized T, is one kilogram per Ampere second-squared. Its namesake is a Croatian who also names a coil capable of generating high AC voltage.
Answer: Tesla
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Name these leagues of Greek city-states, for 10 points each:,
[10] This league named after a small Ionian island was founded soon after the Battle of Mycale, and was led by Athens against Sparta during the Peloponnesian War.
Answer: Delian League
[10] Ostensibly founded by Phillip II of Macedon after the Battle of Chaeronea as an alliance against Persia, this league was an excuse for Philip to bring the Greek city-states under Macedonian rule. Its namesake city colonized both Syracuse and Corcyra, and lies on an isthmus connecting the Peloponnese to the rest of Greece.
Answer: League of Corinth [or Corinthian League]
[10] Originally created in opposition to Macedonian rule of Greece, this league of city-states named after a northern region of the Peloponnese was eventually conquered by Rome, and counted Philopoemen and Polybius among its members.
Answer: Achaean League
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One member of this kingdom, M. grisea, infects barley and wheat plants both aerially and via the roots in a plant disease called rice blast. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this kingdom, whose members, such as the mushroom, possess a chitinous cell wall and threadlike structures called hyphae.
Answer: fungus [or fungi]
[10] Hyphae fibers interweave to form this mass, often referred to as the body of the fungus and largely responsible for secreting enzymes and absorbing nutrients from invaded organisms.
Answer: mycelium [or mycelia; or shiro]
[10] Baker's yeast, truffles, and the aforementioned M. grisea all belong to this fungal phylum, which is named for the sac-like spores its members form during sexual reproduction.
Answer: Ascomycota [or Ascomycetes]
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She was partially based on a worker at the Willow Run plant in Ypsilanti, Michigan. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this World War II icon, a figure who is most associated with posters depicting a woman flexing her right arm and saying "We can do it!"
Answer: Rosie the Riveter
[10] One famous depiction of Rosie the Riveter was by this artist of the Four Freedoms series, an American illustrator noted for his magazine covers.
Answer: Norman Rockwell
[10] Norman Rockwell was most famously an illustrator for this magazine from 1916 to 1963, during which time he painted more than three hundred cover paintings.
Answer: Saturday Evening Post
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Answer the following about the other Scylla, for 10 points each:,
[10] The other Scylla in question was a princess of Megara who had the hots for this king of Crete whose wife Pasiphae slept with a bull, producing the Minotaur.
Answer: Minos
[10] Scylla's great-grandfather was the second king of Athens with this name. The first king with this name had a fish or serpent tail and judged a contest between Athena and Poseidon, which Athena won.
Answer: Cecrops
[10] According to some sources, Scylla's nephew was this figure, who was absolved of crime by Proetus. This figure died trying to reach Mount Olympus on Pegasus, but did kill Chimera.
Answer: Bellerophon
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Clara stops speaking after the death of the green haired Rosa the Beautiful. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this novel that chronicles the rise of the Trueba family in a fictional South American country that is similar to its author's native Chile.
Answer: The House of the Spirits [or La casa de los espiritus]
[10] This Chilean author of City of the Beasts wrote The House of the Spirits. Her relative Salvador led Chile for a while.
Answer: Isabel Allende
[10] Allende's novel Daughter of Fortune is largely set in this US state. Other works set here include Roan Stallion and other poems by Robinson Jeffers.
Answer: California
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Name some things about the history of the country now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for 10 points each:,
[10] After the country gained independence from Belgium as the Republic of the Congo in 1960, this man was elected its first Prime Minister. He cemented an alliance with the Soviet Union and it is suspected that he was assassinated by CIA and Belgian officials because of this.
Answer: Patrice Emery Lumumba
[10] During Lumumba's term in office, this southeastern province of the country seceded under the leadership of Moise Tshombe. A Soviet-led invasion failed to bring this province under central control.
Answer: Katanga province [or Shaba Province]
[10] Some time after Lumumba's death, President Kasavubu was deposed by Mobutu Sese Seko, who changed the country's name to Zaire. Mobutu himself was overthrown in 1997 by this man, whose son Joseph is the country's current president.
Answer: Laurent-Desire Kabila
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For Mimi and Jean Godebski, this composer created the Mother Goose piano duet. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this composer of Tzigane and Le Tombeau de Couperin, who created the ballet Daphnis et Chloe and a work that people hilariously mistranslate as Pavane for a Dead Baby.
Answer: Joseph-Maurice Ravel
[10] Ravel also created this work named for a slow-tempo Spanish dance, wherein the entire orchestra takes up the ostinato of the snare drum, and cymbals are added after 18 recapitulations.
Answer: Bolero
[10] Ravel wrote the pieces in Gaspard de la nuit to outdo this member of the Russian Mighty Five who composed Tamara and Islamey, the latter of which he could not play himself.
Answer: Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev
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This character is chased by the Mechanical Hound and kills Captain Beatty with a flamethrower. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this character who is distressed by the disappearance of Clarice.
Answer: Guy Montag [accept either]
[10] Guy Montag is the protagonist of this Ray Bradbury novel. It is named for the temperature at which books burn.
Answer: Fahrenheit 451
[10] Two technicians coldly and efficiently give this wife of Montag a blood transfusion after she attempts suicide. This character is obsessed with buying a fourth television wall for her living room.
Answer: Mildred Montag
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This scientist first theorized the existence of ions in solutions in the absence of electrolysis and supposedly used his position on the Nobel Committee to award prizes to his friends like van't Hoff and Ostwald. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Swedish chemist who defined acids as substances that dissociate into hydrogen ions in solution.
Answer: Svante Arrhenius
[10] This other definition of acids and bases describes them as electron-pair acceptors and donors.
Answer: Lewis acid or definition
[10] Lewis acids, such as aluminum chloride, are very useful in promoting this reaction which allows introduction of a carbonyl substituent to aromatic rings. Its aldehyde version is the Gatterman-Koch reaction.
Answer: Friedel-Crafts acylation [prompt on "Friedel-Crafts/Friedel-Crafts reaction"; do not accept "alkylation" in place of acylation]
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Throughout much of the 16th and 17th centuries, this was the largest state in Europe. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this polity, which was created through the union of a kingdom at one time ruled by the Piast dynasty with the last European state to accept Christianity.
Answer: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth [or Poland-Lithuania; or the Rzeczpospolita]
[10] The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was officially founded by this unifying act of 1569, which established the realm as an elective monarchy with a national legislature called the Sejm [Same].
Answer: Union of Lublin
[10] The Union of Lublin ended the rule of this dynasty, which in addition to being Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania had been kings of Hungary and of Bohemia.
Answer: Jagiellon [or Jagiellonian; or Jogaila dynasty]

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