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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 ACF Fall Tossups by Missouri
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Sivash, a series of bays off the coast of this region, is a producer of brines, and the Tonka of Arabat is a sandspit off this region's coast. Its namesake mountains are home to the highest point here on Mount Roman-Kosh. Cities on its coast include Eupatoria and Theodosia, and it was inhabited by Tatars with their capital at Bakhchisaray, which led to it being a part of the Tatar A.S.S.R. Its current headquarters are at Simferopol, and a city here is Kerch, which gives its name to the straight connecting the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. For 10 points, name this peninsula in the Ukraine that was home to a war that pitted the Russians against the British and French.
Answer: Crimean peninsula [or Krymsky Poluostrov; or Crimea]
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A similar reaction to it sees the addition of an R group at the alpha carbon of an ester and is named for Horner and this reaction's namesake. One variation of this reaction uses a proton donor to reduce a carbon-lithium bond formed due to excess lithium to selectively yielding of the E type of product, and is called the Schlosser modification. It sees the formation of the zwitterionic betaines which undergo an oxaphosphetane intermediate, and phosphine oxide is a by-product of this reaction which usually yields Z alkenes. For 10 points, name this reaction that uses an aldehyde or ketone and a phosphorus ylide to produce alkenes and is named after a German chemist.
Answer: Wittig reaction
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He wrote about One Blossom's romance with the Russian immigrant Yozip Bloom, who inadvertently becomes chief of the titular Indian tribe in The People, and in another work Lily Hirschorn is misled by the marriage broker Pinye, who determines his matches by picking cards from the title object and is later dismayed when Leo Finkle wants to meet his daughter Stella. Along with The Magic Barrel, he wrote about Frank Alpine, who takes over Morris Bober's failing grocery shop, and in another novel Harriet Bird shoots the title character after he strikes out "The Whammer." For 10 points, name this author of The Assistant, who wrote about Roy Hobbs in The Natural.
Answer: Bernard Malamud
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In one of his works, a bow, quiver, and sword hang above the white robed title figure while five figures look on as Jesus performs the titular Raising of Lazarus. He painted his wife as the model of a woman who drank her husband Masolus of Carnia's ashes, Artemisia, and he painted a man with his right hand placed on the title figure's breast in The Jewish Bride. He also painted the author of Metaphysics with his hand on the head of a statue as well as the marching company of Franz Banning Cocq. For 10 points, name this artist of Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer and The Nightwatch who also painted a dissection in The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp.
Answer: Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn [accept either underlined answer]
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This nation was at one point dominated by 12 Aymara tribes, and cities founded under colonial rule here include Cochabamba, and Chiquisaca. One president of this country established an alliance with Luis Obregoso but was defeated at the battle of Yungay, Andres de Santa Cruz. This country's important mines included one at Potosi, and they were unable to use the nitrates on the Pacific Coast that they lost in the war of the Pacific. For 10 points, name this country once ruled by Antonio Jose de Sucre, and whose namesake notably won the battles of Boyaca before establishing Gran Colombia.
Answer: Republic of Bolivia or [Republica de Bolivia]
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At one point in this film, a main character learns that his love interest is a fan of the movie Sixteen Candles, while another character's pubes are later complimented by Jamie Kennedy's character. While sneaking through air ducts at Princeton, this film's protagonists overhear a contest of "battleshits," after which they drop their marijuana in a toilet. At the end of this movie, the man who stole the protagonists' car while on Ecstasy gives them $200 to purchase sliders, and in its sequel, the main characters escape Guantanamo. For 10 points, name this movie in which the titular duo encounters Neil Patrick Harris while searching for the perfect meal, starring John Cho and Kal Penn.
Answer: Harold and Kumar Go To White Castle
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Rulings in this man's court included Justice Story's finding that the court can fulfill the Constitution's supremacy clause by overriding a state court in a case involving Virginia voiding an inheritance, Martin v. Hunter's Lessee. He ruled that Congress has the right to regulate interstate commerce, and found that New Hampshire could not interfere with George III's charter because it was a private contract. In addition to Gibbons v. Ogden and Dartmouth v. Woodward, he ruled that a president had the right to not deliver his predecessor's court appointments, establishing judicial review. For 10 points, name this chief justice during Marbury v. Madison.
Answer: John Marshall
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This man names the special case of the Archimedean spiral when n is set to two. Gauss showed that any number which can be expressed as a power of two times the product of numbers named for this man can be the number of sides in a constructible polygon. He is also the namesake of the statement that a to the p is equal to a modulo p if p is prime, and he proposed that light waves travel through the principle of least time. His most famous idea was proven by Andrew Wiles. For 10 points, name this namesake of a type of primes and a theorem that states that x^n plus y^n equals z^n has no solution for n greater than 2, his "last theorem."
Answer: Pierre de Fermat
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Oscar Wilde wrote a poem that begins, "the corn has turned from gray to red / Since first my spirit wandered forth" about this city "Unvisited," and Christina Light has her bust made by the sculptor Roderick Hudson in this city. Hilda witnesses Miriam Schaefer inducing her lover Donatello to murder a monk by throwing him off the Tarpeian Rock in one novel set here, The Marble Faun, while the title character of another book is snubbed at a party hosted by Mrs. Walker in this city because she spurned Winterbourne to carry on a scandalous affair with Giovanelli. For 10 points, name this city, in which Daisy Miller contracts malaria during a tour of the Coliseum.
Answer: Rome [or Roma]
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This figure once fended off an attack by the centaurs Hylaeus and Rhaecus, after which she was insulted by Eurypylus and Iphicles. This woman once made love in a temple of Cybele, which led to her and her husband being turned into lions. One of this figure's sons, a friend of Telephus, was one of the Seven against Thebes; that son was Parthenopaeus. When Althea's sisters attempted to take from her a fur she won for drawing first blood at a hunt, their nephew Meleager killed them. Later, this woman was distracted when Hippomenes threw three golden apples, causing her to lose a footrace. For 10 points, identify this only female Argonaut and hunter of the Calydonian Boar.
Answer: Atalanta
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E.A. Valentijn and P.P. Van der Werf used their discovery of molecular hydrogen in NGC891 near Andromeda to explain this, and along with mircolensing it might be explained by the discovery of 38 white dwarfs in the Milky Way. A large portion of it is known to be non-baryonic, and it was first postulated by Fritz Zwicky. Some candidates for this include photinos and axions, which are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles or WIMPS, or Massive Compact Halo Objects or MACHOs. For 10 points, name this substance that makes up the vast majority of the universe's mass despite not being directly observable.
Answer: dark matter
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He developed what he called the "zone system" in creating his works, which involved visualization of the final print. One of his works shows a man walking down a row of huts and another man sitting on a stoop; that image is a part of his collaboration with John Hersey that showed life in an internment camp, Manzanar. He also collaborated with Nancy Newhall on This is the American Earth, and some of his earlier work showed Mount Williamson with a storm moving over it. He's best known for his black and white works, which include such Yosemite National Park scenes as Moon and Half Dome. For 10 points, name this f/64 member, a photographer of the American West.
Answer: Ansel Easton Adams
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He wrote about Mrs. Placentia and Diaph Silkworm in a play about Lady Loadstone, The Magnetic Lady. In another play Dauphine tricks his uncle Morose into marrying Epicoene, who is actually a boy, while Captain Bobadill teaches Master Matthew how to duel after Edward Knowell travels to meet Wellbred in Every Man in His Humour. In one of his plays Face allows Doll Common and Subtle into Lovewit's house where they dupe Epicure Mammon, and in another play Bonario sees the title character attempt to rape Celia, while earlier Mosca convinces everyone that the title character is dying. For 10 points, name this author of The Alchemist and Volpone.
Answer: Benjamin or Ben Jonson
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In this man's role as a strategoi he was given command of a fleet based in Thasos. His work was followed up by that of Cratippus and Theopompus, and he failed to keep Brasidas from conquering Amphipolis. Part of his work involved character studies of Brasidas, Cleon, and Themistocles, and he described the disastrous siege of Syracuse and the funeral oration of Pericles. While exiled from Athens, he wrote his major work, which was written before Lysander's victory at Aegospotami, though it does include the Sicilian expedition and the exploits of Alcibiades. For 10 points, name this Greek historian of The History of the Peloponnesian War.
Answer: Thucydides
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In the prologue to one of his operas the gods Virtue and Fortune argue about who is more powerful, only to be outdone by the god Amore. He used consecutive fifths as parody in his Canzonetta tre voci, and there is debate about the placement of the "Nigra Sum" motet in his Vespers for the Blessed Virgin. He featured a stile concitato in a setting of Jerusalem Delivered, entitled The Combat of Tancred and Clorinda. In one opera, Drusilla confesses to an attempted assassination to protect her lover Ottone, who had tried to kill Nerone's future empress. For 10 points, name this composer whose works such as Arianna, The Coronation of Poppea, and Orfeo, helped develop opera.
Answer: Claudio Monteverdi
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This belief's adherents trust that the third savior Saoshyant will bring about the "final renovation." Vishtaspa was the protector of their founder, who taught about the conflict between truth and lies, known as asha and druj. This religion's first man is Gayomart, and one sect of it believes in the timeless, apathetic god Zurvan. Hymns of this religion include the Gathas and the Yashts, which can be found in the Yasna. Parsi practitioners of it are placed in towers of silence when they die, and its sacred texts are found in the Zend-Avesta. For 10 points, name this faith that centers on the conflict between Ahriman and Ahura Mazda and was formed by a namesake Persian prophet.
Answer: Zoroastrianism
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Organisms in which this process occurs tend to have elevated levels of ascorbate peroxidase. Members of genus Frankia perform this process, and it is characterized by the occurrence of a pinkish color in leghemoglobin. It occurs in specialized cells called heterocysts in cyanobacteria, and the protein central to this process is inactivated by oxygen, contains an iron-molybdenum complex, and is coded for by the nif gene. The microorganisms most commonly associated with it form root nodules and are called rhizobia. For 10 points, identify this process which results in ammonification of the most common atmospheric gas.
Answer: nitrogen fixation
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This work discusses the growing importance of burghers in a section that explores the rise of towns after the fall of the Roman Empire. This work discusses the advantages of founding new colonies and uses a comparison of French and Portuguese wine to argue against protectionist tariffs in its fourth book, "Of Systems of Political Economy," which argues against the mercantilist system. Its first section supports the division of labor and discusses a pin factory, while it later argues that individuals acting due to self interest will benefit the market via the "invisible hand." For 10 points, name this major work of Adam Smith.
Answer: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
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In this novel, one character discovers that the legendarily pious invalid Madame Stahl stays in bed to hide her stubby legs. The title character is stunned to meet Sappho Sholtz, and earlier breaks into tears when the horse Frou-Frou trips and breaks its back while trying to race Gladiator. One character is induced to trust the psychic Landau by the insidious tutor Lydia, who tries to prevent the title character from bringing gifts to her son Seryoza. Stiva's infidelities upset Dolly, who encourages Kitty's marriage with the plain Konstantin Levin. For 10 points, name this novel, in which the title character hooks up with Count Vronsky and jumps in front of a train, by Leo Tolstoy.
Answer: Anna Karenina
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Vaihinger discussed the relation between Swedenborg and this man's concept of two worlds, in a commentary on this man's Dreams of a Spirit Seer. He proposed the creation of a league to mediate international disputes in his essay "Perpetual Peace," and defined ratiocination as the judgment of a predicate with its subject in "The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures." He defined his best-known concept by claiming that nothing can be called good without qualification "except a good will" in his Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals. For 10 points, name this author of The Critique of Judgment and Critique of Pure Reason who created the "categorical imperative."
Answer: Immanuel Kant
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TB. This ruler allied with Spain against France via the Treaty of Westminster, and he won a victory at the Battle of the Spurs during the War of the Holy League as well as a defeat of the Scottish at Flodden Field. One of his advisors secured peace among Europe's major powers through the Treaty of London, and he met with Francis I at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. His advisors included Thomas Cranmer, Cardinal Wolsey, and Thomas Cromwell, who helped this leader pass the Act of Supremacy and establish the Church of England. For 10 points, name this English king who was married to Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, and four other women.
Answer: Henry VIII
2008 ACF Fall Bonuses by Missouri
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Socrates ruminates why virtuous fathers often do not produce virtuous sons after meeting Anytus in this dialogue. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Platonic dialogue where Socrates teaches a slave how to solve a geometric problem about the size of a square during a discussion on whether virtue can be taught.
Answer: the Meno
[10] This other Platonic dialogue gets its name from a defense speech and consists of Socrates responding to his charges of inventing new gods and corrupting the youth during a public trial. His main accuser is Meletus.
Answer: the Apologia or the Apology
[10] In Apologia, Socrates defends himself from being a member of this philosophical group of traveling teachers who were known for quibbling. The dialogues Protagoras and Gorgias were named after members of this group.
Answer: Sophism [or Sophists]
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Name these Dickens novels, for 10 points each.,
[10] Phillip Pirrip lives with Joe Gargery when he meets the robber Abel Magwich, who becomes Pip's mysterious benefactor in this novel.
Answer: Great Expectations
[10] Josiah Bounderby marries Louisa, the daughter of the schoolmaster Thomas Gradgrind in this novel. Thomas is known for his insistence on learning "facts."
Answer: Hard Times
[10] One of the title characters of this novel dies while at school in Brighton, ruining his father's plans for a successor for his mercantile firm. Meanwhile Florence runs off with her father's employee Carker.
Answer: Dombey and Son
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He advocated the US taking control of the Philippines after the Spanish American War. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Ambassador to Britain and Secretary of State who is most famous for proposing the Open Door policy to keep European influence from blocking out American trade in China.
Answer: John Milton Hay
[10] Hay was appointed Secretary of State by this man who served as president during the Spanish-American War before being assassinated by Leon Czolgosz.
Answer: William McKinley
[10] Hay negotiated a treaty with British diplomat Julian Pauncefote, giving the U.S. control of what would later become the "Zone" of this waterway.
Answer: the Panama Canal
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This sculpture, found in Padua, is set on a marble base in front of the church of Sant'Antonio. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this equestrian statue of the Italian mercenary and former dictator of Padua Erasmo di Narni, more commonly known by a nickname derived from the name of his mother.
Answer: Gattamelata [or The Honeyed Cat]
[10] This sculptor of Gattamelata also created a statue of the prophet Habbakuk called Zuccone. He is probably most famous for a bronze statue of an otherwise nude David wearing a hat and partially standing on Goliath's head.
Answer: Donatello [or Donato di Betto Bardi]
[10] Donatello's other bronzes include one titled after these two figures from the Apocrypha. The first figure is depicted holding the second one's hair in one hand and a sword in the other, with which she prepares to behead him.
Answer: Judith and Holofernes
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This leader won a Nobel Prize for his efforts to negotiate an end to the Suez Crisis. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Canadian prime minister who resigned in 1968 after introducing a national pension plan and family assistance.
Answer: Lester Bowles Pearson
[10] Pearson's most visible mark on Canada is his introduction of the flag that bears this design in red.
Answer: maple leaf [prompt on leaf]
[10] Pearson was also the Canadian representative at the meeting that created the Washington treaty to found this organization, which waged Operation Allied Force against Yugoslavia in the Kosovo War.
Answer: NATO [or The North Atlantic Treaty Organization]
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This epic poem begins with a meeting called by Gitche Manito. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this poem about the titular prophet, son of the West Wind and Wenonah whose wife Minnehaha dies in a famine.
Answer: "The Song of Hiawatha"
[10] This man, who made the first American translation of The Inferno, wrote "The Courtship of Miles Standish" and "The Song of Hiawatha."
Answer: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
[10] The narrator declares, "Christ save us all from death like this / On the reef of Norman woe!" in this Longfellow poem about a captain who ties his daughter to the mast of the title ship during a devastating storm.
Answer: "The Wreck of the Hesperus"
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This figure, who shares his name with a Chaldean god of fate, used the snake Vasuki to tie his boat to another character's horns. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this figure, the Hindu equivalent of Noah, who was warned of an impending flood by the fish Matsya.
Answer: Manu Vaivasvata [or Manu Satyavrata]
[10] Matsya was the first avatar of this god, the consort of Lakshmi and the preserver of the Trimurti. This god's other avatars include the dwarf Vamana, the boar Varaha, and Krishna, the narrator of the Bhagavad Gita.
Answer: Bhagavan Vishnu [or Visnu]
[10] This final avatar of Vishnu will appear at the end of the Kali Yuga and will ride his white horse Devadatta across the land, smiting the wicked with his sword.
Answer: Kalki [or Kalkin; or Kalaki]
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The Rafael Urdaneta Bridge spans this body of water which is overrun with duckweed. For 10 points each:,
[10] The city La Ceiba is on this lake's coast, and its large supply of petroleum allows its home nation to be a member of OPEC. This lake has been dredged a lot.
Answer: Lake Maracaibo or [Lago de Maracaibo]
[10] Lake Maracaibo is found in this South American country, ruled from Caracas by Hugo Chavez. It is a Bolivarian republic on the Caribbean sea.
Answer: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela [or Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela]
[10] Lake Maracaibo's largest tributary is this river where you can find its namesake lightning, one of the biggest ozone producers in the world. It rises in Columbia and is met by the Zulia river near Encontrados.
Answer: Catatumbo River
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Starch and cellulose are polymers of this sugar. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this monosaccharide which combines with fructose to produce sucrose.
Answer: glucose [or C6H12O6]
[10] Galactose and glucose display this type of isomerism where the stereochemistry of exactly one chiral carbon is inverted.
Answer: epimers
[10] Starch is made up of two different polymers of glucose. One has a linear chain of 1-4 alpha glycosidic linkages, while the other is a more branched polymer which constitutes about 80% of starch. Name either.
Answer: amylose or amylopectin
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This author wrote about his home peninsula breaking off in The Stone Raft. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author who wrote The Gospel According to Jesus Christ and Balthasar and Blimunda.
Answer: Jose Saramago
[10] Jose Saramago is a native of this country, which is the setting for his novel The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis, which is set in Lisbon.
Answer: Portugal or Republica Portuguesa
[10] At the beginning of this Saramago novel a man sitting at a stoplight is struck with the titular malady, and the characters in the hospital include the boy with the squint and the girl with the dark glasses.
Answer: Blindness or Ensaio sobre a cegueira
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This band was formed after the collapse of the Yardbirds, and some of their hits include "Black Dog" and "Whole Lotta Love." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this band whose members include Jimmy Page and Robert Plant, the performers of "Stairway to Heaven."
Answer: Led Zeppelin
[10] This song from the album Physical Graffiti was sampled by Puff Daddy in "Come With Me." The singer claims to be "a traveler of both time and space" and says that "Ooh baby I've been flying, Mama, there ain't no denyin'."
Answer: "Kashmir"
[10] This song, found between "Black Mountain Side" and "I Can't Quit You Baby" on Led Zeppelin I, discusses how a girl is driving the singer to ruin before noting that the title conflict is always the same and drives him insane.
Answer: "Communication Breakdown"
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He underwent hypnosis after a drunk Alexander Glazunov's disastrous premiere of his first symphony drove him away from composing. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Russian composer of the Prelude in C-Sharp Minor as well as his later work The Symphonic Dances. His literary inspired works include the choral symphony The Bells.
Answer: Sergey Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff
[10] This symphonic poem by Rachmaninoff is based on paintings by Arnold Bocklin that shows a boat drifting into the titular location. The music includes an intonation of the Dies Irae chant.
Answer: Isle of the Dead
[10] Rachmaninoff uses the Dies Irae melody in a 24-variation rhapsody based on this man's 24th caprice. He was known as the greatest violin virtuoso in the 1800s and also wrote Perpetual Motion.
Answer: Niccolo Paganini
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It was inspired by the sacking of Rome by Alaric, and its author argued that Rome was sacked because it was of no spiritual importance. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this 22-book work about the titular holy location, a place where people give up earthly pleasures to focus on upholding Christian values.
Answer: The City of God Against the Pagans or De Civitate Dei contra paganos
[10] The City of God was written by this bishop of Hippo and opponent of Pelagianism, who discussed his early life as a sinful pagan in his Confessions.
Answer: Saint Augustine of Hippo or Aurelius Augustinus
[10] Prior to his conversion, Augustine had been a follower of this dualistic Gnostic religion. The followers of its namesake founder called his trials the "Passion of the Illuminator."
Answer: Manichaeism
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For it to be followed, a cyclic molecule's pi electrons equals 4n plus 2, with n being a positive integer or zero. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this rule which is followed by molecules like benzene.
Answer: Huckel's rule
[10] A cyclic, planar molecule which has delocalization of charge and which follows Huckel's rule exhibits this property, which sometimes causes it to have a pleasant smell.
Answer: aromaticity [accept word forms]
[10] This meta directing functional group can be added to benzene by an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction where its namesake strong acid is protonated by sulfuric acid.
Answer: nitro [or NO2]
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This man was expelled from his nation's communist party for supporting peasants' welfare. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this man who was overthrown in a 1956 Soviet invasion after he attempted to liberalize his government and released Cardinal Joseph Midszenty from jail.
Answer: Imre Nagy [pronounced "Nahj"; accept reversed order]
[10] Imre Nagy was the leader of this country, which earlier in the century had been a dual monarchy with Austria.
Answer: Hungary
[10] Imre Nagy was replaced by Janos Kadar, who had earlier been thrown in jail for supporting this Yugoslav leader and founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. He was born Josip Broz.
Answer: Marshal Tito [accept Josip Broz Tito]
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It opens with a description of the wounded native Kamante, who later becomes the protagonist's chef, and a gazelle named Lulu. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this memoir of the lover of Denys Finch-Hatton, who helps Chief Kinanjui adjudicate a shooting accident, a work about a Dutch woman and her coffee plantation.
Answer: Out of Africa or Den afrikanske farm
[10] This woman wrote Out of Africa, as well as Babette's Feast and the short story collection Seven Gothic Tales.
Answer: Isak Dinesen [or Karen Christence Dinesen, Baroness Blixen-Finecke]
[10] Among Dinesen's Seven Gothic Tales is a story titled for the "roads round" this Italian city, which also names a section of Pound's Cantos.
Answer: Pisa
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His brother Ariboga tried to be elected Khan, which was headed off when this man called a council at Shang-tu. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this one-time overlord of all Mongol territories, who focused mainly on China and became the founder of the Yuan dynasty.
Answer: Kublai Khan [or Khubla Khan; or Khubilai Khan]
[10] Kublai Khan's attempt to invade Japan was headed off when a storm blew away his navy. The Japanese then gave this name to that storm, meaning "divine wind".
Answer: kamikaze
[10] Khublai Khan was the younger brother to this last Mongol to rule from Karakorum. His brother Hulagu led the western Mongol expansion past Iran to the Mediterranean, and he died while leading the conquest of China.
Answer: Mongke Khan [or Mangu Khan]
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Identify the following about DNA replication, for 10 points each.,
[10] These are short strands of DNA built in the 3 prime to 5 prime direction, as a polymerase cannot proceed in that direction. They are covalently linked by ligases.
Answer: Okazaki fragments
[10] This class of enzymes can break the linkages between complementary DNA strands to unwind DNA for replication or transcription.
Answer: helicases
[10] This DNA polymerase, obtained from a bacteria found in hot springs, is used in most PCRs as it can withstand temperatures of 95 degrees celsius. It has terminal transferase activity, adding an extra adenosine to the 3 prime end.
Answer: Taq polymerase [or Thermus aquaticus polymerase]
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This novel's title character gets kicked out of Castle Thunder-ten-tronck. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this Voltaire novel, where the title character is impressed into the Bulgarian army before ending the novel growing a garden in Istanbul.
Answer: Candide
[10] Candide is in love with this woman all through the novel, and she is raped by the Bulgarians before becoming the mistress of a Jew and a member of the inquisition in Lisbon.
Answer: Cunegonde
[10] This man shows up in Venice as a slave of the sultan Achmet the 3rd. He is Candide's servant before being separated from him in South America.
Answer: Cacambo
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This language group may not contain Anatolian, but certainly contains German and Sanskrit. For 10 points:,
[10] Name this large family of languages that are believed to derive from "proto-" roots that contains Aryan, Iranian, Italic, and other groups of languages.
Answer: Indo-European [prompt on Indo-Hittite, which undoubtedly contains Anatolian]
[10] This Swiss linguist wrote about how knotty vowels in Indo-European Languages arose in his Memoir on the Original System of Vowels in Indo-European Languages but he is most important for his Course in General Linguistics.
Answer: Ferdinand de Saussure
[10] Central to Saussure's Course in General Linguistics is this concept, which is broken down into the signifier and the signified.
Answer: the sign
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It is independent of the temperature of objects emitting it. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this type of radiation produced by electrons traveling close to the speed of a light in a magnetic field that is named for a type of particle accelerator.
Answer: synchrotron radiation
[10] This object, designated M1 in the Messier catalog, is the remnant of a supernova observed by some Chinese people in 1054. Found in the Taurus constellation, it was shown to emit synchrotron radiation.
Answer: Crab nebula
[10] At the central of the Crab nebula is one of these objects, a rapidly rotating neutron star that periodically emits light.
Answer: pulsar

Warning: Unknown: open(/home/content/24/5140124/tmp/sess_pneequ9a0s53u8uvsbf7ie1685, O_RDWR) failed: No such file or directory (2) in Unknown on line 0

Warning: Unknown: Failed to write session data (files). Please verify that the current setting of session.save_path is correct () in Unknown on line 0