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View Packets Tournament Editor
2006 ACF Fall Tossups by Mike Sorice
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Radiation from these bodies is uniquely dominated by thermal diffusion due to non-degenerate ionic states in their cores. Objects of this type are prevented from collapse by electron degeneracy pressure and are consequently highly compact. For an astronomical body of this type, a solution for the special relativistic equation for the wave function of the electrons yields a unique mass-radius relation, but this only has a meaningful solution for objects below a certain mass, which is known as the Chandrasekhar limit. The endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with intermediate masses, FTP, name these stars that, as their name implies, are often colorless and small.
Answer: white dwarf stars [or white dwarves]
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A leader from the latter phase of this conflict was Jacobus Hercules De la Rey, who would eventually be shot dead by police. One side in this war achieved victory at Spion Kop by compelling the other side to try raising the siege of Ladysmith. Frederick Sleigh Roberts was eventually successful in relieving Maefiking and Kimberly, and Horatio Kitchener introduced the "scorched earth" policy and the concentration camp in this war, whose belligerents included a republic led by Paul Kruger. FTP, name this 1899 to 1902 war ended by the Peace of Vereeniging, which was fought between Great Britain and the Afrikaner states of South Africa.
Answer: the Second Anglo-Boer War [prompt on South African War]
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This 1993 work, the first of a series, incorporated the acting talent of Chicago bouncer Willie Morris, who appears under the pseudonym "Air Dog." The code MJT 3/22 allows one to use Mark Turmell, who claims to be included in it as an unfair advantage for Detroit. In this game, the announcer will exclaim "is it the shoes?" "the nail in the coffin!" or "boom shack a lacka!" if impressed, and making two field goals leads that announcer to note "He's heating up." Three consecutive scores allow your player unlimited Turbo because "He's on fire!" FTP, name this 2-on-2 Midway video game whose sequel included expanded rosters under the subtitle "tournament edition," an arcade basketball classic.
Answer: NBA Jam [do not accept or prompt on NBA Jam: Tournament Edition or any other superfluous information; only the unadorned NBA Jam was released in 1993 and is the first of the series]
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This person's namesake gauge gives rise to transverse current by imposing the condition that the vector potential is solenoidal. This scientist's Researches on the Force of Torsion and Elasticity of Metal Wires outlines his theory of dry friction, which can be used with Amontons' law. That work also contains designs for a torsion balance, which he would use to prove his most famous result, published in his 1785 Memoirs on Electricity and Magnetism. FTP name this Frenchman whose eponymous inverse square law defines the electrostatic force between two charged particles, who is also the namesake of the SI unit of charge.
Answer: Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
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Clark and Wright hold that this work contains interpolations with passages by Middleton, but this is doubtful. Derek Jacobi's 1998 critical essay on this play stems from 1993 work with Cheryl Cambell, while a more classic critical text dealing with this play is De Quincy's essay "On the Knocking at the Gate in [it]." Minor characters in this play include two doctors of differing nationalities and a band of murderers, who fail to kill Fleance but have more success offing Banquo. FTP, name this 1606 play in which the title character's wife fails to murder Duncan; a Shakespeare work about a usurping king of Scotland.
Answer: MacBeth
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In reproductions of this work, the image of a woman screaming towards the sky is often excluded. In 1974, this painting was defaced with red spray paint and the words KILL LIES ALL. Commissioned for the 1937 World's Fair in Paris, this black and white work depicts a man trying to steal a baby from its mother, Lady Liberty carrying the lamp of democracy, a flower growing from a shattered vase, and a horse drowning in chaos. FTP, name anti-war Pablo Picasso painting named for a bombed Basque city.
Answer: Guernica
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This person depicts a wide-eyed, peasant-topped girl under a cloudy sky with left shoulder exposed, crosses to her left and tombstones to her right, in Orphan Girl at the Cemetery. A depiction of Louis IX on a white horse appears at center-left in this artist's unfinished The Battle of Tailleburg, while a chicken, hare, and lizard appear on the beach along with the titular crustacean in Still Life with Lobsters. Though later works like The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople hardly reflect the fact, this artist began as a neoclassicist as can be seen in the The Barque of Dante. FTP, name this painter of Women of Algiers in Their Apartments, The Massacre at Chios, The Death of Sardanapalus, and Liberty Leading the People; one of the foremost French romantics.
Answer: Ferdinand-Eugene-Victor Delacroix
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The victor at Stoke, this person was strongly influenced and aided by his stepfathers Jasper of Penbroke and Lord Stanley. Weakened by the 1407 successional exclusion of the Beauforts, this noble supported the rebellion of Stafford of Buckingham in part by a promise to marry Elizabeth of York. Opposed by the pretenders Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck, this ruler created the Court of the Star Chamber after establishing the Tudor dynasty. FTP, name this man who became king of England in 1485, ending the Wars of the Roses.
Answer: Henry VII Tudor of England [prompt on Henry Tudor or Henry, Earl of Richmond]
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This person's thesis on Garcia Marquez is subtitled "Story of a God-Killer," while other critical work include 1975's The Perpetual Orgy about Madame Bovary. The Young Lady of Tacna, Kathie and the Hippopotamus, and La Chunga comprise this writer's Three Plays, while time spent at a military school colored his first novel, The Time of the Hero. FTP, name this Spanish-language author best known for The Real Life of Alejandro Mayta, The War of the End of the World, and the autobiographical Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter; probably the foremost novelist of Peru.
Answer: Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa [YO-suh] (prompt on partial last name)
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Lesser stories of this person tell of his slaying of Morholt and of a castle alight with song which impurity prevented his entering. Sentenced to death, this hero escaped to the forest of Morrois and eventually fled to Bretony and married the White-Handed daughter of its duke. This knight was made to kill himself by a ship flying a black sail, though his fate was sealed by the carelessness of Brangaine, who allowed him to drink part of a love philter intended for his uncle, King Mark of Cornwall. FTP, name this Celtic hero best known for his tragic love for Iseult.
Answer: Tristan [or Tristram or Tristrem]
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An exhaustive critical biography of this person was published in 2006 by McElrath and Crisler. This writer's own critical theories are contained in The Responsibilities of the Novelist, which discusses the need for authenticity; this can be seen in practice in this novelist's work on the conflict between Magnus Derrick and S. Berman based on Mussel Slough incident. An early death prevented him completing Vandover and the Brute or Wolf, the third works in the San Francisco and Epic of the Wheat trilogies, respectively. FTP, name this major American naturalist author of McTeague and The Octopus.
Answer: Frank Norris
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The levorotary form of this chemical is the endpoint of the shikimate pathway, one branch of which sees this cyclic compound synthesized from 4-hydroxy-phenyl-pyruvate by reduction of L-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. DOPA is biologically synthesized by the action of this chemical's namesake hydrolase on it as it is the precursor of the catecholamines. This amino acid's side chain contains a phenyl group, so it can be made from the hydroxylation of phenylalanine. FTP, name this amino acid symbolized Y and named from the Greek for the substance in which it was first found, cheese.
Answer: tyrosine [accept Y before it's mentioned]
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This work's second part delineates seven cardinal virtues, then addresses "Acts Which Pertain Especially to Certain Men," namely theologians and prophets. In each of this book's thirty-four sections, it follows a standard format of posing a number of questions, raising a series of objections to the orthodox answer to each, then addressing these objections with a paragraph beginning "I say?" This theological text was completed with the addition of a Supplementum tertia partis by Peter of Auvergne or Henry of Gorkum after its author experienced an ecstasy while saying mass in 1273. FTP, name this Aristotelian Christian work of Scholastic thought; the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas.
Answer: Summa theologiae [or Summa Theologica]
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The naval engagement at Cape Esperance was fought in support of this battle, in which the aggressor immediately achieved the secondary objective of capturing the harbour of Tulagi. It was the initial phase of a plan designed to culminate with the capture of Rabaul, and its third month saw the Wasp sunk by submarines. The naval battle sharing its name took place from November 13 to 15, 1942 and saw Halsey's forces prevent a Japanese force from landing on this battle's namesake island. FTP, name this infamously long and difficult battle centering on Henderson Field, which was the first major Allied offensive in the Pacific and named for the largest of the Solomon Islands.
Answer: the Battle of Guadalcanal
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This work's section marked Allegro energico, sempre ben marcato utilizes a rare and complex double fugue on a doubly exposited theme. The seventh section of this musical work's final movement, an Alla marcia scherzo in 6/8, utilizes the combination of triangle, cymbals, and bass drum characteristic of Janissary music. Its composer's opus 125, this symphony was commissioned by the Royal Philharmonic Society in 1817. FTP, name this 1824 musical work that notably uses Friedrich Schiller's "Ode to Joy;" the final symphony of Ludwig van Beethoven.
Answer: Symphony No. 9 in D minor ("Choral"), Op. 125 [accept any underlined part; accept Op. 125 before it's mentioned and prompt on it afterwards]
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The nth of these at x times t to the n summed over n as a doubly-infinite Laurent [law-RAWNT] series produces the generating function e to the quantity x over two times the quantity t minus 1 over t. Because these functions are the zero-regular Froebenius solutions of the radial component of Laplace's equation in cylindrical coordinates, they are sometimes called cylindrical harmonics. The Hankel functions are a complex linear combination of these and their companion Neumann functions, which are also known as these of the second kind. FTP, name these mathematical functions symbolized J and named for the German astronomer and mathematician who first calculated a star's parallax.
Answer: the ordinary Bessel functions of the first kind [prompt on J]
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Two of this person's best-known works are unfinished, in one case because the story of how Sir Leoline handles the demonic lesbian Geraldine was never completed and in the other case because a man from Porlock interrupted the transcription of the dream in which it was a vision. Although this artist's critical work Biographia Literaria has some merit and his son Hartley wrote a number of successful poems, this writer's reputation rests on his own poems including "Frost at Midnight," "The Aeolian Harp," and "Dejection: An Ode" as well as the aforementioned "Christabel" and "Kubla Khan." FTP, name this English romantic poet best known for working with Wordsworth on Lyrical Ballads.
Answer: Samuel Taylor Coleridge
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This body of water covers the Dogger Bank moraine and is regulated by the Common Fisheries Policy. Its deepest parts include the Silver Pit and Devils Hole, and a route through the Kattegat strait and Skagerrak connects it to the Baltic Sea. One of its outlets to the Atlantic passes between the Orkney and Shetland islands, and its longest area of depth is called the Norwegian Trench. A namesake canal connects ito Amsterdam, while ports which sit directly on it include Hamburg, Antwerp, and Rotterdam. Name this oil-rich sea which separates the north of the European continent from the British Isles.
Answer: the North Sea
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Reaction of these compounds with a strong acid may produce a tri-alkyl oxonium salt. Allyl aryl ones can undergo the Claissen Rearrangement, and the smallest cyclic member of this group is ethylene oxide, while cyclic poly- ones are known as "crown." Members of this class of chemicals can be produced by dehydroxation of alcohols or by alkoxide nucleophilic displacement on an alkyl halide, which is known as the Williamson synthesis. FTP, name these chemical compounds defined by the presence of an oxygen bonded to two alkyl groups and perhaps best known for their diethyl variety, which is a notable anesthetic.
Answer: ethers
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The capture of this nation's ship Marques of Olinda led to a war in which its forces were commanded by the Duke of Caxias. This state achieved independence with the "Fico" speech of its first ruler, who was deposed in favor of his son nine years later. That son promulgated the Lei Aurea or Golden Law which freed this country's slaves, but one year later, Dom Pedro II abdicated. This country joined Argentina and Uruguay in the Triple Alliance and has been run in more recent times by Itamar Franco, Fernando Cardoso, Getulio Vargas, and Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. FTP, name this South American country claimed by Pedro Cabral for Portugal.
Answer: the Federative Republic of Brazil [or Republica Federativa do Brasil]
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TB. In an equation named for one man of this surname, a dimensionless constant, known as its namesake fraction, varies from 003 for pitch to 0.200 for salinity. That psycho-physical law states that the just-noticeable difference in a stimulus is proportional to its intensity. Another social scientist of this surname described the rationalization of political and economic life in the West in Economy and Society, and he railed against the Junker aristocracy in his Freiburg Address. His most famous work correlates economic success with a certain religious background. FTP give the last name shared by physiologist Ernst and sociologist Max, who authored The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
Answer: Weber
2006 ACF Fall Bonuses by Mike Sorice
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This kind of reaction requires initiation, propagation, and eventually, termination. FTPE:,
[10] Name this kind of chemical reaction in which many small subunits are joined into a large chain. They are often used to make materials like plastics.
Answer: polymerization
[10] These are polymers consisting of two or more different monomers. They can be described as random, alternating, block, or graft, depending on the order of the monomers.
Answer: copolymers
[10] These famous eponymous organometallic and titanium chloride based catalysts can overcome problems with branching during polymerization by controlling the stereochemistry of the reaction.
Answer: Ziegler-Natta catalysts
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The Sengoku, or Warring States Period, was a time of unrest occurring after the Onin War in this modern-day country. FTPE:,
[10] Name this country currently in the Heisei Period.
Answer: Japan [or Nihon or Nippon]
[10] This Fujiwara relative was the first of Japan's great unifiers. He co-opted the power of, and eventually overthrew, the Ashikaga shoguns, but he killed himself following the rebellion of Araki Murashige.
Answer: Oda Nobunaga [accept either or both names; or Kichihoshi; or Saburo]
[10] Nobunaga is a representative figure of this class of Japanese landholding feudal warlords. The real power during the Sengoku period, their name comes from the Japanese for "large land."
Answer: daimyo
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According to this band's lead singer, they "…wanted to call [their first record] Metal Up Your Ass…" but the record companies wouldn't allow that, so they entitled it Kill `Em All. FTPE:,
[10] Name this band which followed Kill `Em All with Ride the Lightning and Master of Puppets, and which received the "Band Whose Fans Are Most Likely to Eat Things That They Pick Off of Their Own Bodies" award from Dr. David Thorpe in 2004.
Answer: Metallica
[10] That quote about Metal Up Your Ass was taken from a Metallica tour video dedicated to this second bassist, since whose death by tour bus Metallica has sucked. His trademarks were wearing a jean jacket and playing a Rickenbacker four-string sans pick.
Answer: Clifford Lee Burton
[10] Cliff Burton's talents are probably best shown in this song, track five on Kill `Em All. Its only words are "Bass solo, take one;" predictably, these are followed by a bass solo.
Answer: "Anesthesia: Pulling Teeth" [accept Pulling Teeth]
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Founded after a Khorasan-based revolt against the Umayyads in 750 CE, this second caliphate ruled until the Mongol conquests of 1258. FTPE:,
[10] Name this dynasty founded by Abu as-Saffah, "the blood-shedder."
Answer: `Abbasid Dynasty [or `Abbasid Caliphate or `Abbasids etc.; prompt on Baghdad Caliphate]
[10] This city was the `Abbasid capital and is sometimes used to name the `Abbasid period. The Tigris flowed black with ink from books after its 1258 sack.
Answer: Baghdad
[10] This dynasty of military rulers of the Oguz Turkmens founded the Sultanate of Rum after seizing temporal power in Baghdad in 1055. Alp Arslan, the victor at Manzikert, was a noted member.
Answer: Seljuqs [or Seljuks]
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FTPE, answer the following about 20th century Japanese short story collections.,
[10] An elderly man spends a night with a drugged, unconscious virgin in House of the Sleeping Beauties, the title story in a collection by this author of Thousand Cranes and Snow Country.
Answer: Kawabata Yasunari
[10] A married couple robs a McDonald's of 30 Big Macs in the short story "The Second Bakery Attack", which can be found in this collection, whose title story details the disappearance of a pachyderm.
Answer: The Elephant Vanishes
[10] This groundbreaking author of The Elephant Vanishes likes to write about cats and prostitutes in works such as The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle and Kafka on the Shore.
Answer: Murakami Haruki
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Answer each of the following about a certain important second messenger FTPE.,
[10] Earl Sutherland discovered the function of this protein kinase activator. It consists of three linked hetrocyclic rings with attached hydroxyl, amine, methylene, and phosphate groups, the latter doubly-attached.
Answer: cyclic adenosine monophosphate
[10] Cyclic AMP is formed from this other molecule by membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase molecules. This molecule may be more familiar as the form in which most organisms store energy.
Answer: adenosine triphosphate
[10] Cyclic AMP is in turn deactivated by this enzyme, which attaches a water molecule to a cyclic AMP molecule to create boring, regular AMP. It is named for the type of bond, also found in DNA, that it breaks.
Answer: phosphodiesterase
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Name each of the following painters of gardens FTP.,
[10] This weird guy's triptych The Garden of Earthly Delights features an earthly paradise with gigantic fruit and fish, people riding various animals in a circle, and a man picking flowers from a woman's butt.
Answer: Hieronymus Bosch [or Jheronimus Bos or Jerome Van Aeken or Jerome Van Aquen or Jerome Van Aken or Jeroen Anthoniszoon]
[10] This dude depicted his young wife Helen Fourment in The Little Fur and 1632's The Garden of Love.
Answer: Peter Paul Rubens
[10] This late-nineteenth-century American fellow's Cremorne Gardens series is notable for its second member, which hangs in the Met.
Answer: James Abbott McNeill Whistler
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The integrating factor can be used to solve linear first-order ones, and the Runge-Kutta method is the most reliable numerical technique for solving them. FTPE:,
[10] Name this type of equation, which contains standard derivatives of one or more dependent variables with respect to a single independent variable.
Answer: Ordinary Differential Equations
[10] Ordinary differential equations can also be solved with the aid of this transform, defined as the integral from 0 to infinity of e to the minus s t times f of t dt. Its value for 1 is 1 over s, and for t, it is 1 over s2.
Answer: Laplace transform
[10] The Laplace transform of this function is equal to 1. The unit impulse, its value is infinity at its origin but zero everywhere else. It is also considered the derivative of the Heaviside step function.
Answer: Dirac delta function
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This law, vetoed on March 2, 1867 but immediately passed by a two thirds overrule vote, was probably designed to protect the job of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. FTPE:,
[10] Name this law eventually declared unconstitutional in the 1926 case of Myers v. U.S.
Answer: the Tenure of Office Act of 1867
[10] This embattled President vetoed the Tenure of Office Act and then dismissed Stanton against its terms when it was passed anyway.
Answer: Andrew Johnson [prompt on Johnson]
[10] Johnson's impeachment trial the following year was presided over by this monocle-wearing Chief Justice of the United States, who had earlier served as Lincoln's Treasury Secretary.
Answer: Salmon Portland Chase
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Answer each of the following about some Greek god-on-mortal loving, FTPE.,
[10] This son of Zeus and patron of prophecy lacked his dad's touch in sexing-up non-gods. Daphne was turned into a tree to avoid his conjugal embrace and he hit his lover Hyacinthus in the head with a discus.
Answer: Phoebus Apollo [accept either underlined part]
[10] Per Euripides, Apollo did the dirty deed with Creusa in a cave near this city. Creusa was herself a princess of this Attican city as a daughter of its King Erechtheus.
Answer: Athens [or Athinai or Athenai]
[10] This son of Apollo and Creusa was raised by the Delphic Oracle and went on to rule Athens after being discovered by Creusa and Xuthus.
Answer: Ion
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In spite of Willie Chen's assertion that this question doesn't exist, answer each of the following about a poetic form FTP.,
[10] Refined by Petrarch, this immensely common poetic form has Italian, or Petrarchan, and English, or Shakesperian, varieties. The latter consists of three quatrains and a couplet.
Answer: sonnets
[10] This courtier of Henry VIII and friend of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, is credited with bringing the sonnet into English. His own sonnets include "They Flee From Me" and "Farewell, love, and all thy laws forever," in which he likens loving an ex-lover to climbing "rotten boughs." Ice burn!
Answer: Sir Thomas Wyat [or Sir Thomas Wyatt]
[10] Sonnets by this man, titled by their first line, include "Let me not to the marriage of two minds" and "When I do count the clock that tells the time" along with #18, "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?"
Answer: William Shakespeare
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Answer each of the following about a certain artistic award FTP.,
[10] Awarded annually by the Hyatt Foundation, this major award was first given in 1979 to Phillip Johnson. This year's went to Brazilian Paulo Mendes da Rocha.
Answer: the Pritzker Architecture Prize
[10] This American recipient of the 1989 Pritzker Prize designed the Pritzker Pavilion in Chicago's Millennium Park as well as LA's Walt Disney Concert Hall and the Bilbao Guggenheim.
Answer: Frank Owen Gehry [or Frank Owen Goldberg]
[10] This 1998 Pitzker winner had two great collaborations, one with Richard Rogers and the other with Peter Rice. The former of these produced Paris' Pompidou Center.
Answer: Renzo Piano
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Answer each of the following from a certain Eastern religion, FTPE.,
[10] In Buddhism, this term refers to the universal truth as proclaimed by the Buddha. The same term with a similar meaning appears in Hinduism and Jainism.
Answer: the dharma [or dhamma]
[10] Along with the sangha, or community of believers, the Buddha and dharma comprise this set of fixed universals in which Buddhists take refuge.
Answer: the Three Jewels [or Triratna or Ti-ratana; prompt on Threefold Refuge]
[10] Followers of this form of Mahayana Buddhism, popular in Japan, strive to achieve satori, or awakening.
Answer: Zen Buddhism
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Among the characters he meets are Settembrini, Naphta, and Mynheer Peeperkorn, who kills himself. FTPE:,
[10] Name this man, who meets those characters while convalescing due to a bout of tuberculosis at the Berghof Sanatorium.
Answer: Hans Castorp (accept either)
[10] Hans Castorp is the protagonist of what Thomas Mann novel, named for the landform on which Berghof sits?
Answer: The Magic Mountain or Der Zauberberg
[10]) Hans originally travels to Berghof to visit this cousin of his, a soldier who loves Marusja from afar and prematurely leaves the Sanatorium, only to return later to die.
Answer: Joachim Ziemssen
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Name each of the following things at the interface between micro- and macroeconomics FTPE.,
[10] These are cases in which a microeconomic free market does not optimally allocate resources. Macroeconomics is to some extent the study of what policies are useful to mitigate these.
Answer: market failures
[10] This type of market failure occurs when the activity of one market affects another market by a mechanism other than changes in prices. A classic example of a negative one is pollution.
Answer: an externality [or externalities]
[10] This theorem attributed to a 1991 Nobel laureate states that, given defined property rights, rational actors, and minimal transaction costs, externality market failures will be resolved optimally without macroeconomic intervention by bargaining.
Answer: Coase's theorem
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Answer each of the following about the geography of a certain African nation FTP.,
[10] Consisting chiefly of highveld and lowveld, this country also has hills including the Matopo and Great Dyke. Its highest point, Mount Inyangani, lies near its eastern border with Mozambique. The Sapi Safari Park, Lake Kariba, and Zambezi River separate it from Zambia to the northwest.
Answer: Republic of Zimbabwe
[10] This slum-ridden city of about a million and a half joins Bulawayo as a chief city of Zimbabwe, of which it is the capitol. It was known as Salisbury in the Southern Rhodesia days.
Answer: Harare
[10] This arcing river with mouth near Xai-Xai comprises part of Zimbabwe's border with South Africa. Zimbabwe's Gona Rezhou National Park is part of this river's namesake Great Transfrontier Park.
Answer: the Limpopo River
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He wrote about the literary critic Walter Bidlake in one of his novels, while After Many a Summer Dies a Swan reflects his time spent in Southern California, FTPE:,
[10] Name this author of Ape and Essence and Point Counterpoint.
Answer: Aldous Huxley
[10] In this Huxley novel, Mr. Scogan, Jenny Mullion, and Denis Stone are among the guests invited by Henry Wimbush to attend a dinner party at the title estate.
Answer: Crome Yellow
[10] Huxley is best known for this dystopian novel starring Bernard Marx in which humans are divided according to Greek letters.
Answer: Brave New World
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Answer each of the following about a certain law important in mathematical physics FTPE.,
[10] "Energy cannot be created or destroyed but only change form" is an abstract statement of this law of thermodynamics. It can be more concretely stated by positing that the energy flux across a closed boundary is equal to the rate of change of energy in the region bounded.
Answer: the first law of thermodynamics
[10] For a homogeneous medium, this re-statement of the first law of thermodynamics can be stated as del-squared T plus q-triple-prime over k equals one over alpha times the time partial of T, where T is the temperature, q-triple-prime is a volumetric energy source, and alpha is the thermal diffusivity.
Answer: the unsteady heat diffusion equation [or unsteady heat conduction equation; prompt on diffusion equation]
[10] The heat equation is derived from a microscopic statement of the first law via this law named for a French mathematician. It states that the heat flux is proportional to the negative of the temperature gradient.
Answer: Fourier's law of heat conduction
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This man lost the 54 BCE Battle of Carrhae, after which the opposing army dumped molten gold down his greedy bastard gullet. FTPE:,
[10] Name this man who joined with Caesar and Pompey in the First Triumvirate.
Answer: Marcus Licinius Crassus
[10] This 48 BCE battle, a brilliant victory for a massively numerically inferior force under Caesar and Marc Antony, settled the dissolution of the triumvirate in Caesar's favor.
Answer: Battle of Pharsalus
[10] The victors at Carhae were an army of this empire founded by Arsaces I, which ruled in Iran from the third century BCE to the third century CE before Ardashir I overthrew them and established the Sassanian empire.
Answer: Parthian(s) Empire

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