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View Packets Tournament Editor
2006 ACF Fall Tossups by Matt Keller
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Its capital may have been established as early as the 9th century CE, though it was not designated as such until the reign of Kossoi, and it was occupied for a time before being freed by Sulaiman-Mar. This empire's first great ruler expanded it by defeating the Dogon and Fulani, as well as expelling the Tuareg and capturing the key trading center of Jenne. It met its end nearly a century and a half later under the rule of Issihak II, when Judar Pasha led Moroccan forces to victory at the Battle of Tondibi. It had reached its greatest height under Askia Muhammad, who usurped the throne shortly after Sonni Ali's death. FTP name this west African empire with capital at Gao that flourished in the late 15th and 16th centuries after the decline of the Mali empire.
Answer: Songhai Empire [or Songhay]
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In one of this man's stories the cab driver Iona prolongs fares unnecessary in order to tell passengers about his recently deceased son. The title character of another story looks through a porthole of an infirmary ship to see Chinese men shouting "It sings! It sings!," while in a better-known work Nikolai becomes nostalgic for the country life as he dreams of growing the title fruit. In addition to "Gusev" and "Gooseberries," this man wrote a story in which a man vacationing at Yalta meets Anna Sergeevna von Diederitz, the mysterious canine-loving title character. Better known are plays such as The Wood Demon, which was later adapted into a play about a burnt-out intellectual who incurably lusts after Yelena, the wife of Professor Alexandr Serebryakov. Other subjects of his dramas include the estate of Madame Ranevskaya and the Prozorov family along with Konstantin Treplev, who leaves the title bird at the feet of Nina Zaretchyn. FTP name this author of The Cherry Orchard, Uncle Vanya, and The Seagull.
Answer: Anton Chekhov
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The earliest member of this taxonomic group, found in 1994, is distinguished from earlier groups in part by a thickening of the tooth enamel. A lower jaw discovered at Koro Toro in northern Chad turned out to be from a new variety, and the first source of the most recent variety was a child's skull found at Taung. Footprints discovered in Laetoli showed that the most famous variety developed a forward-pointing big toe and arched feet, though Hadar was the source for the best example of this genus: Lucy. Coined by Raymond Dart to mean "southern ape," FTP name this genus of hominins that lived from about 5.3 to 1.8 million years ago, and includes such species as africanus and afarensis.
Answer: Australopithecus [accept Australopiths or Australopithecines; prompt on 'hominids' or 'hominins' before "genus"]
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Scientists at Los Alamos National Lab recently announced that they could predict the timing of earthquake-like events that produce `glitches' in these astronomical bodies. The accretion type of this object results from a particular kind of binary system, while another variety is powered by the decay of an extremely strong magnetic field. These high field strengths lead to the lighthouse effect, which, coupled with the misalignment of their magnetic and rotational axes, explain their basic properties. First dubbed Little Green Men by Jocelyn Bell Burnell, FTP name these rotating neutron stars that emit electromagnetic radiation detected at regular intervals on earth.
Answer: pulsars
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In the first stanza of this poem, the author tells his beloved that "the last age should show your heart" after their passions subside. The speaker's desire runs so deep that he would love her "ten years before the flood," but she could, "if [she] please, refuse / Till the conversion of the Jews." The second stanza expresses the author's angst about the future, when "Thy beauty shall no more be found," so he comes back to suggest that they "roll all [their] strength and all / [Their] sweetness up into one ball" near the end. Opening with the conjecture "Had we but world enough, and time," FTP name this poem in which the author hears "Time's winged chariot hurrying near," the most famous work of Andrew Marvell.
Answer: "To His Coy Mistress"
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Early in his reign, this ruler had to squelch two major rebellions: one led by his half-brother Thankmar, and another by his brother Henry. He defeated Berengar of Ivrea to marry the Burgundian princess Adelaide, and in so doing, gained the additional title King of the Lombards. Much of his ruling strength came from his namesake system of installing his own bishops, and later in his rule, he deposed John XII in favor of Leo VIII for the papacy. Another rebellion, this one by his son Liudolf, was ended by an invasion of the Magyars, whom this ruler soundly defeated at Lechfeld. Crowned King of the Germans after the death of his father, Henry the Fowler, FTP name this man who, in 962, became the first ruler since Charlemagne to hold the title Holy Roman Emperor.
Answer: Otto I [or Otto the Great]
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A band by this name saw little success with early singles such as "Call me what you like," prompting guitar player Dominic Scott to leave the group. They made headlines over summer 2006 with singer Tom Chaplin's stint in rehab and the release of their second album, Under the Iron Sea, featuring the single "Is it any wonder?" A series of computer games and their lead character also bear this name; in those games, this person visits Fribbulus Xax and uses the Bean-with-Bacon Megarocket to defeat Boobus Toober, the Shikadi, and the Vorticons while avoiding the Dopefish. FTP, give the common name of the British trio which included "Somewhere Only We Know" on their album Hopes and Fears, and the secret identity of eight-year-old genius Billy Blaze, who becomes the "Commander" by this name.
Answer: Keane or Commander Keen
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In John Corigliano's The Mannheim Rocket, it is followed by the blowing of a loud whistle. Kevin Love wrote a series of progressive variations for guitar on it, and an atonal version can be found in movement XVIII of Olivier Messaien's Vingt Regards sur l'Enfant-Jesus. Originally written by Francois Bouin, this song is the basis of a set of dissonant variations by Erno Dohnanyi, his opus 25, and a better-known set of variations that comprise Mozart's k300e. Also featured in the beginning of movement 2 of Haydn's "Surprise Symphony," this is, FTP, what nursery song, which expresses curiosity about a celestial object?
Answer: "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star" (accept "Ah ! vous dirai-je, Maman" before "expresses curiosity?")
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In act one, scene two of this work, the eldest character reads a letter telling him that his ex-wife Cleotha has died. The central female character still mourns for her dead husband Crawley, who was killed while helping two of the characters steal some firewood. Avery, who is trying to start the Good Shepherd Church, wants to marry her, but she gives in to a little kiss with Lymon. Boy Charles, the brother of Wining Boy and Doaker, became a Ghost of the Yellow Dog after stealing the object at the center of the action from Sutter, whose ghost appears to several characters. Centering on Boy Willie trying to convince Berniece to sell the object so that he can buy Sutter's land, FTP name this play about the struggle represented by a musical instrument, written by August Wilson.
Answer: The Piano Lesson
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One of the principal inhibitors of this process is 2-carboxy-arabinitol-1-phosphate. The presence of magnesium stimulates it, in part due to that ion's actions on FBPase and SBPase, which are two of the critical enzymes in its recovery phase. In the first step of this process, the rate-limiting part is the conversion of one reactant into an enediolate prior to its nucleophilic attack on the other input's lone carbon, which then leads to the formation of two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. Some of the 3PG molecules are converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, which can become a source of glucose, while others regenerate ribulose bisphosphate. FTP name this process that begins with the actions of the enzyme rubisco, used by plants to fix carbon dioxide into sugars.
Answer: Calvin-Benson Cycle [prompt on Dark Reactions or Carbon Reactions]
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He expressed his scientific instrumentalism with a tract on mechanics in De Motu. He defended Christianity against the anti-Anglican "free-thinkers" in Alciphron, and he later extolled the virtues of tar water before moving on to contemplate God in Siris. In his first major work, he explored ideas such as minimum visibles and tangibles as they related to perception. After A New Essay Towards a Theory of Vision, his next two works laid out his views against abstraction, particularly that of Locke, and against materialism, holding that "to be is to be perceived." Author of Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonus and A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, FTP name this Irish bishop and philosopher whose writings inspired the naming of the hometown of the University of California's flagship campus.
Answer: George Berkeley
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When reacted with a nitrile, they produce an imine anion that can be hydrolyzed into a ketone, and they can cause nucleophilic ring opening of epoxides. Pouring a solution of them over dry ice followed by protonation results in carboxylic acids, which will not form addition products with these. One of their most common uses is reacting with aldehydes and ketones to form secondary and tertiary alcohols, respectively. Because they essentially act as carbanions, they can be protonated by weak acids to yield alkanes. FTP name these organometallic reagents that are formed by reacting an alkyl halide with magnesium, named for their French discoverer.
Answer: Grignard reagents
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This author wrote about the orchestra director Gabriel Atlan-Ferrera's love for the titular soprano in Inez. He explored the history of his native country in two early works: one following Franz, Isabella, Javier, and Elizabeth as they drive to Cholula in a VW bug; and another featuring the god-like Ixca Cienfuegos as he interacts with the upper class after his country's revolution. After A Change of Skin and Where the Air is Clear, he expanded into Spanish history, specifically the building of the Escorial, in Terra Nostra. He is best known, though, for a novel written in all three voices about the last moments of a corrupt, wealthy politician who betrayed his way through the Mexican Revolution. FTP name this author of The Death of Artemio Cruz.
Answer: Carlos Fuentes
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Outside of the official proceedings of this meeting, two of the delegates, John Lydius and Conrad Weiser, both bought land in the Wyoming Valley, eventually leading to the Pennamite Wars. James DeLancey served as host, and Hendrick served as the spokesman for the group that the British Board of Trade hoped to gain as an ally against France: the Iroquois League. It also put forth a namesake plan whereby a President-General and Grand Council would create a more centralized government of the colonies. The plan, as written by Thomas Hutchinson and Benjamin Franklin, was never put in effect but did influence the Articles of Confederation. FTP name this 1754 meeting held in the namesake city in New York.
Answer: Albany Congress
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The `leakage' variety of this parameter is often utilized in gas discharge lamps to help prevent damage. When two elements with this property are placed next to each other, the dot convention is often used to keep track of polarity, and the coefficient of coupling is used to determine the magnitude of the `mutual' variety based on the magnitudes of the `self' variety of this parameter. It is defined as voltage drop divided by the derivative of current with respect to time, or more commonly as magnetic flux divided by current flow. FTP name this parameter that describes coiled circuit elements that oppose changes in current, symbolized L and measured in Henrys.
Answer: inductance
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John Rutter wrote one of these compositions that opens with a setting of a Thomas Ken writing. Frederick Delius used passages from Also Sprach Zarathustra in his version of this form, and Leonard Bernstein, at the request of Jacqueline Kennedy, wrote a dramatized version that features many musical styles, including rock-n-roll and blues. Stravinsky wrote a "very cold" setting with only moderate instrumentation, apparently as a reaction against elaborate settings like Mozart's "Coronation" version. J.S. Bach combined several earlier compositions into his seminal setting in B minor. FTP name this musical form found in Ordinary and Proper varieties, designed to be used in Catholic worship services.
Answer: Mass [accept Ordinary Mass b/c the works are all more or less Ordinaries]
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He was the original leader of the Wild Hunt, which rode around killing people annually from October 31st to April 30th. In one story, he disguised himself as a farm hand named Bolverk to gain access to a mead made from honey and the blood of Kvasir, the wisest of the Vanir. In another story, he participated in a question answering contest with the wise giant Vafthrudnir to learn of his fate. More famously, he gained wisdom by piercing himself with his spear Gugnir and hanging from Yggdrasil for nine days, and sacrificing one eye for a drink from Mimir's well. Also the possessor of the eight legged horse Sleipnir and the ravens Hugin and Munin, FTP name this deity destined to be eaten by Fenrir at Ragnarok, the chief god of the Norse pantheon.
Answer: Odin [or Wotan; or Wodan]
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This man first distinguished himself as chief secretary to Ireland before being elected to Parliament from Oxford. While serving as home secretary to Arthur Wellesley, he helped carry out the concessionary Emancipation Act, allowing Catholics to sit in Parliament, though it cost him his own seat. Earlier, he had revamped Britain's criminal code and established the London police force, now named for him. His first stint as prime minister lasted only about five months, but he came back six years later, in 1841, for a second term, during which he reinstituted the income tax and famously repealed the Corn Laws. FTP name this British prime minister who founded the Conservative Party.
Answer: Sir Robert Peel
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A three dimensional sculpted version of this painting was recently completed by Mikhail Dronov and Alexander Taratynov in honor of the artist's 400th birthday. A man in the back waves a gold and blue striped flag, while the left foreground features a dwarf next to a man in a bright red outfit loading a gun. Behind him and to his left stands a brightly clad young girl wearing the symbols of the Arquebusiers, and a shield with 18 of their names on it sits above the gate in the background. The most notable features of this painting include a foreshortened gun in the left hand of Willem van Ruytenburch and the foreshortened left arm of the painting's commissioner. Misnamed because of many coats of dark varnish, FTP name this painting of the Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, the most famous work of Rembrandt.
Answer: The Night Watch [accept "Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq and Lietuenant Willem van Ruytenburch" before it's read]
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One river of this name empties into the Akitio River on the North Island of New Zealand. A minor one drains parts of northern Tennessee and southern Kentucky before joining with the Cumberland, while another one formed a namesake gorge in eastern Kentucky that is now a USDA geological area. A longer one arises in China's Yunnan province and empties into the Gulf of Tonkin. Another North American one forms much of the Minnesota-North Dakota border before emptying into Lake Winnipeg, and was the cause of major flooding in 1997 in Grand Forks. The longest and most famous one drains into the Atchafalaya River near Baton Rouge after forming much of the Texas-Oklahoma border. FTP give the common name of these rivers derived from the particular tint of their waters.
Answer: Red River
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TB. In one section of this work, the author discusses the virtues of his poor memory and the difference between an untruth and a lie. That section, "Of Liars," sits near similarly titled sections about Idleness, Slow Speech, and Prognostications. In the final section, "Of Experience," the author rehashes a common theme about living in accordance with nature rather than leading a "thankless and anxious life." Published in three books with 107 total chapters, the longest and most famous section defends the Spanish author of Natural Theology, Raymond Sebond. FTP name this collection that defined a new form of writing, taken from the French word for "attempts," written by Michel de Montaigne.
Answer: Essays [or Essais]
2006 ACF Fall Bonuses by Matt Keller
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When a substance deviates from it, the virial equation would be of more use. FTPE:,
[10] Name this empirical rule that describes the behavior of substances like hydrogen or nitrogen at low pressures, written PV = nRT.
Answer: ideal gas law
[10] This equation of state improved on the ideal gas law by adding an attraction parameter to pressure and subtracting a repulsion parameter from volume.
Answer: Van der Waals Equation
[10] This other two parameter equation of state is usually more accurate than the Van der Waals equation, though it does not do well with liquids. It has a more complex correction for attractive forces than Van der Waals.
Answer: Redlich-Kwong Equation
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Andrew Jackson issued this executive order in July 1836 requiring the purchase of public land to be done in only gold, silver, or Virginia scrip. FTPE:,
[10] Identify this attempt to try to slow down land speculation and the circulation of paper money.
Answer: Specie Circular
[10] The issue of the Specie Circular was one cause of this economic depression that saw the failure of over a third of the existing banks and record unemployment levels.
Answer: Panic of 1837
[10] Another contributor to the Panic of 1837 was Jackson's refusal to renew the charter of this institution, headed by Nicholas Biddle.
Answer: Second Bank of the United States
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Its oceanic portions are about half as thick as its continental portions. FTPE:,
[10] Name this hard outer shell of the earth that includes both the crust and parts of the upper mantle. Tectonic plates constitute this layer.
Answer: lithosphere
[10] This boundary between the crust and mantle, first discovered due to an increase in the speed of P waves at its location, is located within the lithosphere.
Answer: Mohorovicic Discontinuity
[10] Comprising the rest of the upper mantle below the lithosphere, this layer is less dense and more plastic, and it passes seismic waves relatively slowly.
Answer: asthenosphere
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Among those implicated in this plot were Seneca and Lucan. FTPE:,
[10] Name this 65 CE conspiracy, involving a variety of people including senators and Praetorian Guard members, to assassinate the Roman emperor and put the namesake in charge.
Answer: Piso's Conspiracy [or Pisan conspiracy]
[10] Piso's Conspiracy was directed against this fifth emperor, who supposedly played his fiddle while Rome burned.
Answer: Nero Claudius Caesar Augusts Germanicus [or Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus]
[10] Nero also put down the revolt of this queen of the Iceni people in Brittania, who was pretty pissed off after Roman soldiers raped her daughters, so she led the destruction of Colchester, London, and St. Albans.
Answer: Boudica [or Boadicea; or Bonduca; or Buduica]
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[5,5] For 5 each, these two cross-town-rival catchers got into a confrontation early in the season when the White Sox player ran over the Cubs player at the plate. The Cub then punched the White Sock, earning himself a 10 game suspension.,
[10] Pierzynski's manager, this White Sox skipper, often got embroiled for his comments, especially after two separate incidents where he yelled at his pitchers for not hitting opposing batters and when he used a homophobic slur against Jay Mariotti.
[10] This younger brother and, according to wordupthome.com, partner in crime of Detroit slugger Dmitri got himself a 50 game suspension by throwing a bat at an umpire while playing for AAA Durham. He got beaned in his first major league at bat for Tampa Bay in August, but hit a home run two at-bats later.
Answer: Michael Barrett (Cubs) and A.J. Pierzyski (White Sox) Ozzie Guillen
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[5,5] For five each, name the two commanders at the Battle of Poltava - the king of Sweden and the tsar of Russia.,
[10] For 10, name this battle that pitted about 17,000 Swedes against over 45,000 better-supplied Russians, whose victory essentially ended the Great Northern War.
Answer: Charles XII [or Carl XII] of Sweden and Peter I [or Peter the Great] of Russia
[10] For 10, with the help of a driving snowstorm, Charles XII and his Swedes scored an earlier victory in the war at this November, 1700 battle in what is now Estonia. The loss prompted Peter to modernize the Russian army.
Answer: Battle of Narva
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Its title character loves the sculptor Count Wenceslas Steinbock, whose love affair with Hortense Hulot prompts her plot for revenge, FTPE:,
[10] Name this novel in which the titular old maid attempts to set Valerie Marneffe up with two men in order to ruin Baron Hector Hulot.
Answer: Cousin Bette or La Cousine Bette
[10] Along with novels like The Wild Ass's Skin and Eugenie Grandet, Cousin Bette is part of this man's Human Comedy.
Answer: Honore de Balzac
[10] This novel by Balzac concerns a retired Vermicelli manufacturer living at the pension of Madame Vauquer in Paris. His daughter Anastasie is the initial object of Eugene de Rastignac's attention, but he later becomes her sister Delphine's lover.
Answer: Pere Goirot or Father Goirot
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After learning about divining from a traveling magician, he was arrested when he failed to deliver on his claim that he could locate buried Spanish treasure. FTPE:,
[10] Name this religious pioneer whose most famous "divining" work was using two seer stones to translate the history of Native American ancestors written on gold plates in "reformed Egyptian."
Answer: Joseph Smith
[10] Joseph Smith's translation of the gold plates became the basis of this church.
Answer: Mormon [or LDS; or Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints]
[10] This angel, the son of Mormon, appeared to Joseph Smith and told him the location of the golden plates.
Answer: Moroni
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One section of it famously implores the author's sisters to "impart your usefulness and force." FTPE:,
[10] Name this American poetry collection that includes "Four Elements", "Four Ages of Man", "Four Seasons", "Contemplations", and "A Dialogue Between Old England and New."
Answer: The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung up in America, etc.
[10] This author wrote The Tenth Muse, as well as the autobiographical Religious Experiences.
Answer: Anne Bradstreet
[10] This Confessional poet used Anne as a character in his Homage to Mistress Bradstreet. He may be better known for his collection The Dream Songs and for committing suicide by jumping into the Mississippi River.
Answer: John Berryman
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Answer the following related questions on evolutionary mechanisms FTPE.,
[10] This is one type of genetic drift in which a new population is started by only a few individuals, thus losing some of the alleles found in the source population.
Answer: founder effect
[10] If the new population gets geographically cut off from the old population, the founder effect can contribute to this form of speciation.
Answer: allopatric
[10] As opposed to allopatric, sympatric speciation occurs without a geographic barrier. This term for increasing chromosome number, common in plants, is the dominant form of sympatric speciation.
Answer: polyploidy
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Identify the following works by Jacques Louis David FTPE.,
[10] In this painting, three brothers reach for swords held by their fathers as they prepare for battle. Their wives weep on the right side of the canvas.
Answer: Oath of the Horatii
[10] In yet another sad scene, the title character points to the sky as he reaches for a bowl and his supporters look on in anguish.
Answer: The Death of Socrates
[10] The European craze for Greek attire was partly inspired by this David painting featuring a woman reclining in a gown, looking over her right shoulder.
Answer: Portrait of Madame Recamier
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Answer the following about some mountains FTPE.,
[10] Rising to twin cones in southern Russia, the western peak of this dormant volcano stands at 18,510 feet tall, making it the tallest point in Europe.
Answer: Mount Elbrus
[10] Mount Elbrus is also the highest point of these mountains, dividing Europe and Asia between the Black and Caspian Seas.
Answer: Caucasus Mts
[10] The Caucasus Mountains are generally considered to run from the Caucasian Isthmus, between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov, southeast-ward to this oil-rich city on the Caspian Sea, also the capital of Azerbaijan.
Answer: Baku [or Baki if you're from there]
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It stated that neither country involved would "occupy, or fortify, or colonize, or assume or exercise any dominion over" the area of interest. For the stated points:,
[10] For 10, name this 1850 treaty in which the US and Britain agreed to jointly control and protect the canal that was to be built across the isthmus of Panama.
Answer: Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
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[5,5] John Hay negotiated later treaties dealing with the Panama Canal with three people: a British ambassador, a Colombian foreign minister, and a Frenchman acting on the behalf of a newly independent Panama. Name any two for 5 points each.,
[10] When the US began construction on the canal in 1904, it bought the assets from the company formed by this man, who led the construction of the Suez Canal and made an ill-fated attempt at the Panama Canal ending in 1889.
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Answer the following about a statistical concept FTPE.,
[10] This term, important for a variety of statistical distributions and tests, is defined as the number of independent pieces of information that go into the estimate of a parameter.
Answer: degrees of freedom
[10] The shape of this distribution, a special case of the gamma distribution, is determined solely by the degrees of freedom. It is often used for testing goodness of fit and for testing for independence in a contingency table.
Answer: chi-square distribution [χ2]
[10] In a 6 by 4 contingency table, a chi-square test would have this many degrees of freedom.
Answer: 15 (5 x 3)
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It was the first American work of literature to gain fame across the pond even though most of it dealt with British subjects. FTPE:,
[10] Name this collection of short stories, travel sketches, and other writings, published in seven parts from 1819-20, featuring works like "Stratford-on-Avon," "The Spectre Bridegroom," and "Rip van Winkle."
Answer: The Sketchbook of Geoffrey Crayon
[10] In the Sketchbook, both "Rip van Winkle" and the "Legend of Sleepy Hollow" are purportedly written by this character that Washington Irving created. He is also credited with Irving's History of New York.
Answer: Dietrich Knickerbocker
[10] Among Irving's many biographies was one on the life of this religious figure and his successors. It was inspired by Irving's travels in Spain.
Answer: Mohammed
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Answer the following related optics questions FTPE.,
[10] This phenomenon occurs when light bends or spreads around obstacles or through gaps.
Answer: diffraction
[10] Based on diffraction patterns determined by lens diameter and wavelength of light, this term describes the minimum angular separation needed to resolve two objects.
Answer: Rayleigh criterion [or Rayleigh limit]
[10] This type of diffraction occurs when the source is far from the diffracting object, allowing a parallel beam approximation. Its namesake also discovered some dark lines in the spectrum of the sun.
Answer: Fraunhofer
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Answer the following about a group of ancient philosophers FTPE.,
[10] This school taught that virtue was found by living in accordance with nature. The exact origin of their name is disputed, but "dog-like" does describe their practice of shunning social norms.
Answer: Cynics
[10] This man is generally considered the founder of the Cynics. He was a companion of Socrates and taught at the Cynosarges.
Answer: Antisthenes
[10] Perhaps the most famous Cynic was this student of Antisthenes. A "Socrates gone mad," he famously resided in a tub. It is unclear whether he actually used a lantern in day to search for honest men or was captured by pirates.
Answer: Diogenes of Sinope
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His equestrian monument of Gattamelata stands outside the Basilica of Sant'Antonio in Padua. FTPE:,
[10] Name this early Italian sculptor whose Feast of Herod relief in the Siena Baptistery was one of the first instances of one-point perspective.
Answer: Donatello [or Donato di Niccolo Bardi]
[10] Donatello is best remembered today for a bronze statue of this Biblical figure standing over his defeated opponent's severed head.
Answer: David
[10] This statue, featuring a man in a Contrapposto pose holding a book, was designed by Donatello to look good in its niche in Orsanmichele even though it may seem out of proportion without the niche.
Answer: Saint Mark
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He dedicated his Treatise on the Astrolabe to his son "little Lewis." FTPE:,
[10] Name this author of a work about birds picking their mates, The Parliament of Fowles, and another, The Legend of Good Women, in which the god of love spurs the rest of the work by berating him for two earlier works.
Answer: Geoffrey Chaucer
[10] One of Geoffrey Chaucer's works berated was his translation of this long French poem by Guillame de Lorris and Jean de Meun, in which the hero is obstructed by Danger, Shame, and Slander in pursuit of the title object.
Answer: "Romance of the Rose" [or Roman de la Rose; accept Romaunt of the Rose]
[10] The other work berated was this Chaucer story about a Trojan prince who loves the daughter of the prophet Calchas. After spending the night together, though, his lover cheats on him with Diomedes. Shakespeare wrote a play about this same subject as well.
Answer: "Troilus and Criseyde"

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