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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 ACF Fall Tossups by Harvard B
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Legendarily this first gained prominence when St. Dominic was told to spread it around Toulouse to combat the Albigensian heresy, a fact assumed by Supremi Apostolatus Officio and later encyclicals about it by Pope Leo XIII. It was first officially recognized by the Catholic Church in 1520 by Leo X, and in 2002, John Paul II added a fourth set of mysteries to this prayer, which had consisted of three sets of five each connected by the "Gloria Patri" and the "Pater Noster." For 10 points, name this Catholic prayer consisting of fifteen decades of Hail Marys counted on a chaplet, also known for its namesake beads.
Answer: the rosary
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He never finished the chalice that Clement VII had commissioned, though he did create a button for that Pope's cape. He created a medallion depicting Atlas Supporting the Sphere, and he also sculpted a statue of Mars for Fontainebleau and a statue of Ganymede Riding the Eagle. Personifications of the winds ring the base of another of his works, which also features reclining gold models of Neptune and Ceres, while the first title figure of his most famous work holds the sword with which he decapitated the other title figure. For 10 points, identify this murderous Mannerist goldsmith who sculpted Francis I's Salt Cellar and Perseus with the Head of Medusa.
Answer: Benevenuto Cellini
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When appended with a "y," this adjective replaced "Plenty" in "Good n' Plenty" to describe a version of that candy with red licorice, and it also describes a cereal that has come in novelty "fiesta" and "Bronto bright" versions. A terrible brand of children's gum that comes with temporary tattoos and has a zebra mascot is called the "stripe" of this. General Mills makes this in "roll-ups" and "by the foot," and it also appears "on the bottom" in some Dannon yogurts. A form of this word modifies the non-cocoa type of Pebbles cereal. For 10 points, name this adjective, which describes a type of "loop" advertised by a fellow, who will follow his nose wherever it goes, Toucan Sam.
Answer: fruit [accept fruity; accept froot; prompt on fruitylicious]
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A text, supposedly by Robert of Torigny, tells of this character's "Rise," and notes that he once caused an embarrassing situation between Guenivere and Arthur when he pushed Arthur into the River Usk. This man accepts Gromer Somer Joure's challenge to figure out what women want in a story reminiscent of the Wife of Bath's Tale about his wedding to Dame Ragnelle. In another story, this character wears the symbol of a pentangle and rests at Lord Bertilak's castle, where his chastity is thrice tested, before setting out to bear the brunt of an axe-blow. For 10 points, name this knight of the Round Table, who got into a beheading contest with the Green Knight.
Answer: Sir Gawaine [accept Gwalchmei; Gawan; Gauvan; or Walewein]
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The Pigeon and Little Pigeon rivers empty into the river that marks its southern boundary, and Brookville Lake and Hamilton Lake are located along this state's eastern border. The Wyandotte caves are located in the Harrison-Crawford State Forest at its southeast. This state's town of Bedford calls itself the "limestone capital of the world" and one can visit the Dan Quayle Vice-Presidential Museum in the city of Huntington. The Wabash River forms part of its western border with Illinois, and other notable cities include Evansville, Terre Haute, and South Bend. For 10 points, identify this state home to the Hoosier National Forest.
Answer: Indiana [accept Ohio River until "southern boundary"]
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In Rabbinic sources, this ruler's name is accompanied by "may his bones rot," and early in his reign he had Lusius Quietus and three other senators executed. His original choice as successor was the tubercular Lucius Ceionius Commodus, who became Aelius Caesar. He twice avoided war with Parthia and he put down Bar Kokhba's Revolt, but he also defified his drowned lover, the Greek youth Antinous. He built an extensive series of palisades between the Rhine and Danube after ceding much of the land his predecessor had conquered. For 10 points, name this emperor who was followed by Antoninus Pius, succeeded Trajan, and built a massive wall across Britain.
Answer: Hadrian [or Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus or Publius Aelius Hadrianus]
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This work condemns "the original sin of reason" as one of the "four great errors." It calls George Sand a milk cow, Dante a hyena, and describes The Imitation of Christ as exuding a Frenchman-like feminine smell in the section "Skirmishes of an Untimely Man." Its section on the "Improvers of Mankind" praises the Hindu Law of Manu, while this work begins with a list of 44 aphorisms, "Maxims and Arrows," before discussing the "Problems of Socrates," which includes introducing logic to supplant the Dionysian spirit. Subtitled "How to Philosophize with a Hammer," For 10 points, name this Nietzsche work, whose title parodies Wagner's Gotterdammerung.
Answer: The Twilight of the Idols [or Gotzen-Dammerung]
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This work features a 3/2 Vivace of its composer's earlier aria "Sento la Gioia" from the opera Amadigi, which provides the central melody for the celebrated "Alla Hornpipe" movement. The "Bouree" and "Air" movements of are found in the first section according to Samuel Arnold's authoritative edition of this work. Beginning with a French overture, it consists of three suites in F, D, and G major, while it is often paired with "Music for Royal Fireworks" in performance. For 10 points, name this series of pieces written to accompany the procession of the George I's royal barge on the River Thames by George Friedrich Handel.
Answer: the Water Music
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This compound participates in the Griesenbaum reaction along with pentane, which results in a tetra-substitution in a five member ring. Indigo trisulfonate can be used to quantitatively assess the presence of this compound in water. It participates in a reaction that follows the Criegee mechanism, and is a 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition reaction occurring in the presence of dichloromethane that creates ketones or aldehydes from alkenes. Having a blue color, it is formed during lightning, while its name comes from its foul smell and halocarbons are able to catalyze the degradation of this compound in the atmosphere. For 10 points, identify this allotrope of oxygen with three atoms.
Answer: ozone [accept: O3]
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Edgar Samuel cited its artist's portrait of George Gisze to suggest that its artist may have used a blown glass tube while painting it. One figure wears the Order of St. Michael and holds a dagger, while another clutches a glove in his right hand as his arm rests on a book which indicates that his age is 25. The curtain in the background is green, and the pattern of the tiles at the bottom of this painting is taken from the Westminster Abbey. Its center includes shelves with several musical and scientific instruments and it also features a distorted skull at the bottom. For 10 points, identify this painting featuring a diplomat and a bishop from France by Hans Holbein the Younger.
Answer: The French Ambassadors
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His government saw the passage of the Army Enlistment Act as part of the Cardwell Reforms as well as Forster's Education Act. He quarreled with the Vatican over the subject of papal infallibility, and wrote the pamphlet Bulgarian Horrors and the Questions of the East as part of his Midlothian campaign. He lost the support of the Liberal Unionists to Lord Salisbury, and he was publicly blamed for the death of General Gordon. He abandoned Charles Parnell, whom he had earlier supported as part of his plan for Irish Home Rule. For 10 points, name this "Grand Old Man" and four time British prime minister, the Liberal rival of Benjamin Disraeli.
Answer: William Gladstone
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This poet wrote about a figure, who "when he cried the little children died in the streets" in "Epitaph on a Tyrant." One of his poems asserts that the "The death of the poet was kept from his poems," and another poem juxtaposes a lover's naive comment that "love has no ending" against the clocks that "began to whir and chime" pronouncing "You cannot conquer Time." This author of "In Memory of W.B. Yeats," and "As I Walked Out One Evening" wrote "We must love one another or die" in a poem that begins, "I sit in one of the dives / on Fifty-second Street." For 10 points, name this poet, who wrote "September 1, 1939" and "The Unknown Citizen."
Answer: Wystan Hugh Auden
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For a constant magnetic field, the energy of the anomalous Zeeman effect is proportional to a function of these values known as the Lande g-factor. In any system, there is one of these for each operator that commutes with the Hamiltonian and one given by the Hamiltonian's eigenvalues. The radius of electron orbitals in the Bohr model is proportional to that value squared, and they are constant as additional electrons are added according to the Aufbau principle. No two fermions can have the same value for these according to the Pauli exclusion principle. For 10 points, name these values, which describe among other things the shell, subshell, and spin values for an electron.
Answer: quantum numbers [accept angular momentum quantum numbers before "Hamiltonian"]
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The end of this novel features a discussion of Chijimi linens as well as a scene in which a main character falls and "the Milky Way flow[s] down inside him with a roar," which follows the burning of a silk warehouse used as a movie theater. Its protagonist claims to be an expert on Western ballet, but has never seen an actual performance. While on a train to an onsen town, the protagonist encounters a tubercular man and a woman, who later offers to be his maid, Yukio and Yoko. For 10 points, name this Yasunari Kawabata novel in which the geisha Komako has an affair with Shimamura, while hanging out at hot springs in the titular wintery region.
Answer: Snow Country [accept Yukiguni]
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The operation that triggered this event was named after the Anadyr River to deceive military intelligence about its location. One party involved talked about burglars and those that caught the burglars in a telegram to Bertrand Russell, and its resolution was begun by a meeting between an ABC news reporter and Alexsandr Fomin. It resulted in the death of Rudolf Anderson, a U2 pilot, and a resolution was eventually reached with the removal of Jupiter missiles from Turkey, as proposed by Nikita Khrushchev. For 10 points, name this October 1962 event in which the United States and the Soviet Union were brought to the brink of war over Soviet weapons in Cuba.
Answer: Cuban Missile Crisis
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A quantitative test for them involves the addition of alcoholic silver nitrate solution, which follows the Zeisel test where they are cleaved using strong acids. Anisole and THF are compounds with this functional group, and a special type of these can be produced by reacting alkenes with peroxy acids. They can be produced by reacting an alkyl halide with an alcoxide produced from an alcohol in the Williamson synthesis, and the Crown varieties are used as solvents for Grignard reagents. For 10 points, identify this functional group, where two carbon molecules are single bonded to an oxygen molecule, whose diethyl variety was once used as an anesthetic.
Answer: ethers
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One of his protagonists is chased by the "Man with Queer Feet" before experiencing a vision of Dick Humbird in a dark alley. That man's mother, Beatrice O'Hara, has an affair with Monsignor Darcy, who introduces him to literature with Thomas D'Invilliers. In another work the murder of Abe North leaves Nicole Warren hysterical, who later marries Tommy Barban after divorcing Dick Diver. In addition to writing about Amory Blaine in This Side of Paradise and Tender is the Night, another of his works ends when the protege of Dan Cody is murdered to avenge Myrtle Wilson. For 10 points, what author wrote about Daisy Buchanan and Nick Carraway in The Great Gatsby?
Answer: F. Scott Fitzgerald [Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald]
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He first came to Washington to give a speech in the aftermath of the Chesapeake Affair, and he created the Bureau of Indian Affairs while serving as Secretary of War under Monroe. In another role, he was replaced by Martin Van Buren after his wife Floride exacerbated the Peggy Eaton affair, and earlier he wrote an Exposition and Protest named for his home state that argued against the Tariff of Abominations. He served as vice president for both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, and late in life, he was unable to read his own speech against the Compromise of 1850. For 10 pints, name this proponent of slavery and nullification, a senator from South Carolina.
Answer: John Caldwell Calhoun
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In one section of this poem, it is noted that no "trembling harp," "tumbling hawk," or "swift horse" had "emptied the earth of entire peoples." Those lines come from its section named for the "Last Survivor," which is considered to be the third of its "four funerals." Its closing scene dedicates a barrow to that title figure, who as a youth allegedly lost a swimming contest with Breca in the North Sea. The title figure receives two weapons that eventually fail, acquiring Naegling from Hygelac and Hrunting from Unferth in, for 10 points, which epic poem in which the title figure fights a dragon after rescuing Heorot from the ravages of Cain's descendent Grendel?
Answer: Beowulf
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These objects can have an internal boundary named for Cauchy, and they can also be extremal according to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric. If the charge to mass ratio is any higher, they can violate the Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis. Their entropy was conjectured to be inversely proportional to the Planck length squared by Bekenstein, who sometimes names a process in which spontaneous pair production results in them giving off energy, known as Hawking radiation. For 10 points, name these objects, which occur above the Chandraseker limit, consisting of an event horizon surrounding a singularity, and which are so massive that no light can escape.
Answer: black holes [accept singularities before "Planck length" is read]
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In one work, this man claimed that the "vulgar democracy" of the 1848 French Revolution was "obsolete in every respect" and urged revolutionaries to instead seek power through peaceful means. Apart from The Tactics of Social Democracy, this man also wrote a critique of Eugen Duhring that included the chapter Socialism: Utopian and Scientific. This co-author of The Holy Family spoke out against marriage in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State and against the horrors of industry in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 18 For 10 points, name this man more famous for co-authoring the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx.
Answer: Fredrich Engels
2008 ACF Fall Bonuses by Harvard B
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This work's first movement features a 6/8 Vivace Assai following a slow 3/4 introduction, and "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star" is quoted at the beginning of its second movement. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this symphony in G Major named for a loud chord that interrupts the slow second movement.
Answer: Surprise Symphony (accept Haydn's 94th Symphony)
[10] Name this composer of The Surprise Symphony, which was included in his London Symphonies.
Answer: Franz Joseph Haydn
[10] Hanne, Lucas, and Simon are the peasant soloists in this Haydn oratorio based on a James Thomson poem.
Answer: The Seasons
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According to Hesiod, this figure's siblings include Moros and Oizys, who represented blame and misery, as well as the Keres, who represented the violent aspects of this figure. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this son of Nyx, the personification of death in Greek myth.
Answer: Thanatos
[10] This other brother of Thanatos, the Greek god of sleep, was married to Pasithea. His sons included Morpheus, the god of dreams.
Answer: Hypnos
[10] Thanatos was once chained up by this king of Corinth and founder of the Isthmian games, who was eventually punished by being forced to endlessly roll a stone up a hill.
Answer: Sisyphus
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According to it, quarks experience asymptotic freedom and confinement. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this theory which explains the strong nuclear force through color interactions.
Answer: QCD [or quantum chromodynamics]
[10] According to QCD, the strong force is carried by these massless, chargeless bosons which thus hold quarks together.
Answer: gluons
[10] QCD was prompted by the Yang-Mills theory, which is this type of quantum field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant in certain situations. Kaluza-Klein theory is another example, and their quanta are a namesake kind of bosons.
Answer: gauge theory [accept gauge bosons]
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A man smokes a pipe as a bottle can be seen on the table in one work by this name. For 10 points each:,
[10] Give this name of a work in which three people gathered around a table with a drawer enjoy the titular activity, which possibly involves gambling.
Answer: The Card Players [or Les joueurs de cartes]
[10] This artist, notable for his several still lives and views of Mont Saint Victoire, painted Bathers at Rest and The Card Players.
Answer: Paul Cezanne
[10] Cezanne painted a "Black Marble" version of one of these objects. A square, black one appears atop the mantle in Magritte's Time Transfixed.
Answer: a clock
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Answer the following about sonnets in English poetry. For 10 points each:,
[10] This poet says "When all the breathers in this world are dead / you shall still live . . . in the mouths of men" in "Or I shall live your epitaph to make," while he also wrote the sonnet "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?"
Answer: William Shakespeare
[10] The speaker asserts, "my heart in hiding / stirred" for the title bird of his sonnet, "The Windhover." He created "sprung rhythm" and also wrote "Pied Beauty" and "The Wreck of the Deutschland."
Answer: Gerard Manley Hopkins
[10] This poet wrote "But last year's bitter loving must remain / Heaped on my heart / and my old thoughts abide" in the sonnet "Time does not bring relief; you all have lied," and she also wrote "Renascence" and a poem about a candle burning at both ends.
Answer: Edna St. Vincent Millay
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This work uses the musical example of the dichotomy between notes and airs to illustrate the difference between objects that we are "immediately" conscious of and those which we are "mediately" conscious of. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1878 essay appearing in Popular Science Monthly, which discusses the concept of distinctness in philosophical arguments.
Answer: How to Make Our Ideas Clear
[10] How to Make Our Ideas Clear is a work by this American philosopher and pioneer of semiotics, who also wrote "The Fixation of Belief."
Answer: Charles Sanders Peirce
[10] Peirce is part of this philosophical movement. Its modern adherents include Richard Rorty, and its most famous member is William James.
Answer: Pragmatism
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Identify the following things relating to the outbreak of World War I, for 10 points each.,
[10] The assassination of this man by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 set off existing tensions between Serbia and Austria.
Answer: Archduke Franz Ferdinand
[10] After the Austrian declaration of war against Serbia and the resulting Russian mobilization, Germany was forced by this inflexible war plan to launch a preemptive strike against France.
Answer: Schlieffen Plan
[10] Kaiser Wilhem II and Tsar Nicholas II exchanged these telegrams in the months leading up the war in an attempt to avoid it. They are named for how the men signed them.
Answer: Willy-Nicky correspondence/telegrams/etc. [accept Nicky-Willy]
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Jim Nolan and Doc Burton are Communist labor leaders, who help organize and provide for depression-era California fruit pickers in an ultimately unsuccessful strike. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1936 novel whose title is based on a passage from Paradise Lost.
Answer: In Dubious Battle
[10] In Dubious Battle was one of the earlier works of this author whose other works include The Red Pony, Travels with Charley, and East of Eden.
Answer: John Steinbeck
[10] This Steinbeck work deals with a group of friends living near a sardine factory in Monterey, who try to throw a party for their friend Doc, who is modeled after Ed Ricketts.
Answer: Cannery Row
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Answer the following about Minor Prophets from the Old Testament, for 10 points each.,
[10] This prophet didn't feel like doing God's word and proclaiming judgment to Nineveh, so he went to Joppa to take a boat to Tarshish. While at sea, he was swallowed by a huge fish.
Answer: Jonah
[10] The father of Jezreel, Lo-ruhamah, and Lo-ammi, this dude was ordered by God to marry the harlot Gomer and repeatedly forgive her dalliances.
Answer: Hosea [accept Osee]
[10] Things prophesized from Moresheth by this man included the birthplace of Jesus. His namesake book contains his condemnations of the rich and his relaying of the order to "walk humbly with God."
Answer: Micah [accept Micheas]
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To measure large distances, astronomers use deep-sky objects with known luminosities as markers. Name the following standard candles, for 10 points each.,
[10] This technique uses the angles of light from a star as viewed from two distinct points in the Earth's orbit in order to determine distances of up to 100 light-years.
Answer: parallax
[10] These types of variable stars, which include Polaris and Eta Aquilae, oscillate in apparent magnitude with 1 to 100 day periods related to their absolute luminosity.
Answer: Cepheid variables
[10] Parallax was said to have been discovered by this German mathematician, who observed the parallax of 61 Cygni. He is the namesake of some functions which are cylindrical solutions to differential equations.
Answer: Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel
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Name these second basemen for 10 points each.,
[10] This man replaced Placido Polanco as second baseman for the Philadelphia Phillies and made his third All-Star appearance in 2008.
Answer: Chase Utley
[10] This scrappy switch-hitter played second base and shortstop for the Minnesota Twins in 2008. He played with the Phillies until 2003 and was named as one of the "Piranhas" while playing third base for the Twins.
Answer: Nick Punto
[10] This Texas Ranger missed the last six weeks of the 2008 season after having surgery to repair a sports hernia. Along with Ryan Braun and Kevin Youkilis, this man was one of three Jewish players in the 2008 All-Star Game.
Answer: Ian Michael Kinsler
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Identify the following about the good looks and appearances of animals, for 10 points each.,
[10] Harmless king snakes imitate venomous coral snakes and viceroy butterflies look like poisonous monarch butterflies in this type of mimicry, often contrasted with Mullerian mimicry.
Answer: Batesian mimicry
[10] In this generically-named type of mimicry, an organism has evolved to blend into its environment.
Answer: camouflage [or cryptic coloration; or concealing coloration]
[10] In this type of mimicry a bright color is possessed by organisms which are unpalatable to predators; the coloration serves as a warning mechanism.
Answer: aposematism
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Sam Adams' famous quote "This meeting can do nothing more to save the country" was the signal to begin an important event in American history. For 10 points each:,
[10] In this 1773 event, Americans disguised themselves as Narragansett Indians and dumped a cargo of the namesake commodity into a harbor.
Answer: Boston Tea Party
[10] The tea-dumpers were drawn from this secret organization, led in part by Samuel Adams. They were responsible for the tarring and feathering of many a British tax collector.
Answer: the Sons of Liberty [accept Sons of Violence or Sons of Iniquity from any turncoats out there]
[10] This governor of Massachusetts refused to allow any vessels bearing tea to leave Boston Harbor before unloading.
Answer: Thomas Hutchinson
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Identify the following about fiction involving Oxford, for 10 points each.,
[10] This author wrote about the school Christminster, which is loosely based on Oxford, in his novel Jude the Obscure and he also penned Tess of the d'Urbervilles.
Answer: Thomas Hardy
[10] Hardy also penned this novel, which doesn't have much to do with Oxford. In it, Gabriel Oak eventually ends up with his beloved, Bathsheba Everdene, after a lot of farming and some rash actions by Mr. Boldwood.
Answer: Far From the Madding Crowd
[10] The Duke of Dorset's suicide by drowning himself in the River Isis triggers a rash of undergraduate suicides at Judas College, which is based on Oxford, in this author's novel Zuleika Dobson. He also wrote the collection Seven Men, which contains the story "Enoch Soames."
Answer: Max Beerbohm
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The Kuban and Terek rivers begin at its glaciers. For 10 points each:,
[10] The tallest mountain in the Caucasus, this dormant stratovolcano is generally considered to be the highest in Europe.
Answer: Mount Elbrus
[10] Located at the border of France and Italy, this summit is the highest in Western Europe and lies between Upper Savoy and the Aosta Valley.
Answer: Mont Blanc
[10] This third-highest of the African mountains forms part of the Ruwenzori Range and contains Margherita Peak, located on the Uganda-Congo border.
Answer: Mount Stanley
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Zinc oxide notably exhibits this property. For 10 points each:,
[10] Water and amino acids are prime examples of this type of substance that can act as either an acid or a base depending on the pH.
Answer: amphotericness [word forms ok]
[10] This is the pH at which the net charge of an amino acid is zero. For neutral amino acids, it is usually close to 6.
Answer: isoelectric point
[10] This property is possessed by certain compounds, which concurrently have both a positive and negative charge.
Answer: zwitterion
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Identify these Mozart operas, for 10 points each.,
[10] Don Alphonso bets Ferrando and Guglielmo that if they pretend to leave to fight in a war their lovers Fiordiligi and Dorabella would not stay faithful in this Mozart comic opera.
Answer: Cosi fan tutte ossia La Scuola degli Amanti [or They're All Like That, or The School for Lovers; accept English equivalents]
[10] Count Almaviva wants to exercise his "droit de seigneur" with the servant Susanna, but the title character of this opera ultimately gets the better of him.
Answer: The Marriage of Figaro [accept Le Nozze di Figaro]
[10] Belmonte and his servant Pedrillo try to rescue the kidnapped Konstanze from the title location, which is guarded by the evil eunuch Osmin in this Mozart opera.
Answer: The Abduction from the Seraglio [or Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail]
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It describes the evolution of stops from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this law of linguistics, developed by a dude who also collected some fairy tales with his brother.
Answer: Grimm's Law
[10] Grimm's Law is sometimes named for this man whose work set the foundation for it. He also translated the Eddas into Swedish, but is probably most famous for having a totally awesome name.
Answer: Rasmus Rask
[10] According to Grimm's Law, voiceless stops became voiceless these, sounds formed by forcing air through a small passage, such as the English "f".
Answer: fricatives
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The Roman Empire had a hard time trying to rule the tribes of Britannia, which exploded in revolt around 60 CE. Name these key figures from the era, for 10 points each.,
[10] This Iceni warrior queen led an army against the Romans after her two young daughters were raped in the wake of her husband Prasutagus's death.
Answer: Boudica [or Boadicea]
[10] Prior to Boudica, the Catuvellauni chief Caratacus organized a resistance that was eventually put down by this emperor, who ordered the invasion of Britain in 43 CE. One of his wives was the sinister Agrippina the Younger.
Answer: Claudius I [accept Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; or Tiberius Claudius Drusus; or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus]
[10] The history of Britain's fight against Rome, along with other events during the reigns of the Emperors Tiberius through Nero, is recorded in this final masterpiece of Tacitus.
Answer: Annals [or Annales]
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Name the following national epics. For 10 points each:,
[10] In this poem, Ludovico Ariosto mocks the chivalric world of Charlemagne and describes the title character's romance with Princess Angelica against the background of the Saracen invasion.
Answer: Orlando Furioso [or The Frenzy of Orlando; or Mad Orlando]
[10] The giant Antero Vipunen gives the magical words for summoning boats to Vainomoinen in this national epic of Finland composed by Elias Lonnrot.
Answer: Kalevala
[10] Luis de Camoes wrote this national epic of Portugal, that talks about Vasco de Gama and a giant monster named Adamastor.
Answer: Os Lusiads [or The Lusiads]
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He may have been the most successful Minister of Maritime Commerce in Sardinian history. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this man, who was later promoted to Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia and led the movement for Italian Unification in the 1850s.
Answer: Camillo Benso Cavour
[10] Among Cavour's tasks was controlling Francesco Crispi and this man, a former Carbonari, and the military leader of the Italian unification.
Answer: Giuseppi Garibaldi
[10] Cavour ensured that Victor Emmanuel would be crowned King of Italy with the Iron Crown of these Germanic people that established a kingdom in Italy.
Answer: Lombards [accept Lombardy]

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