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View Packets Tournament Editor
2006 ACF Fall Tossups by Georgia Tech A and Oklahoma A and Florida B
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In one story by this man Nancy is the shallow wife of the schoolmaster Michael, whose attempt to close a footpath gets him fired. He wrote children's stories like "The Flute" and "The Drum," while adult short story collections include The Sacrificial Egg and Girls at War. He began writing novels as a response to Joyce Cary's Mister Johnson, an effort which produced characters like an army officer known as "Destroyer of Guns," Captain T.K. Winterbottom, and John Goodcountry, who advocates the killing of Pythons. That novel concerns a priest who refuses to declare the New Yam Festival, Ezeulu. Other works include a novel about the populist Chief Nanga, A Man of the People, and two novels concerning Obi and his father, Okonkwo. FTP name this author of No Longer at Ease and Things Fall Apart.
Answer: Chinua Achebe
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The Temple of Concordia was refurbished following the death of this man, the first student of Greek philosophy to hold office in Rome. He shocked the Senate by returning from his Sardinian quaestorship without a formal request, and he later gave independent juries to the "extortion court" and proposed giving suffrage to all Italian speakers of Latin. More far-reaching versions of his initiatives were proposed by Marcus Livius Drusus, his co-tribune. After illegally protesting against the dissolution of a colony at Carthage, whose establishment he had led, he withdrew to the Aventine Hill, where Lucius Opimius attacked him, causing his suicide. FTP, name this man who was tribune from 123 to 122 and attempted to re-institute the agrarian reforms of his elder brother Tiberius.
Answer: Gaius Sempronius Gracchus [prompt on Gracchus; accept C. Gracchus]
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Its first casualties occurred when William Shepherd fired upon it, and Benjamin Lincoln led the force which succeeded in putting it down. Many of its members were recruited at a meeting at Conkey's Tavern, and it fought its first battle at Springfield, successfully closing the Supreme Court. It was defeated at Petersham, allowing James Bowdoin to reassert control; less than a year later, its participants returned from exile in Vermont after new governor John Hancock pardoned those responsible for this event. Further conciliation occurred when its aims of closing debtors' prisons and shifting power to farmers were adopted by the legislature. FTP, name this western Massachusetts revolt against taxes and lenders, which took place in 1786 and exposed the shortcomings of America under the Articles of Confederation.
Answer: Shays's Rebellion
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The feminist Sylvia Pankhurst is buried in Holy Trinity Cathedral in this city. Taxis known as "blue donkeys" provide transportation in this city, and it is served by Lideta and Bole airports. Attractions include Shango hall, which was built in Finland before being transported there, and the eucalyptus trees that line the main streets. A statue known as "The Lion of Judah" stands in the middle of downtown in this city, which serves as the headquarters for the UN in Africa. Situated at the foot of Mt. Entoto, this is, FTP, what city founded by Emperor Menelik II, the capital of Ethiopia?
Answer: Addis Abbaba
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The technique for creating these was invented in 1947 during Dennis Gabor's efforts at improving the resolution of electron microscope images. They can be used to study elastic deformation effects as well as tiny mechanical variations. They are recorded by shining a laser beam on an object and recording the scattered and reflected light along with a reference beam to obtain phase information. When the process is reversed, the recorded interference fringes act like a diffraction grating and produce a real image with more information than a standard photo. With a name derived from the Greek words for "complete" and "message," FTP name these advanced photographs that allow the storage of three-dimensional information.
Answer: Holograms
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In current television continuity, he escaped from Mortu's prison ship and brought an expedition of Utroms to twelfth-century Japan, where he forged the Sword of Tengu and eventually founded the TCRI corporation. On the big screen, his lieutenant was Tatsu, and this character played by James Saito fell off a roof into the compacting bay of a garbage truck after his scheme to recruit troubled teenagers into an army of petty thieves was disrupted. In animation, his mother Miyoko is defeated by General Yogure, while this man, also known as Oroku Saki, harbors a decades-old resentment for Hamato Yoshi. His sometime henchmen include Leatherhead, Napoleon Bonafrog, Baxter Stockmann, Rocksteady, and Bebop, and he conspires with the forces of Dimension X at the Technodrome. FTP, name this leader of the Foot Clan and ally of Krang who schemes against the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.
Answer: the Shredder [accept Oroku or Oroku Saki before it is read]
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Splenic sequestration results in most sufferers of this disease not having a working spleen by the time they reach puberty. Administration of hydroxyurea eases symptoms by somehow increasing the expression of a particular gamma chain rather than a beta chain, but complications still include so-called crises, which can result in extreme pain and necrosis. Carriers of this genetic disorder suffer no symptoms, but they are more resistant to malaria, making this disease far more common among those of African descent. Caused when a glutamate is replaced by valine in the beta chain of hemoglobin, FTP name this disorder that causes deformed red blood cells.
Answer: Sickle Cell Disease or Anemia
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This equation's modern form was first published by Lagrange in his Analytical Mechanics, and it provides one possible explanation of the Kutta-Joukowski Theorem. The derivation of the general form relies on a conservative body force and zero volumetric energy supply, while the more limiting version can be derived by directly integrating Euler's equation. It has notably been used to study the Venturi effect, whose limiting case is called choked flow, and Pitot tubes use it to calculate velocity. Under steady flow with incompressible fluids, the conservation of energy leads to its formulation that the sum of kinetic energy density, potential energy density, and pressure is a constant along a streamline. FTP identify this equation named for a member of a prominent Swiss scientific family, invoked to explain the lift on airplanes.
Answer: Bernoulli's equation or principle
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The title character in this work once punched a man for joking about his walrus-like physique. A son of that character wants to ask Bill Oliver for a loan to buy a ranch, but is concerned about a past experience involving the theft of a carton of basketballs. Frank's Chop House is the setting for an argument about a character failing math. Earlier, the title character brags about the legendary Dave Singleman, but gets fired anyway by Howard Wagner. This work ends with a Requiem, in which Charley, Bernard, Linda, Biff, and Happy are the only people to attend the title character's funeral. FTP, name this drama about Willy Loman, written by Arthur Miller.
Answer: Death of a Salesman
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They became prominent after intervening in Andrew II's war with the Cumans, but they were later decimated by Algirdas at the Battle of Rudava. They were also defeated at the Battle of Puck by Casimir IV, leading to their surrender of eastern territories in the Treaty of Torun and the end of the Thirteen Years War. Andrew II of Hungary expelled them from Transylvania, and this group eventually became a harmless charitable organization based in Vienna when its last leader Albert turned their base into a hereditary dukedom and converted to Lutheranism. Founded as a hospice brotherhood during the siege of Acre, they quickly became militarized and absorbed both the Order of Dobryzn and the Livonian Order in the mid-thirteenth century. Their invasion of Russia was put down by Alexander Nevsky at the Massacre on Ice. FTP, name this crusading order which controlled Prussia and made war in the Baltic.
Answer: Teutonic Knights [or Teutonic Order; or House of the Hospitalers of Saint Mary of the Teutons in Jerusalem; or Deutscher Ritter Orden; or Haus der Ritter des Hospitals Sankt Marien der Deutschen zu Jerusalem; or Domus Sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum in Jerusalem; do not accept Knights Hospitalers]
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This Biblical figure is the namesake of a scientific quantity that is used to characterize the fluidity of material, which is based on the line "the mountains flowed before the Lord." Possibly married to a man named Lapidoth, this woman could often be found at a site between Rama and Bethel. During the battle of Thabor, she indicated the time to attack the enemy, who were led by a man from Hazor. Her namesake song appears after Jael pounded a tent stake through the captain of Jabin's army. Beforehand, she delivered an oracle to Barak commanding him to organize troops to fight Sisera. FTP, name this woman who rendered her judgments beneath a palm tree, the only female Judge.
Answer: Deborah
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In one of his nonfiction works, he discusses a misheard threat which caused him to believe that a certain Mrs. Form periodically visited his primary school to beat the chidren. The author of the poetry collection Mice throws the unfinished manuscript of London Pleasures into the sewer one of his novels, and he wrote another novel about George "Fatty" Bowling's reminiscences about Little Binfield. In addition to Keep the Aspidistra Flying and Coming Up For Air, he wrote "England your England, "Shopkeepers at War," and "The English Revolution," which together comprise the title essay of his collection The Lion and the Unicorn, while other notable nonfiction includes an essay in which the narrator is hesitant to fire his gun at the title animal and the autobiographical Down and Out in Paris and London. Better known are a novel in which the residents of the title place sing "Beasts of England" and another about a rat-fearing citizen of Oceania. FTP name this author of Animal Farm and 1984.
Answer: George Orwell
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This anthropologist wrote about the differing sex roles among the Arapesh, Mudugumor, and Tchambuli cultures in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies, and this author wrote that children growing up in an animistic culture only begin to think that way as they age in Growing Up in New Guinea. The most famous work by this researcher was a study of Manu adolescent girls in relation to American girls, which has often been criticized as being fake, notably by Derek Freeman. FTP name this American cultural anthropologist and author of Coming of Age in Samoa.
Answer: Margaret Mead
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One character's marriage to Molly Farren proves problematic in this novel after her body is found at the end of a trail of footprints. The sale of the horse Wildfire leads to its rider's death in a quarry, and the location of his body leads to the revelation of another character's parentage. That character eventually marries Aaron Winthrop, her childhood playmate. Her biological parent marries Nancy Lammeter, but she is raised by a man who once lived in Lantern Yard. That man has his fortune stolen by Dunsty Cass, and he takes in Hephzibah because he identifies her golden hair with his lost gold. Eppie ultimately chooses the title weaver of Raveloe as her parent in, FTP, what novel by George Eliot?
Answer: Silas Marner
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It displays the Hayashi and Henyey tracks, and it contains a red clump, which is just to the right of the Schwarzschild Space by the Horizontal Branch, whose extent is determined by metalicity. One axis is sometimes labeled B minus V, and each data point is a single dot, with a typical trend being from top-left to bottom-right. It shows that most of its depicted objects are brighter the hotter they are, and that most of them live most of their lives on the Main Sequence. FTP, name this eponymous diagram devised by a Dane and an Englishman that displays the relationship between temperature and luminosity of stars.
Answer: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
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The protagonist of this story tries to avoid an old man from Pola whose dentures fall out of place as he shouts "Our very best to your sweetheart!" That old man resembles other characters, including a street entertainer and a man seen in the doorway of a mortuary chapel in Munich. The protagonist, the author of "The Wretched Man" and a prose epic about Frederick the Great, loses his luggage after arriving at the Hotel des Bains on Lido. The sweetish smell of disinfectant haunts him, and he becomes ill by eating some overripe strawberries. Finally, he is summoned to his fate by Tadzio, the Polish boy with whom he has fallen in love. FTP, name this Thomas Mann short story centering on Gustav von Aschenbach and his demise in an Italian city.
Answer: "Death in Venice" or "Der Tod in Venedig"
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This past September, he debuted a jazz opera based on Steinbeck's Cannery Row. His group was one of the first to play regularly at colleges, which resulted in their Jazz Goes to College album, and other albums by his group the Jazz Impressions series. After serving in a band in Patton's army during World War II, he finished his studies at Mills College, where he formed an octet. His group's experimental music didn't sell and he cut it down to a trio that played jazz standards until Paul Desmond joined to make his group a quartet in 1951. FTP, name this jazz musician noted for his use of polytonality and unusual time signatures in pieces like Unsquare Dance, Blue Rondo a la Turk, and Take Five..
Answer: Dave Brubeck
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Along with Ostwald, this man established the first journal of physical chemistry, and independently of Le Bel, he proposed that the bonds of carbon can adopt a tetrahedral geometry, which he used to explain the rotation of polarized light. One of his namesake equations relates the equilibrium constants for the same equation at different temperatures to the amount of heat released during the equation and the absolute temperatures. He may be more famous for his factor, which describes how many particles are released into a solution per unit of solute, used to calculate boiling point elevation. FTP name this Dutch chemist who also devised an expression for osmotic pressure analogous to the ideal gas law, the winner of the first Nobel Prize in chemistry.
Answer: Jacobus H. van't Hoff
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Some of the treasure to be used to pay for this event was seized by Emperor Isaac Dukas Comnenus. One result of it was the Peace of Ramla, a three-year truce in which one side retained a strip along the Mediterranean coast from Tyre to Jaffa. It was preceded two years by the defeat of Guy of Lusignan and Raymond III at the Battle of Hattin. During this event, initially preached by Pope Gregory VIII, the city of Acre was seized, and Byzantine emperor Isaac II hindered the progress of a red bearded leader, who drowned in a river after taking up the Cross. FTP, name this late twelfth century crusade, in which European forces led by Philip Augustus, Richard the Lionheart, and Frederick Barbarossa attempted to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
Answer: Third Crusade
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In this painting, a tree outside is obscured from the viewer by a column. The artist of this work originally refused to paint it, until Pietro Aretino suggested depicting a prostitutute's body. In the back right of this painting, two servants are looking for something in a chest. On the figure's bed, a dog rests. The main figure is reclined fully nude on the bed, with her left hand covering her crotch and her left holding some flowers as she stares directly at the viewer. FTP, name this 1538 Titian work that depicts the title goddess in a Renaissance-era palace.
Answer: Venus of Urbino
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TB. Their succession law is codified in the Edict of Telipinus, which alludes to their legendary first king, Labarnas. The oldest evidence for this empire is found in the Kultepe and Anitta tablets, which tell of the conquests of Nesa and Zalpuwa. Their king Mursilis destroyed the Amorite dynasty in Babylon, and this group's later resurgence began with a defeat of Arzawa under their king Suppiluliumas. Their name means "towards the north," derived from their description relative to Canaan in the Bible. An account found at Boghazkoy provides their side of events which unfolded under Muwatallis, who led them against Egypt at the Battle of Kadesh. FTP, name this group which long ruled Anatolia and whose capital was Hattusa.
Answer: Hittites
 
2006 ACF Fall Bonuses by Georgia Tech A and Oklahoma A and Florida B
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Answer the following questions about literary figures who all spent the summer of 1816 at Lake Geneva, Switzerland.,
[10] This poet began work on his "Hymn to Intellectual Beauty" and "Mount Blanc" during his stay. His other works include "Ode to the West Wind" and "Prometheus Unbound".
Answer: Percy Shelley
[10] This poet and friend of Percy Shelley moved to Lake Geneva with Claire Clairmont to escape the trouble his sexual escapades had caused him in London. He would spend his time there working on Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.
Answer: George Gordon, Lord Byron (also accept just George Gordon)
[10] This stepsister of Claire Claimont accompanied Shelley and Lord Byron and later wrote Valperga and The Last Man.
Answer: Mary Shelley
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Name these Egyptian deities, FTPE.,
[10] He was a helper in judging the souls of the dead, and was god of the lunar cycles.
Answer: Thoth
[10] Depicted with a small head and snout, he may have been the personification of an aardvark. Originally god of strength and war, he evolved into the god of evil and foreigners and killed his brother.
Answer: Set or Seth
[10] This brother of Set was mummified by Anubis and Thoth, and he became the god of death and the afterworld.
Answer: Osiris
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It was founded by an ethnic minority from the north in 1616. FTPE:,
[10] Name this last Chinese dynasty.
Answer: Ching [or Manchu]
[10] This war was the beginning of the end for the Ching dynasty, as British forces embarrassed the antiquated Chinese army and imposed the Treaty of Nanking on China.
Answer: First Opium War [prompt on Opium Wars]
[10] Hoshen's embezzlement thwarted attempts by the Ching to suppress this nativist society of esoteric religion, which revolted in 1796.
Answer: White Lotus Society [or Pai lien chiao]
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It is closely based on Maurice Joly's "Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu" and Herman Goedsche's "To Sedan." FTPE:,
[10] What is this fraudulent text, actually composed by the Tsar's Okhranka secret police, but attributed to Theodor Herzl and the First Zionist Congress?
Answer: The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
[10] The First Zionist Congress took place in 1897 in this Swiss city, also the site of a Church council called by Martin V in 1431 which confirmed the Council of Constance.
Answer: Basel
[10] Joly's original text of 1864 doesn't even mention Jews, and is instead a satire aimed at this French emperor, who had recently involved the country in a pointless war with Austria and would lose his throne in the Franco-Prussian War shortly thereafter.
Answer: Napoleon III [or Charles-Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte; prompt on Napoleon; prompt on Louis; do not accept Louis-Philippe; do not accept Napoleon Bonaparte]
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FTPE, name these Division I-A bowl games.,
[10] First played in 1989, this bowl formerly known as the Copper Bowl willfeature teams from the Big Ten and Pac-10 beginning this year. In December 2005 it saw a shootout in which Arizona State defeated Rutgers 45 to 40.
Answer: Insight.com Bowl
[10] Until 2002, this was the Citrus Bowl, and before that it was the Tangerine Bowl. Played in Orlando, it currently features an SEC vs. Big Ten matchup, but it hosted the ACC champion from 1987 to 1991. It has been the last bowl before the BCS series for the past two years.
Answer: Capital One Bowl
[10] This BCS bowl with Big 12 affiliation moves to Glendale, Arizona this year with the completion of Cardinals Stadium. The 1998 Tennessee and 2002 Ohio State national championships were won here, and it will host the title game again this year.
Answer: Tostitos Fiesta Bowl
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Name these early composers, FTPE.,
[10] He wrote a lot of stuff for organ, but he also had works like The Well-Tempered Clavier and the Goldberg Variations.
Answer: Johann Sebastian Bach
[10] This Italian composer was one of the driving forces behind the arrival of the Baroque style. He wrote one of the first operas, Orfeo. He wrote 17 other operas, but only 3 survive and another, Arianna survives only via the aria "Lamento".
Answer: Claudio Monteverdi
[10] This Italian Renaissance composer presented his Pope Marcellus Mass to the Countil of Trent.
Answer: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
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Answer the following questions from vector calculus FTPE:,
[10] Performing this operation on a gradient always gives zero, so it is a good test to see if a field is conservative.
Answer: Curl
[10] This theorem relates the integral of a curl over a surface to the line integral around its boundary. Green's Theorem is a well-known special case of this theorem.
Answer: Stokes' Theorem
[10] The divergence of the gradient of a scalar function is given this special name. It features prominently in its namesake's equation, solutions to which are known as harmonic functions.
Answer: Laplacian [accept Laplace operator]
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FTPE, given a description, name the data structure.,
[10] This is one of the most basic data structures, consisting of a series of nodes that contain data and references to the nodes on either side. They come in linear and circular varieties.
Answer: linked list
[10] A linked list is often the underlying data structure for these very basic first-in first-out structures, used for processing events or other sequentially added data.
Answer: queue
[10] Linked lists are also used to implement these structures operating on the last-in first-out principle. Their two basic operations are push and pop.
Answer: stack
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Pelayo discovers the title figure while disposing of crabs. FTPE:,
[10] Name this story, in which the title avian anthropos is abused by the townspeople.
Answer: "A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings" or "Un senor2 muy viejo con unas alas enormes"
[10] "A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings" is a short story by this author of The Autumn of the Patriarch and Love in the Time of Cholera.
Answer: Gabriel Garcia Marquez
[10] This most famous novel of Gabriel Garcia Marquez chronicles the Buendia family over the titular lonely span of time.
Answer: One Hundred Years of Solitude or Cien Anos de Soledad
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It can create growths known as lamellopodia and pseudopodia to aid in cell movement. FTSNOP:,
[10] Name this network of fibers that also maintains cell shape and support, composed of three principal components.
Answer: cytoskeleton
[10] Microfilaments of the cytoskeleton, which stabilize cell shape and produce the various -podia, are assembled from this protein.
Answer: actin [5,5] Another component of the cytoskeleton, microtubles, form these two specialized structures that push or pull cells through an aqueous environment. They are distinguished by their size and number, but both are powered by the motor protein dynein.
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For 10 points each, name the comedies written by Aristophanes.,
[10] The title character persuades the women of Athens to withhold themselves from their husbands until they end the Peloponnesian War peacefully.
Answer: Lysistrata or Lysistrate
[10] Philocleon's dog Labes has been charged with stealing a Sicilian cheese and stands trial in this Aristophanes work.
Answer: The Wasps or Sphekes
[10] Dionysus descends to Hades to bring back the playwright Euripides, but after hearing from Euripides and Aeschylus in the under world, he brings back Aeschylus instead.
Answer: The Frogs or Batrachoi
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In 1968, things got much more difficult for protesting hippies when they decided to take on the man. FTPE:,
[10] Originally peaceful anti-war protests turned into a violent police riot thanks to Richard Daley's goons at this event.
Answer: Chicago Democratic National Convention
[10] This author of Revolution for the Hell of It and Steal This Book was convicted of crossing state lines with the intent to riot at the DNC.
Answer: Abbott "Abbie" Hoffman [or Barry Freed]
[10] The Chicago Seven were defended by this radical lawyer, who racked up four years' worth of jail time on various contempt charges during the trial. He later defended John Gotti and Omar Abdel Rahman.
Answer: William Moses Kunstler
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Answer the following questions about a particular poet FTPE.,
[10] In 2004 an award was established in this Welshman's name to honor the best English language writer under the age of 30. Known for his heavy drinking, six days before he died at the age of 39, he exclaimed in a New York hotel, "I've had 18 straight whiskies. I think this is a record."
Answer: Dylan Thomas
[10] Dylan Thomas wrote this poem in 1951 for his ill father to "rage against the dying of the light."
Answer: "Do not go gentle into that good night"
[10] This poem of Thomas's was featured in the 2002 movie Solaris and includes the line "Though lovers be lost love shall not."
Answer: "And death shall have no dominion"
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This curve is measured against lines of perfect equality and inequality, and it is always concave. FTPE:,
[10] Given all of the incomes for a population, this graph shows the percentage of the gross income earned vs. the percentage of the population that earned it.
Answer: Lorenz Curve
[10] This coefficient is a ratio of the areas above and below the Lorenz curve. It is a number between 0 and 1, with 0 representing perfect equality and 1 perfect inequality.
Answer: Gini Coefficient or Gini Index
[10] Equal to the greatest distance between the Lorenz curve and the line of perfect equality, this appropriately named index is approximately the total income that would have to be redistributed from those above the mean to those below the mean to reach equality.
Answer: Robin Hood Index or Hoover Index
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Through crystalline polymers, this process is slower than through amorphous polymers, which have no long-range order and an overall lower density. FTPE:,
[10] What is this process resulting from the random motion of particles moving from higher to lower regions of concentration?
Answer: diffusion
[10] Diffusion was the subject of this British chemist's first major paper in which he outlined a namesake law for gases, which says that diffusion rates are proportional to the square root of molecular weight.
Answer: Thomas Graham
[10] This law relates diffusion rate to the diffusivity constant and concentration gradient of a substance.
Answer: Fick's (First) Law
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Name these Biblical women, FTPE.,
[10] This woman, Adam's first wife, left the Garden of Eden and refused to come back, so she was punished by having to kill 100 of her children every day.
Answer: Lilith
[10] Satan, in the form of a bird, was flying in front of this women's roof-top bath screen when David shot at it, knocked it over, and instantly fell in love with this wife of Uriah.
Answer: Bathsheba
[10] Jehu convinces the servants of this woman to kill her by defenestration, thus fulfilling Elijah's prophecy.
Answer: Jezebel
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Sparked by two attempts on the namesake's life, these were a series of crack downs on leftists in 1919 named for the attorney general. FTPE:,
[10] Identify these events which took place during the Wilson administration.
Answer: Palmer Raids [prompt on Red Scare]
[10] Eugene Debs was arrested under this law, passed in 1917 and strengthened by the Sedition Act of 1918, which criminalized most opposition to World War I.
Answer: Espionage Act of 1917
[10] Anarchist Emma Goldman was deported during the Palmer Raids and wrote this book about her subsequent experiences, in which she investigated the activities of the Cheka and declared that Leninism exists only to preserve itself.
Answer: My Disillusionment in Russia [or My Two Years in Russia]
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Answer the following about a school, FTPE.,
[10] Established in 1919, this school of design moved to Dessau in 1926, and closed because of Nazi hostility in 1933.
Answer: Bauhaus
[10] In addition to buildings like the University of Baghdad and the Metlife Building, this architect founded the Bauhaus.
Answer: Walter Gropius
[10] Director of the Bauhaus after Gropius but before van der Rohe, this Swiss architect designed the German Trade Union School. His vocal support of communism politicized the school, which eventually got him kicked out.
Answer: Hannes Meyer
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His magnum opus, The Synthetic Philosophy, contains volumes on The Principles of Psychology, First Principles, and The Principles of Sociology. FTPE:,
[10] Name this English philosopher and sociologist, often called the father of Social Darwinism, who was also an early proponent of evolution and coined the term "survival of the fittest."
Answer: Herbert Spencer
[10] Spencer's best known work is this one, in which he contrasted the sociological classification of military and industrial societies, as well as developed his idea of "individuation" as it related to social evolution.
Answer: Social Statics
[10] Spencer was supported by this intellectual, who is credited with coining the term "agnostic," and is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his defense of evolution. He is also the grandfather of a famous writer.
Answer: Thomas H. Huxley

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