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View Packets Tournament Editor
2008 ACF Fall Tossups by Dartmouth A
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Under the leadership of Nicholas Geffard, this country signed a treaty allowed missionaries from the Vatican greater freedoms. The Boukman rebellion occurred in this country, and from 1849 to 1859 it was ruled by Emperor Faustin I. Jean Boyer led this nation after the death of Alexander Petion, who clashed with a man who established an independent northern kingdom, Henri Christophe. Another leader of this country came to power after the resignation of Paul Magloire, and that man's advisor Clement Barbot organized the secret police, the Tontons Macoutes. For 10 points, identify this nation which saw a successful slave rebellion led by Toussaint-L'ouverture.
Answer: Republic of Haiti [or Repiblik Dayti; or Republique d'Haiti]
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Ellis Davidson proposed that this character was in league with the Vanir because he also "knew the future well." A Norse kenning for "head" is "sword of [this man]," and a kenning for "sword" is "head of [this man]." His own sword was Hofund, and he has three nicknames that mean "Bent Stick," "Wind Shelter," and "Golden-Toothed." The nine daughters of Aegir may have been the nine mothers of this character, who fathered the progenitors of mankind and allegedly could hear grass grow. For 10 points, name this "white god," a member of the Aesir who will sound the Gjallerhorn at Ragnarok, and who guards the Bifrost bridge.
Answer: Heimdallr
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The most important source for this man's life is Priscus, and the Battle of Nedao saw one his sons killed by Ardaric, who had earlier allied with this ruler as leader of the Gepids. His other allies included Valamir, leader of the Ostrogoths, and he planned to attack the Visigothic kingdom of Tolouse with Valentinian III. He succeeded his uncle Rua with his co-ruler and brother Bleda, and trouble started when Honoria sent this man an engagement ring and he demanded half the Western Roman Empire as a dowry. He was defeated by Theodoric I and Flavius Aetius at the Battle of Chalons. For 10 points, name this "Scourge of God," the most famous leader of the Huns.
Answer: Attila the Hun
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The text "Transmissions of the Lamp" describes the lineages of this religion's followers. The "Wake-up" and "Bloodstream" sermons are attributed to one of its founders, who is said to have descended from the man who developed it after hearing the Flower Sermon. Its six patriarchs include Sengcan the author of the Plaform Sutra, Huineng, and it was brought to China by Bodhidharma. Two of its "five houses" include the Soto and the Rinzai, which differ on the way achieve satori, and it uses texts like The Gateless Gate and The Blue Cliff Record. For 10 points, identify this sect of Buddhism, which is noted for its use of koans and meditation.
Answer: Zen Buddhism [accept Chan or Dhyana, prompt on "Buddhism"]
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The main narrative of this poem is interrupted by a "loud uproar" and "vesper bell" that bids the title character to pray, while he notes later that "He prayeth best, who loveth best/ All things both great and small." The title character falls asleep and dreams of buckets filled with dew, after he had previously blessed a nest of writhing sea snakes. In the opening section, the title character seizes "one of three" wedding guests and recounts his long journey at sea, including the ill-advised shooting of the Albatross. For 10 points, name this poem by Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
Answer: "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
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It has been nicknamed "the forest," because each beam in its construction came from a different tree. A later addition to it was performed by Bellu, who created a second spire on an octagonal base supported by four transept pillars. One of its windows, designed by Jean de Chelles and Pierre de Montreuil, has corner pieces that represent the descent into Hell and the resurrection of Christ. Unlike that South Rose Window, its transept and famous spire were rebuilt in the 1800s in an effort led by Eugene Viollet-le-Duc. Originally constructed under the orders of Maurice de Sully and found on the Ile de la Cite, for 10 points, name this Gothic cathedral located in Paris.
Answer: the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris ["Paris" is not necessary after it is said]
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One result of this effect was explained by the creation of quasiparticles in a quantum fluid by Laughlin, and Dyakonov and Perel predicted a version of it dependent on spin. It can be used to find hole density in a semiconductor, and von Klitzing showed that under certain situations this effect is quantized. This effect distinguishes between a negative current and a positive current flowing in the opposite direction, and it creates a Lorentz force, resulting in the deflection of charge carriers by a magnetic field. For 10 points, name this effect in which a potential difference is created across a conductor by a perpendicular magnetic field.
Answer: Hall Effect [accept fractional quantum Hall effect or quantum Hall effect]
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In one election, this man defeated Hal Suit after overcoming a man he labeled "Cufflinks Carl" in the primary. His presidency saw a scandal involving his budget director, Bert Lance, and he threatened military response to Soviet action near the Persian Gulf in his namesake doctrine. During his presidency, the United States entered into full diplomatic relations with China and ceded the Panama Canal to Panama. He also signed the SALT II agreement and brokered the Camp David Accords, though he is better remembered for poor handling of the Iran hostage crisis. For 10 points, name this former Georgia Governor, the U.S. President from 1977 to 1981.
Answer: James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
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This compound is the starting ingredient in an industrial process where it complexes with palladium tetrachloride and is attacked by a water molecule to form an alcohol intermediate; that process gives acetaldehyde from this compound and is called the Wacker process. The catalytic activity of a titanium-aluminum complex in promoting the polymerization of this compound was discovered by Karl Ziegler, and the simplest cyclic ether is a derivative of this compound called oxirane. The diol of this compound is commonly used as an antifreeze agent and is known at its namesake glycol. For 10 points, identify this chemical, the simplest alkene with formula C2H4.
Answer: ethylene [accept C2H4 until mentioned; accept ethene]
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This composer had the violin play 2/4 against the persistent 6/8 beat of the orchestra in his work for Pablo Sarasate, Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso, while a Nubian love song he found in Luxor inspired his fifth piano concerto in F Major subtitled "Egyptian." In one work a violin enters playing an A chord against an E-flat chord tuned down a half step, which is answered by a xylophone solo representing a skeletons dance, and another work has movements titled "Characters with Long Ears," "Fossils," and "The Swan." For 10 points, name this composer of Danse Macabre and Carnival of the Animals.
Answer: Camille Saint-Saens
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The central figure in this work dreams of a woman "clothed in a white raiment" who tells him that he will die in three days. The title character claims that Simmias and Cebes have offered to support his plans, and he argues that it is morally wrong for a man to intentionally orphan his children The central figure maintains that the disapproval of the majority should not be a motivating factor, and offers a hypothetical conversation with the laws of Athens illustrating that he is bound by an "implied contract." For 10 points, identify this Platonic dialogue in which Socrates refuses to escape from prison with the title character.
Answer: the Crito
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Walter Baade found a second type of Cepheid variable stars in its globular cluster because they are much fainter than ones in this object's Population I regions. SN 1885, the first supernova to be discovered outside the Milky Way was discovered here by Ernst Hartwig, and the brightest globular cluster in the local group, Globular One, is located in it. Simon Marius, the first to observe it through a telescope, described it as a "candle shining through horn." It shares its name with a constellation whose alpha star is Alpheratz. Called M31 in the Messier Catalog, for 10 points, identify this large spiral galaxy closest to the Milky Way.
Answer: Andromeda
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One character of this name was transformed into a rabbit when travelling to the Sacred Realm as a result of actions that occurred during the Imprisoning War, during which another figure of this name became engaged to a water princess, Ruto. Aryll is kidnapped due to a resemblance to his sister, and this figure rescues her by defeating the Helmaroc King after travelling the Great Sea. One incarnation of this character is accompanied by Tatl, while another breaks the curse of the Great Deku Tree. For 10 points, give the name of these characters who generally use such tools as the Hookshot, and the Master Sword to defeat Ganon and rescue Princess Zelda.
Answer: Link, Sworn Brother of Gorons [accept Rinku; prompt on Hero of Time, Hero of Wind, Waker of Winds, Hero of Twilight, or Hero of Men]
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One of this writer's narrators comments that woodcocks remind him of a mad woman who froze after being abandoned in a forest tied to her bed by vindictive soldiers, and a group of repentant prostitutes inspire an entire church congregation to weep during Constance's confirmation in "Madame Tellier's Establishment." The title character of one work gives her wine to nourish Mrs. Carre-Lamadon, before she is coerced into sleeping with a Prussian officer and another story ends when Jeanne Forestier reveals to Matthilde Loisel that the title object is a fake. For 10 points, name this author who penned "Ball of Fat" and "The Necklace."
Answer: Guy de Maupassant
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In the late seventeenth century, this polity was bankrupted by an unsuccessful attempt to establish a colony in Panama, the Darien Scheme. The death at sea of The Maid of Norway set off a succession crisis here known as the "Great Cause," which was won by a man nicknamed "Empty Coat." That man, John Balliol, was taken captive after the Battle of Dunbar by England's Edward I, known as the "Hammer" of this kingdom's people. This kingdom ceased to exist in 1707 with the Acts of Union, when it was subsumed into Great Britain. For 10 points, name this kingdom whose kings included Kenneth MacAlpin and Robert the Bruce.
Answer: Kingdom of Scotland [or Kingdom of the Scots]
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The Dolores and Virgin Rivers are tributaries of this larger river, and it flows by the Vermillion Cliffs National Monument. Fort Collins is located to the East of the Poudre Pas Lake, where this river begins. One can go gambling in the casino at Lake Havasu City which lies along this river, while Interstate Highway 10 crosses it near the city of Blythe. The Gila River is a tributary of this river which empties into the Gulf of California, while Lake Powell lies on it due to the creation of the Glen Canyon dam. For 10 points, identify this long river in the American Southwest which shares its name with a state and also passes through the Grand Canyon.
Answer: Colorado River
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In Ojimbwe myth, the grandson of Nokomis, Manabohzo, successfully disguised himself as a rabbit in order to obtain this object from an old man and his daughter. In the Aeneid, Latinus seeks out an oracle after seeing a wreath made of it on the head of his daughter, Lavinia. In Hinduism, this is believed to have seven tongues and carry prayers and soma to heaven, and is personified by the messenger Agni. Temples to the Roman goddess Vesta featured virgin priestesses assigned to guard an eternal one. For 10 points, name this substance, which was stolen against the will of Zeus and given to man by Prometheus.
Answer: fire (accept reasonable equivalents such as flame etc.)
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A female author from this country wrote Miss Sophie's Diary. One author from this country wrote the collection Call to Arms, which included a work about a man who fears cannibals, A Madman's Diary, and one about a man who has a lot of "spiritual victories," The True Story of Ah Q. Another author from here wrote the absurdist plays Signal Alarm and Bus Stop and the novel Soul Mountain, for which he won the 2000 Nobel. This country's Four Great Classical Novels include one about 108 bandits and one about the pilgrimage to India of a monk. The origin of Outlaws of the Marsh and Journey to the West, for 10 points, identify this country of Lu Xun and Gao Xingjian.
Answer: People's Republic of China [accept Zhongguo or Zhonghua Remin Gongheguo; do not accept "Republic of China," feel free to accept a magical psychic buzz with Ding Ling before "this country"]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In an important experiment, its beta subunits were bonded to nickel on a glass surface, and an actin filament attached to its gamma subunit was observed. Its mechanism was elucidated in an experiment when sunlight was shone towards artifical vesicles containing bacteriorhodopsin, and it is inhibited by DCCD and oligomycin. The gamma subunit of the F0 rotates as protons pass through, and the proton motive force releases the product of this enzyme. For 10 points, identify this enzyme present in the mitochondrion, which uses chemiosmosis to catalyze the production of a high energy molecule by phophorylating ADP.
Answer: ATP synthase [or adenosine tri-phosphate synthase]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This author wrote about Father Fish who mentors Richard, a schoolboy who crushes a snake after skipping an Easter vigil to go swimming at the end of his novel The Morning Watch. One of his stories subtitled "Summer 1915" was used for a Samuel Barber work, and he wrote about the tenant families the Woods, Gudgers, and Wicketts in a book featuring the photography of Walker Evans. In addition to "Knoxville" and Let us Now Praise Famous Men, in one novel Andrew Lynch tells Rufus that he saw a butterfly land on the coffin of Jay Follet. For 10 points, name this author, who wrote A Death in the Family.
Answer: James Agee
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TB. This must decrease as rival firms' aggregate output increases in order for Cournot competition to hold, and if a strictly positive subsistence level is introduced to a CES function, this quantity becomes non-monotonic. It is given by price times the quantity 1 minus 1 over demand elasticity, showing that its sign is an indicator of elasticity.In oligopolies, this curve has a jump due to the kinked demand curve, and in monopolies, a deadweight loss is caused because this curve, and not demand, determines quantity sold. For 10 points, name this curve that generally marks equilibrium where it meets marginal cost, and which measures the added revenue of an additional unit sold.
Answer: marginal revenue [prompt on MR]
 
2008 ACF Fall Bonuses by Dartmouth A
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
He gained his famous nickname from the size of his mouth, for 10 points each.,
[10] Identify this Jazz trumpter, who neglected to correct Percy Brooks' shortening of "Satchelmouth" to "Satchmo" and popularized the songs "Stardust" and "Heebie Jeebies."
Answer: Louis Armstrong
[10] Armstrong, like Ella Fitzgerald, performed this type of jazz singing characterized by vocal improvisation using nonsense sounds instead of words.
Answer: scat singing
[10] Armstrong sang of "bright blessed days" and "dark sacred nights," which led him to express the titular sentiment of this 1967 hit.
Answer: "What a Wonderful World"
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The title character's first job, as apprentice to a pundit, left him with permanent stomach troubles after being forced to eat seven bananas. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this novel, in which the title journalist desperately wants to own the title object, which symbolizes his freedom from his wife Shama of the Tulsi clan.
Answer: A House for Mr. Biswas
[10] A House for Mr. Biswas was written by this Trinidadian Nobel Laureate, also the author of The Mystic Masseur, In a Free State, and such nonfiction works as India: A Wounded Civilization.
Answer: Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul
[10] Characters who live near the title location of this Naipaul work include Bogart, who is arrested for bigamy, the carpenter Mr. Popo, and the poet B. Wordsworth, who has completed one line of the greatest poem ever.
Answer: Miguel Street
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
This figure, originally known as Demne, took over leadership of the Fianna from Goll mac Morna, finally stopping Aillen from burning down the castle of Tara on Samhain. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this Irish mythological hero, who built the Giant's Causeway and threw the Isle of Man at a rival, the namesake of the Fenian cycle.
Answer: Finn McCool [accept Fionn Mac Cumhaill]
[10] While studying under Finnegas, Finn McCool caught this type of fish "of knowledge" and burned his thumb on it while cooking, ingesting its oils and gaining clairvoyance.
Answer: a salmon [accept Salmon of Knowledge]
[10] The Fenian cycle was narrated by this son of Finn and Sadbh [SAHV or SIGH-V], whose name means "fawn."
Answer: Oisin [accept Ossian]
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It has the form y equals 8 a cubed divided by the quantity x squared plus 4 a squared. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this curve named for a female Italian mathematician, which asymptotically approaches 0 as x approaches plus or minus infinity, and which can be generated by extending all chords passing through a fixed point on the circle.
Answer: witch of Agnesi [or Agnesienne; or cubique d'Agnesi]
[10] This other curve is traced out by a fixed point on the circumference of a rolling circle. It is represented by the parametric equations x = a times quantity t minus sin t and y = a times quantity one minus cosine t.
Answer: cycloid
[10] The cycloid is a solution to 2 problems: one asks for the shortest time to get a bead form point A to B, while another asks for the set of all points such that the bead placed on any point will fall to the bottom in the same amount of time. Name either problem.
Answer: Brachistochrone problem or Tautochrone problem
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Answer these questions about a part of Germany for 10 points each.,
[10] This southern-most Bundesland or Federal State of Germany is the largest of all the Bundeslands and borders Austria, the Czech Republic and Switzerland.
Answer: Bavaria [or Bayern]
[10] This city that celebrated the 850th year since its founding during Oktoberfest 2008 is the capital of Bavaria. It was also the site of the 1972 Summer Olympic Games and Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch.
Answer: Munich [or Munchen]
[10] This house ruled Bavaria as dukes until 1806, when Napoleon elevated them to the status of kings. The Palatinate branch of this house ruled Sweden from 1654 to 1718.
Answer: House of Wittelsbach
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Aunt Patsy offers boarding to the mysterious twins Aneglo and Luigi Capello. For 10 points each:,
[10] The title character of this novel becomes the mayor of Dawson's Landing, and later helps implicate "Tom" in the murder of Judge Driscoll through his fingerprinting hobby.
Answer: The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson and the Comedy of Those Extraordinary Twins.
[10] This man authored Puddn'head Wilson, in addition to works such as The Gilded Age and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Answer: Mark Twain [or Samuel Langhorne Clemens]
[10] Simon Wheeler tells the narrator about Jim Smiley's bet on the title creature in this short story.
Answer: "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" [accept "The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It was stolen during Nadir Shah's 1739 conquest of Delhi. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this object, supposedly embedded with several precious jewels, which served the seat of a king of an Indian emperor who married Mumtaz.
Answer: Peacock throne
[10] The Peacock throne was used by this husband of Mumtaz, whose father was Jahangir. He built the Taj Mahal.
Answer: Shah Jahan [or Shihab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I]
[10] Jahangir was the son of this "Great" emperor, who appointed Birbal as his advisor. Bairam Khan served as a regent for him, and was victorious at the second battle of Panipat
Answer: Akbar the Great [or Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar or Akbar-e-Azam]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
An equation named for Helmholtz and its namesake relates the derivative of the ratio of this quantity and temperature. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this type of free energy, whose partial derivate with respect to particle number at constant temperature and pressure is equal to the chemical potential of a system.
Answer: Gibbs free energy
[10] If the change in Gibbs free energy of a reaction is negative, then this term describes the way in which the reaction proceeds.
Answer: spontaneous (accept word forms)
[10] Along with Gibbs, this man names an equation which states that the sum of N times the change in chemical potential over all components is equal to V dP minus S dT.
Answer: Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It opens with an investigation into the murder of Edward Blake, who turns out to be the government-sponsored Comedian. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this graphic novel featuring such characters as the vigilante Rorshach and the power-mad billionaire Ozymandias, a work of Alan Moore.
Answer: Watchmen
[10] Named after a research project headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer, this character has godlike powers, but becomes increasingly disinterested in humanity and goes to live on Mars.
Answer: Dr. Manhattan [or Dr. Jonathan Osterman]
[10] As graffiti in The Watchmen indicates, it received its title from this Roman satirist's question quis custodiet ipsos custodies. Appropriate, as the series addresses superheroes who aren't being watched.
Answer: Juvenal [accept Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer some question about terms from Islam, for 10 points each.,
[10] The 19th of these is named for Maryam, the mother of Isa. Composed of ayat, or verses, the first of these chapters of the Koran is known as the al-Fatiha, while others include the Heifer and the Honey Bee.
Answer: suras [accept surahs or suwar, the Arabic plural]
[10] This phrase begins every sura of the Koran except the ninth. Meaning "In the name of God," it is followed by "ar-rahmani ar-rahimi," which means "most gracious, most merciful."
Answer: bismi-llahi [accept bismillah or basmala]
[10] Considered second in authority and importance to the Koran, these are accounts of the words and deeds of Mohammed.
Answer: ahadith [accept sunna]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Identify these major port cities that are not the capital of their respective countries, for 10 points each.,
[10] You might have heard that this large port city north of Botany Bay is not its country's capital. This city is famous for its Harbour Bridge and its namesake opera house.
Answer: Sydney, Australia
[10] Located on a namesake island, this huge conurbation in West Africa is the most populous city on the continent. In 1991, the capital was moved inland from this city to Abuja.
Answer: Lagos, Nigeria
[10] Europe's second busiest port after Rotterdam is in this city. The Schelde River empties into the North near this city, and to its northwest lies the Dutch province of Zeeland.
Answer: Antwerp, Belgium
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
At the base of the pyramid are physiological requirements, like food, water, and air. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this theory that posits successive levels of human necessities, developed by Abraham Maslow.
Answer: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs [accept equivalent as long as the words "hierarchy" and "needs" are mentioned]
[10] At the top of Maslow's Hierarchy is this final level, in which a person has reached his or her full potential. Maslow identified a number of historical figures who reached this level, including Thomas Jefferson, Albert Einstein, and Eleanor Roosevelt.
Answer: Self-actualization
[10] Maslow's humanistic approach had a great influence on this psychologist, who wrote A Way of Being and On Becoming a Person and developed client-centered therapy.
Answer: Carl Ransom Rogers
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Name these Handel works, for 10 points each.,
[10] This famous oratorio premiered in Dublin in 1742 with a libretto by Charles Jennings and features the "Hallelujah" chorus.
Answer: Messiah
[10] A composition in five movements, which was commissioned by George II to celebrate the conclusion of the War of Austrian Succession, takes its name from the "Royal" type of these celebratory devices.
Answer: fireworks [accept Music for the Royal Fireworks]
[10] "See the conq'ring hero come" is from this Handel oratorio, which features, in addition to the title character, his brother Simon and Eupolemus, the Jewish ambassador to Rome.
Answer: Judas Maccabeus
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It gives the restoring force as equal to the force constant times the distance from equilibrium. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this law, often used to model the behavior of springs.
Answer: Hooke's law
[10] The force constant for a material is approximately proportional to this property of the material, the measure of its resistance to compression, symbolized K.
Answer: Bulk modulus
[10] This guy generalized Hooke's law for three-dimensional bodies. More notably he showed that that the length of the inner product of two vectors is less than or equal to the product of their lengths.
Answer: Augustin Louis Cauchy
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
In one speech she asserts, "The Quality of Mercy is not strain'd / It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven / Upon the place beneath." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this character, who disguises herself as judge Balthasar in The Merchant of Venice, and is forced to marry the suitor who chooses correctly from three caskets.
Answer: Portia
[10] Portia addresses "The Quality of Mercy" speech to this Jewish character, who demands a "pound of flesh" from the merchant Antonio.
Answer: Shylock
[10] Earlier in the play, Portia marries this character after the princes from Morocco and Aragon fail to choose the right casket. In Act I, he borrows money from Shylock to finance his venture to Belmont.
Answer: Bassanio
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Answer the following questions about the some Civil War battles. For 10 points each:,
[10] This battle fought on April 7, 1862 in southwestern Tennessee pitted the Army of the Tennessee against the Army of the Mississippi. It featured an important defense of the Hornet's Nest and saw the death of Albert Sidney Johnston.
Answer: Battle of Shiloh [accept Battle of Pittsburg Landing]
[10] This bloodiest single-day battle in American history with over 23,000 casualties was fought near Sharpsburg, Maryland. Though inconclusive, it gave Lincoln the chance to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
Answer: Battle of Antietam
[10] This October 8, 1862 battle fought in Kentucky was a tactical victory for the Confederate forces under Braxton Bragg and Leonidas Polk over the Union army led by Don Carlos Buell.
Answer: Battle of Perryville (accept Battle of Chaplin Hills)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It is caused by Human Herpesvirus 8, and the tumors that result from it do not always result from a single cancerous cell. For 10 points each.,
[10] Identify this disease named for a Hungarian, which results in palpable skin lesions, and is elevated in African populations. It is most commonly seen in patients with suppressed immune systems.
Answer: Kaposi sarcoma [accept: KS]
[10] Several people suffering from Kaposi sarcoma are infected with this virus which causes AIDS.
Answer: HIV [or Human immunodeficiency virus]
[10] HIV is a retrovirus, which means that it uses this enzyme to copy its RNA genome into DNA, which is integrated into the host cell DNA by the aptly named integrase.
Answer: reverse transcriptase
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
The title character injures himself after falling while hanging up a curtain. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this novella about the spiritual angst of a judge in his final days, who dislikes his wife Praskovya and finds companionship with the farmer Gerasim.
Answer: The Death of Ivan Ilyich [or Smert Ivana Illyicha]
[10] Pierre Bezukhov and Natasha Rostova are the main characters of this novel, which also contains a setting of the Battle of Borodino and is really long.
Answer: War and Peace [or Voyna i mir]
[10] The Death of Ivan Ilyich and War and Peace are by this author, probably lesser-known for Hadji Murad. ANSWER: Leo Tolstoy [or Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy]
Answer:
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
His crew erected a cross at Algoa Bay, and apparently refused to continue the journey after they saw the African coast turning north-eastward. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this explorer, who in 1488 became the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa.
Answer: Bartolomeu Dias
[10] Dias died in an expedition where he led a ship under this explorer, who was supposed to follow Da Gama's path to India. He apparently sailed southwest from the Cape Verde islands and ended up discovering Brazil.
Answer: Pedro Alvarez Cabral
[10] This other Portuguese explorer displaced some Muslim rulers of Goa in the early 1500s, and then went on to father more children after his conquest of Malacca.
Answer: Afonso de Albuquerque
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
They are usually coupled to proteins which contain seven transmembrane alpha helices. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify these proteins which are activated when a GDP molecule is replaced by GTP, and are important in signal transduction pathways.
Answer: G proteins [or guanine nucleotide binding protein]
[10] G proteins also activate adenylate cyclase, which produces this second messenger molecule from ATP. It also regulates the flow of calcium ions through ion channels.
Answer: cyclic AMP [or cyclic Adenosine mono phosphate]
[10] Viagra works its magic by inhibiting the breakdown of cyclic GMP, which is produced from GTP when this diatomic gas activates guanylyl cyclase. Administration of nitroglycerin causes its release, which decreases blood pressure by dilating arteries.
Answer: nitric oxide [or NO]

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