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View Packets Tournament Editor
2006 ACF Fall Tossups by Darmouth A and Rochester A and UGA C
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Science
Pertussis toxin exerts its effects by ribosylating a specific residue on one of these, which prevents it from being activated. Cholera toxin works in a similar manner, but it causes these to be constitutively active. The prominent oncogene Ras codes for one of these, and the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase prevents them from associating with their receptors, which have seven transmembrane domains. When activated by their receptors, the beta and gamma subunits remain attached, but the alpha subunit often sets off a second messenger cascade by activating enzymes like phospholipase C. FTP name these ubiquitous proteins found on the inner surfaces of cell membranes, named for their binding of the nucleotides GDP and GTP.
Answer: G Proteins
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Philosophy
John Mearshimer preaches an "offensive" version, and Reinhold Neibuhr had a Christian variety. Among its followers in American government were Kennan, Kissinger, and Scowcroft. Kenneth Waltz attempted to combine it with structuralist thinking to create a more rigorous program of political research, but its proponents have been reluctant to incorporate game theory into their writings. It insists that states are the only actors who play a significant role in world politics, the international system is anarchical, and that states are unitary rational actors motivated by survival. FTP name this broad, often pessimistic school of international relations theorists such as Hans Morgenthau and E.H. Carr, contrasted in IR theory with liberalism, though the term is usually opposed to idealism in philosophy.
Answer: Realism [accept Neorealism or Structural Realism before `Neibuhr']
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Pop Culture
Its credits contain a dedication to Howard Ashman, a composer and executive producer for this film who died of AIDS during production. It was the studio's second movie produced via the CAPS method, after The Rescuers Down Under. Paige O'Hara and Robby Benson played the title roles, but such big names as Angela Lansbury, playing Mrs. Potts, and Jerry Orbach, as Lumiere, stole the show in this film, where the villain uses antlers in all of his decorating and is especially good at expectorating. It continued the renaissance that began two years before with The Little Mermaid, and it was followed the next year by Aladdin. FTP, name this Disney animated feature, including the songs "Gaston" and "Be Our Guest," which tells of how Belle's love transforms the prince back to his human form.
Answer: Beauty and the Beast
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
This Roman Catholic signed the Port Elliot treaty and had a daughter nicknamed "Princess Angeline" who inspired Edward S. Curtis to become a photographer of native Americans. This man's loyalty to Doc Maynard prompted a tax to be levied on the settlers of a new city, creating a fund to pre-emptively compensate him for disturbing him by mentioning his name after death. Under those conditions, he allowed the city to be named for him. He may be best known for lamenting that "Day and night cannot dwell together" and that his race will soon be extinct, though he notes that "the dead are not powerless" and "there is no death, only a change of worlds." Dr. Henry A. Smith, who did not speak this man's Salish tongue, promulgated those questionably authentic words thirty years after the fact. FTP, name this Suquamish chief from the Puget Sound region.
Answer: Chief Noah Seattle [or Seeatla]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Literature
Dr. Kennedy relates the story of Yanko Goorall's courtship of the title character of one of this man's short stories. The unnamed narrator disbelieves a Northman's assertions that he's not working with the enemy in "The Tale," while the interaction between Tuan and the Malaysian Arsat is told of in "The Lagoon." Victor Haldin is betrayed by Razumov in one of this man's novels set in St. Petersburg and Geneva. A trader fails to find a legendary Gold mine in Almayer's Folly, and in another novel the title character, Mr. Verloc, plans to blow up Greenwich Observatory. Better known known novels include one about the leader of the stevedores at the San Tome silver mine, Nostromo, and another concerning the chief mate on the Patna, Lord Jim. The creator of the sailor Marlowe, this is FTP what author of Heart of Darkness?
Answer: Joseph Conrad
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Music
He abandoned many operas, including The Cup of the King of Thule and Don Rodrigue, and he died before he could complete an opera about Ivan the Terrible. His opera teacher was Jacques Halevy, whose daughter he married. His instrumental works include Children's Game and some incidental music to a play by Alphonse Daudet. One of operas most famous duets, "Au fond du temple saint," comes from his The Pearl Fishers. His most famous opera includes character such as Zuniga, Escamillo, and Don Jose. FTP, name this French composer who wrote an opera about a Spanish gypsy named Carmen.
Answer: Georges Bizet
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Literature
One of this man's plays concerns the daughter of the innkeeper Peter Sabouroff along with the subtitular characters, which include Peter, Alexis, and Professor Marfa. "The Birthday of the Infanta" and "The Fisherman and his Soul" are among the children's stories collected in A House of Pomegranates. In a poem he writes that "A year ago I breathed the Italian air" and praises the titular city, while a spirit waits for Cuffy Williams to perform a brave deed in "The Canterville Ghost." Mrs. Arbuthnot debates whether to tell Gerald that Lord Illingworth is his father in this man's A Woman of No Importance, and in his best-known poem he writes that "all men kill the thing they love," the coward with a kiss and the brave man with a sword. Also known for Lady Windemere's Fan, this is, FTP, what dandy author of The Picture of Dorian Grey and The Importance of Being Earnest?
Answer: Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Science
Unlike its partner, it does not change sign under spatial reflection, though it does change sign under time reflection, and its boundary conditions stipulate that its normal component must be continuous across a boundary between media. The great strength of this property for a neutron star results in the formation of two "hot sports" on its surface and is responsible for the short timescale of a neutron star's rotational damping. A spin will precess around an applied one, and an equation which states that it is divergence-free indicates that classically, its monopoles do not exist. FTP identify this physical quantity whose behavior is governed by such equations as Ampere's law, the dual of the electric field.
Answer: magnetic field
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Geography
Baptist and Methodist churches were burned in this colony in the 1830s after Anglicans blamed those groups for inciting Samuel Sharpe's rebellion. It was also the location of the Maroon Wars, which resulted in the ex-slave Cudjoe winning independence for an area in its interior. This country was known by its native population as the "Land of Wood and Water," whereas the Spanish first called it Santiago when Juan de Esquievel founded the first European town here. The Battle of the Saintes quashed French plans to occupy this island, which were resumed in 1806 and again crushed by John Duckworth. Robert Venables and the elder William Penn had seized it for Britain in 1655, and Spain conceded that fact in the 1670 Treaty of Madrid. Twenty years later, an earthquake destroyed its then-capital at Port Royal, which had been the base of operations for Henry Morgan. FTP, name this island country full of rum and Rastafarians.
Answer: Jamaica
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Art
Born in Naples, he traveled with his father to Rome at the age of seven, and eventually caught the eye of Pope Paul V, whom he immortalized in a 1620 bust. Many of the sculptures his workshop created don't survive today, because they were made from marzipan and eaten at papal feasts. His lesser known surviving works include an Apollo and Daphne, featuring Daphne in the moment of metamorphosis, and a fully clothed David in motion. FTP, name this famous Baroque Italian architect, known today for his fountains, and Ecstasy of St Theresa.
Answer: Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Philosophy
This man discovered the erotic memoirs of a French hermaphrodite who committed suicide named Herculine Barbin. One of his works discusses discursive formations, and another explores the writings of Raymond Roussel. The argument of his doctoral thesis was undermined by research showing that confinement of the insane spiked only in the 19th century, and that work criticized the country retreat of Samuel Tuke as brutal. The Panopticon was the focus of his most famous work, which was written after The Order of Things and Birth of the Clinic. FTP, name this French philosopher, the author of Madness and Civilization and Discipline and Punish.
Answer: Michel Foucault
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Literature
He refuses to finish a story involving a shepherd who has to cross a river with a herd of goats. While trying to examine some teeth, he is vomited on, and earlier, he is beaten by two monks after he tries to rob one. After a mix-up by Maritornes, he gets into a fight with a carrier and an innkeeper, who later steals his saddlebags. He suggests making the Balsam of Fierbras for money, but is rebuffed by his traveling companion. Teague O'Regan from the novel Modern Chivalry was based on this character, who governs the island of Barataria and helps his master search for Dulcinea. FTP, name this squire of Don Quixote.
Answer: Sancho and/or Panza
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Science
In the surface enhanced variety of this effect, the magnitude can be increased by the presence of small metal particles near a substance to be studied, probably due to plasmon resonance. Creating ultraviolet resonance is another technique to improve the magnitude of this effect, which is typically much weaker than the competing processes of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence. It results when an electron enters a virtual excited state, then relaxes via the emission of a photon to either a higher or lower vibrational energy level, creating the Stokes or anti-Stokes variety, respectively. FTP name this type of inelastic scattering first observed by its Indian namesake.
Answer: Raman effect or scattering
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Science
The lower boundary for this period's system is defined by a stratotype section on the Burin peninsula in Newfoundland. Sea levels rose significantly during this period, as evidenced by certain limestone deposits from the period exposed along the Yangtze River. After the recent breakup of the supercontinent Pannotia, major landmasses included Baltica, Laurentia, and Gondwona, though no land plants existed. The fossil record from the period is dominated by trilobites, and the general acceleration of biotic diversity during it is known as its eponymous "explosion." FTP name this first geologic period of both the Phanerozoic Eon and Paleozoic Era, which was followed by the Ordovician.
Answer: Cambrian Period
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Music
Belgian composer Boudewijn Buckinx (BO-de-wine Boo-kingsk ) made a typically postmodern "statement" when he produced nine of them between 1991 and 1992. Other examples include Burgmuller's second, Borodin's third, Bruckner's ninth, Sibelius' eighth, Bizet's "Roma," Mahler's tenth, and Tchaikovsky's seventh. FTP, heart attacks, a blood infection, and drowning in a mineral bath are among the reasons that these musical works fall under this category, the classic examples of which are Schubert's eighth and Beethoven's tenth.
Answer: Unfinished Symphonies
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
This man, who is held responsible for squashing the development of the carnival song tradition, was given an order to appear at Bologna, which he returned with eighteen corrections labeled. His canonization was advocated by Catherine de Ricci and Philip Neri, while his follower Benevini translated this person's On the Simplicity of the Christian Life. He rose to power after negotiating the withdrawal of Charles VIII and gathered disciples known as the Wailers. He was aloof from both the Bigi and Arrabbiati parties, but he earned his greatest enmity among the Compagnacci, who worked against his prohibitions on gambling and sodomy. During the same year that he was excommunicated by Alexander VI, this Dominican converted Sandro Botticelli, who contributed to the destruction of paintings and books during this man's 1497 Bonfire of the Vanities. FTP, name this priest who came to power after the Medici left Florence.
Answer: Girolamo/Jerome/Hieronymous Savonarola [do not accept Jordan Boyd-Graber]
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Literature
This author wrote about espionage in a short story in which Moldweorp turns against Porpentine, who is subsequently killed. That short story, "Under the Rose,", appears with "The Secret Integration" and "Mortality and Mercy in Vienna" in his collection Slow Learner. Last decade, he published a novel in which Prairie searches for her mother Frenesi, who had left her husband Zoyd Wheeler, while another is narrated by Reverend Wicks Cherrycoke. Those works, Vineland and Mason & Dixon were published after his most famous, in which the sexual encounters of Tyrone Slothrop precede V-2 rocket hits. FTP, name this reclusive American author of V., The Crying of Lot 49, and Gravity's Rainbow.
Answer: Thomas Pynchon
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Josef Lenart was indicted in 1995 for a role in undermining this initiative, whose mediation was discussed decades earlier at the Cierna-nad-Tisou conference. Some of its participants went on to found Charter 77, while others outlined its goals in the Action Program and the Literary Gazette's Two Thousand Words article. Its economic dimension was inspired by the "third way" of Ota Sik, who advocated "socialism with a human face." In its wake, the period of "normalization" began, Gustav Hasak rose to power, and the Brezhnev Doctrine was elucidated. FTP, Oldrich Cernik, Frantisek Tomasek, and Alexander Dubeck led what 1968 attempt at Czechoslovakian autonomy from the Warsaw Pact, which was ended by Soviet military intervention?
Answer: Prague Spring
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Mythology
Depictions of this god with two hands are considered taboo, and he is generally shown with four. One of his hands is often turned toward the viewer in a gesture of blessing, while the others hold a whip, an axe, and a lotus flower, respectively. He is the lord of good fortune and the destroyer of obstacles, and his ample belly contains infinite universes. The first son of Shiva and Parvati, he is often seen riding on a mouse. He is always shown with a single intact tusk, representing his ability to overcome dualism. FTP, name this Hindu elephant god, the master of intellect and wisdom.
Answer: Ganesha (accept Ganesa, Ganesh, or Ganapati)
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Science
At the age of 28, he solved the famous Basel problem, and he discovered the law of quadratic reciprocity. His contributions to number theory include the invention of the totient function, which gives the number of positive integers less than and coprime to a positive integer n. He developed analytic number theory, where he developed the theory of hyperbolic functions, and he is also considered the father of graph theory with the solving of the famous Konigsberg Bridge problem. FTP, name this most prolific mathematician in history, whose famous namesake formula connects complex numbers and trigonometry, and who was the namesake for the symbol of the natural log base.
Answer: Leonhard Euler
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: Science
TB. Using the kinetic gas theory, its value was first approximated by Loschmidt, and it is still sometimes called the Loschmidt number in Germany. Jean Baptiste Perrin gave it its current name and estimated its value using Brownian motion, but modern methods of calculating it rely on x-ray diffraction. It is equal to the ideal gas constant divided by Boltzmann's constant, as well as the Faraday constant divided by the elementary charge, and it can also be considered a conversion from microscopic units like atomic mass units to grams. FTP, what is this number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12, named after an Italian chemist, and given the approximation 022 x 1023?
Answer: Avogadro's number [accept Avogadro's constant; prompt on the numerical answer]
2006 ACF Fall Bonuses by Darmouth A and Rochester A and UGA C
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Answer the following questions about pieces of music with something in common, FTPE.,
[10] This 1826 opera by Carl Maria von Weber is named for a fairy king.
Answer: Oberon (also accept The Elf King's Oath)
[10] This third opera of Henry Purcell shares its name with an Edmund Spenser work.
Answer: The Fairy-Queen C) Felix Mendelssohn's incidental music for this play includes the ubiquitous "Wedding March."
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
FTPE, name these people who died in The Iliad.,
[10] The death of this son of Zeus and leader of the Lycians is used to show the inevitability of fate. Zeus considers saving him from the spear of Patroclus but is dissuaded by Hera.
Answer: Sarpedon
[10] This unfortunate Trojan is sent to spy on the Achaeans, but is captured by Odysseus and Diomedes, who promise not to kill him, but do anyway.
Answer: Dolon
[10] This greatest hero of the Trojans is killed by Achilles, who ties his corpse to a chariot and drags it through the dust.
Answer: Hector
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
He signed the the Treaty of Peace and Friendship with Argentina in 1984. FTPE:,
[10] Name this guy who is arrested every few months by one government or another for his complicity in torture and assassinations as dictator of Chile from 1973 to 1990.
Answer: General Augusto Jose Ramon Pinochet Ugarte
[10] Pinochet deposed this president in the coup of September 11, 1973.
Answer: Salvador Allende Gossens
[10] Pinochet's regime collaborated with right-wing governments in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay to execute this plan to silence exiled dissenters. It was responsible for such incidents as the car bomb death of Orlando Letelier in Washington in 1976.
Answer: Operation Condor
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Identify these sort of related terms in cosmology, FTPE.,
[10] It is defined as the distance from the Earth to a star that has a parallax of 1 arcsecond, and its value is about 3.26 light years.
Answer: Parsec
[10] These sources of electromagnetic energy, especially radio waves, have high redshifts and are very distant - the closest one to us is around 240 mega-parsecs away. They may be powered by gas being sucked into massive black holes.
Answer: quasar [or Quasi-stellar radio source]
[10] This law states that the recessional velocity, due to redshift, of bodies in the universe is directly related to their distance by the namesake constant.
Answer: Hubble's Law
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
They have also been called Stuckerberg Diagrams and penguin diagrams for special cases. FTPE:,
[10] These diagrams, in which straight lines represent fermions and wavy lines represent bosons, are used for calculations in quantum field theory and are named after the American physicist who invented them.
Answer: Feynman Diagrams
[10] This dimensionless constant, symbolized alpha and equal to about 1/137, often appears in the analysis of Feynman Diagrams.
Answer: fine structure constant
[10] The fine structure constant provides a series of corrective terms for this ratio of the magnetic dipole moment to the angular momentum of a system, usually symbolized with a lowercase gamma.
Answer: gyromagnetic ratio
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
They took place at the Palace of Justice under the leadership of Robert Jackson. FTPE:,
[10] Name these proceedings which concluded with the execution by hanging of ten Nazis.
Answer: Nuremberg trials
[10] This collaborator in the Beer Hall Putsch was Hitler's Minister of the Interior and author of the Nuremburg race laws, as well as the first Nazi to hold a government office. He was found guilty of crimes against humanity and executed.
Answer: William Frick
[10] He was the deputy leader of the Nazi Party, and he flew to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate peace. He ended up spending forty years in Spandau prison.
Answer: Rudolph Hess
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Answer these questions about a method for the synthesis of benzocaine for ten points each.,
[10] This is the compound from which the synthesis begins, a benzene ring with a methyl group attached. Attaching three nitro groups to this molecule makes it a bit touchy.
Answer: Toluene
[10] Sulfuric acid and nitric acid add a nitro group to the aromatic ring, which is subsequently reduced to an amino group through catalytic hydrogenation with either platinum or this related element.
Answer: Palladium
[10] The final steps involve the conversion of the methyl group into this functional group, characterized by a carbonyl group bound to an oxygen atom that is also bound to another organic group.
Answer: ester
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Identify the following about prime numbers and the people who study them, FTPE:,
[10] This mathematician is credited with the first proof that there are an infinite number of primes; the proof is detailed in Book IX of his Elements.
Answer: Euclid
[10] This theorem, named after a German mathematician, states that if a and b are relatively prime integers, there is an infinite number of primes of the form a times x + b, where x is an integer.
Answer: Dirichlet's Theorem
[10] A generalization of the twin prime conjecture is named after John Littlewood and this man, who was also known for his correspondences with Srinsivasa Ramanujan.
Answer: G. H. Hardy
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
The title character's "high-born kinsman came" to "shut her up in a sepulchre," and she died from a cold wind caused by "the angels, not half so happy in Heaven" who "went envying her and me." FTPE,,
[10] Name this title figure from a poem set "many and many a year ago / In a kingdom by the sea."
Answer: Annabel Lee
[10] Annabel Lee is a work by this poet who also wrote The Bells and The Raven.
Answer: Edgar Allen Poe
[10] In this poem, set in "a strange city lying alone" where "death has reared himself a throne," Poe mentions the end of days, when "the waves have now a redder glow."
Answer: "The City in the Sea"
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Give the title of each of these Platonic dialogues from a description of its content FTPE.,
[10] Socrates and the titular rich Athenian debate the nature and origin of political obligation as it relates to whether Socrates should face execution in Athens or flee.
Answer: Criton
[10] In a discussion about eros, Pausanias praises love between adult and pubescent men above all other types, and Alcibiades makes a number of unsuccessful advances on Socrates.
Answer: The Symposium
[10] This third late dialogue covers Plato's attempt to define the titular thinker, a member of a school that originated with Protagoras, who Plato attacks as insincere imitators of the wise.
Answer: The Sophist
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
FTPE, answer these related physiological questions.,
[10] This hormone is released from the posterior pituitary in response to a reduction in plasma volume and causes increased water reabsorption from the kidneys. Caffeine and ethanol have been shown to interfere with it, causing a higher urine output.
Answer: Antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin
[10] ADH acts on the distal and collecting tubules of these basic functional units of the kidneys, which also include structures like the glomerulus and loop of Henle.
Answer: nephron
[10] ADH exerts its reabsorption effects by upregulating the expression of these water channel proteins in the collecting tubule.
Answer: aquaporin-2
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
He's a young man neglecting his soldierly duty. She's the queen who beguiles him and "makes hungry where most she satisfies." Name, FTPE:,
[10] The eponymous title characters or the Shakespeare play in which they appear, his longest in terms of separate scenes with 40.
Answer: Marc Antony and Cleopatra (The title of the play is Antony and Cleopatra)
[10] Antony's second in command, he deserts to Octavius' side but later is overcome with shame and kills himself.
Answer: Enobarbus
[10] The title of this play's "prequel," written by George Bernard Shaw
Answer: Caesar and Cleopatra
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Name these places in Russia where news has occurred over the past few years, FTPE.,
[10] Sporadic guerilla warfare between rebels and Russian troops continues in this republic, which attempted to secede from Russia via open warfare throughout the 1990s under the leadership of Dzokhar Dudyev and Aslan Maskhadov.
Answer: Chechnya
[10] Terrorists affiliated with Chechnyan guerilla leader Shamil Basayev were responsible for the 331 deaths at a school in this North Ossetian city in 2004.
Answer: Beslan
[10] International Chess Federation president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov has run this constituent republic of Russia as a personal dictatorship since 1995, funneling tax dollars into extravagant monuments to chess and having opposition journalists murdered.
Answer: Kalmykia
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
In this 338 BC battle, the Theban and Athenian revolt against Macedonia was put down. FTPE:,
[10] Name this battle in which a youthful Alexander the Great successfully commanded the left wing of the victorious army.
Answer: Battle of Chaeronea
[10] Chaeronea was the last stand of this group led by Pelopidas, which consisted of 150 pairs of "close friends" and had previously been key to victory at Tegyra and Leuctra.
Answer: the Sacred Band
[10] The immediate spoils of Chaeronea were reaped by this Macedonian king, Alexander's father, who established the League of Corinth the following year.
Answer: Philip II of Macedon
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
The Ashtons and the Ravenwoods try to construct an alliance through marriage, but tragedy ensues. FTPE:,
[10] Name this opera, considered a show piece of bel canto singing, still renowned for its technical difficulty, based on a Walter Scott novel.
Answer: Lucia di Lammermoor
[10] Name the composer of Lucia di Lammermoor; he also wrote operas featuring the stories of Pygmalion, Anne Boleyn, Lucrezia Borgia, and Mary, Queen of Scots.
Answer: Gaetano Donizetti
[10] This is the name of Lucia's brother, who tries to marry her off.
Answer: Enrico Ashton
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
An accomplished lyricist, he wrote hymns, dithyrhambs, victories odes and paeans, along with laments and songs for dancing. His vast output and his working relationship with some of the most powerful people in the Greek world helped to make him a celebrity. FTPE:,
[10] Name this poet whose home was spared, years after his death, by a fan of his work..
Answer: Pindar
[10] Name that fan and conqueror who spared Pindar's home.
Answer: Alexander the Great (Accept Alexander III)
[10] In which famous city was Pindar's home located?
Answer: Thebes
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Name these third party candidates FTPE.,
[10] He ran for the 1912 Presidency as a member of the Bull Moose Progressive party and finished comfortably in second place, ahead of his own successor William Howard Taft.
Answer: Theodore Roosevelt [prompt on partial answer]
[10] This only nominee of the Constitutional Union party finished third in 1860, ahead of Stephen Douglas but behind Abraham Lincoln and John Breckenridge.
Answer: John Bell
[10] This founder of The World Tomorrow succeeded Eugene Debs as the perpetual Socialist presidential candidate, running in each election from 1928 to 1948.
Answer: Norman Mattoon Thomas
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Before he became a best-selling author of short stories and a successful novel, he was a poet with such works as "Unwind my Riddle", "The Impact of a Dollar upon the Heart", and "There was Crimson Clash of War". It's ironic that he wrote so much about war, given that he never fought in one. FTPE:,
[10] The poet who was better known for his novels and his war reports, especially from Cuba.
Answer: Stephen Crane
[10] This novel—set in the slums of the Bowery—has become a frequently cited example of literary naturalism. It flopped at the time it came out.
Answer: Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
[10] Crane's best-known work, it details a young soldier's struggles to cope with the horrors of war.
Answer: The Red Badge of Courage
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category:
Answer the following about famous economists, FTPE:,
[10] This French economist's famous law was restated by James Mill as "Supply creates its own demand."
Answer: Jean-Baptiste Say
[10] This Italian's law of income distribution says that for all countries, the distribution of income and wealth can be modeled by a regular logarithmic pattern.
Answer: Vilifredo Pareto
[10] This eponymous curve is used to illustrate the concept of taxable income elasticity. It says that government can maximize tax revenue by setting tax rates at an optimum point.
Answer: Laffer curve

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